Odra, Oḍra: 19 definitions


Odra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Oḍra (ओड्र) refers to one of the seven “minor dialects” (vibhāṣā) of language used in dramatic composition (nāṭya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 18.

2) Oḍra (ओड्र) is the name of a tribe, usually to be represented by a dark or deep blue (śyāma) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Oḍra (ओड्र).—An ancient province of India, Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 23 says that the King of this province had come to Dharmaputra with presents.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Odra (ओद्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.28.48, II.47.19, II.47.19, III.48.18) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Odra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Oḍra (ओड्र) is the ancient name for Orissa and possibly corresponds to Uḍu: an ancient and sacred region, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—According to the Kubjikāmatatantra, after her tour, the goddess finally reunites with the god in a place called Uḍu. According to the edited text of the Kubjikāmatatantra the god is called, the ‘Great Lord of Oḍra’ (oḍramaheśāna). At first sight it seems that Oḍra i.e. Orissa is meant here. But unfortunately the readings in these places and elsewhere in the corpus are so varied and numerous that it is not possible to be sure that this reading or place is in fact intended. There may very well have been a close connection between Orissa and the early development of the Kubjikā cult. It is well known that Orissa was, in the period we are considering, a major centre of Śaivism not only Pāśupata and Siddhānta but also Kāpālika and Kaula.

2) Oḍra (ओड्र) or Oḍramaheśvara refers to the “venerable great lord of Oḍra”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The venerable great lord of Oḍra [i.e., oḍramaheśvara] resides in the cavity in the Middle Land. It is (Oḍḍiyāna) the first (sacred seat) and, yellow in colour, it has mountains, forests, and groves, large and small, and is adorned with golden walls. It has rivers and rivulets and many (other) things. It is full of all the seeds and is square all around. It has thunderbolts as door chains and Mālinī (who resides there) holds a thunderbolt (vajra) in her hand. Endowed with the sovereignty of the Wheels, it is the sacred seat (Udyāna) attended by the mistress of the sacred seat”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Odra refers to a kingdom identified either with 1) Uḍra or 2) the nothern part of Orissa, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If the sun and moon should be eclipsed when in the sign of Aries (Meṣa), the Pāñcālas, the Kaliṅgas, the Sūrasenas, the people of Kāmboja, of Odra [i.e., uḍra], of Kirāta, soldiers and persons who live by fire will be afflicted with miseries. If the sun or moon should be eclipsed when in the sign of Taurus (Vṛṣabha), shepherds, cows, their owners and eminent men will suffer miseries”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Oḍra (ओड्र) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) presided over by Mahābhairavā, according to the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala. Mahābhairavā is a deity situated in one of the six petals of the northern lotus, of which the presiding deity is kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Locanā. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.

Oḍra is one of the twenty-four pīṭhas, or ‘sacred-site’ (six lotuses each having six petals), each corresponding with a part of the human body. Oḍra is to be contemplated as situated in the chest. Besides being associated with a bodily spot, each pīṭha represents an actual place of ancient India frequented particularly by advanced tantric practitioners

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Oḍra (ओड्र) is one of the two Kṣetras (‘sacred spot’) present within the Vākcakra (‘circle of word’) which is associated with the Ḍākinī named Bhūcarī (‘a woman going on the ground’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra. Vākcakra is one of three Cakras within the Tricakra system which embodies twenty-four sacred spots or districts (viz., Oḍra) resided over by twenty-four ‘sacred girls’ (ḍākinīs) whose husbands abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body.

Oḍra has the presiding Ḍākinī named Mahābhairavā whose husband, or hero (vīra) is named Vajrajaṭila. The associated internal location are the ‘breasts’ and the bodily ingredient (dhātu) is the ‘bile’. According to the Vajraḍākavivṛti, the districts Lampāka, Saurāṣṭra, Oḍra and Kāmarūpa are associated with the family deity of Mohanī; while in the Abhidhānottarottaratantra there is the Ḍāka deity named Ratnaḍāka standing in the center of the districts named Kāmarūpa, Triśakuni, Oḍra and Kosala.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Oḍra (ओड्र) is the pīṭha associated with Mahābhairavā and Vajrajaṭila, according to the Cakrasaṃvara-maṇḍala or Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The Cakrasaṃvara mandala has a total of sixty-two deities. [...] Three concentric circles going outward, the body, speech and mind wheels (kāya-vāka-citta), in the order: mind (blue), speech (red), and body (white), with eight Ḍākinīs each in non-dual union with their Ḍākas, "male consorts".

Associated elements of Mahābhairavā and Vajrajaṭila:

Circle: vākacakra [=vākcakra?] (speech-wheel) (red);
Ḍākinī (female consort): Mahābhairavā;
Ḍāka (male consort): Vajrajaṭila;
Bīja: oṃ;
Body-part: breasts;
Pīṭha: Oḍra;
Bodily constituent: pitta (bile);
Bodhipakṣa (wings of enlightenment): śraddhābala (power of conviction).

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Oḍra (ओड्र) is the name of Kṣetra (category of holy sites), according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: “Now, [the Blessed One] has taught [holy sites] such as the kṣetra and upakṣetra in sequence. [...] (3) Kāmarūpa, Oḍra, Triśakuna (for Triśakuni), and Kauśala are the kṣetra [sites]. (4) The upakṣetra [sites] are Kaliṅga, Lampāka, Kāñcī, and Himālaya. [...] Girls who are in these places are of [the nature of] the innate, born in their own birthplaces. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Oḍra (ओड्र).—(m. pl.) Name of a people and their country (the modern Orissa); Manusmṛti 1.44.

-ḍraḥ The China-rose.

-ḍram The Javā-flower,

Derivable forms: oḍraḥ (ओड्रः).

See also (synonyms): auṇḍra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Oḍra (ओड्र).—m.

(-ḍraḥ) 1. The China rose, (Hibiscus mutabilis.) 2. The name of of a country, the northern part of Orissa. E. uḍa to embrace, raka affix, and u is changed to o.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Oḍra (ओड्र).—m. pl. The name of a people and their country, now Orissa, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 44.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Oḍra (ओड्र).—[masculine] [Name] of a country, [plural] a people.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Oḍra (ओड्र):—m. Name of a country (the modern Orissa; See, [Lassen., Ia. i, 224], note 2)

2) m. [plural] the inhabitants of that country, [Harivaṃśa; Manu-smṛti x, 44; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

3) m. the China rose, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Oḍra (ओड्र):—(ḍraḥ) 1. m. The China rose (Hibiscus mutabilis); north of Orissa.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Oḍra (ओड्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Oḍḍa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Odra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ōḍra (ಓಡ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the modern Orissa state in Eastern India.

2) [noun] an inhabitant of that state.

--- OR ---

Ōḍra (ಓಡ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the plant Hibiscus rosa-sinensis of Malvaceae family.

2) [noun] its flower; hibiscus.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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See also (Relevant definitions)

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