Kamboja, aka: Kāmboja, Kambojā; 14 Definition(s)


Kamboja means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Kavya (poetry)

Kamboja in Kavya glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

Kāmboja refers to an ancient district or cultural territory, as mentioned in the 7th-century Mudrārākṣasa written by Viśākhadeva. Kāmboja corresponds to modern Pakistan, east and south of the Indus.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kavya

Kāmboja (काम्बोज) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—It situated in Afghanistan or at least its northern part. In the Raghuvaṃśa, Kālidāsa (IV. 68-69) described this part is situated between the river Oxus and the Himālayas. The Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara mentions this region among the countries in the Uttarapatha.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Kamboja in Purana glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

1) Kāmboja (काम्बोज).—Sudakṣiṇa, the King of the country, Kāmboja. He was present at Draupadī’s svayaṃvara. In Mahābhārata, Karṇa Parva, Chapter 156 we read that his younger brother was killed by Arjuna. The Kings of Kāmboja were all known as Kāmbojas. Long ago, this country was ruled by a King named Kāmboja. In Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 77, we see that this Kāmboja was given a sword by the King Dhundhumāra. Perhaps it was from this King Kāmboja that the country came to be called 'Kāmboja'.

2) Kāmboja (काम्बोज).—This kingdom was situated in the north western part of India. It is the modern Kabul. We get the following information from Mahābhārata.

From Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 23, we see that Arjuna had subdued this Kingdom.

The horses which were tied to Yudhiṣṭhira’s chariot were brought from Kāmboja. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 5).

The Mlecchas (a tribe of low-class people) of Kāmboja will become Kings in Kaliyuga. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 36).

There were Kāmbojas in Duryodhana’s army. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 130).

At the time of Mahābhārata the King of Kāmboja was the brave and heroic Sudakṣiṇa. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 166, Verses 1-3).

In the battle between Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas, the Kāmbojas took their position in some places in the "Garuḍa Vyūha", a phalanx in the shape of an eagle made by Bhīṣma. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma parva, Chapter 56, Verse 7).

The horses of Kāmboja were beautiful in appearance and of the colour of parrots. The horses which were tied to Nakula’s chariot, were of this kind. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 7).

When the horses of Kāmboja ran, their tails and ears remained motionless. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 36).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

Kamboja (कम्बोज).—(c) Its king was vanquished by Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 35.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kāmboja (काम्बोज) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.177.15) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kāmboja) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Kāmboja (काम्बोज) or Kāmbojatantra refers to one of the twenty-eight Gāruḍatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Kāmboja belonging to the Garuḍa class.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Kamboja (कम्बोज) refers to enemies of the Kauravas whom Karna had defeated

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

One of the sixteen Mahajanapadas which, with Gandhara, belonged, not to the Majjhimadesa but, evidently, to the Uttarapatha (A.i.213; iv.252, 256, 260). It is often mentioned as the famous birthplace of horses (assanam ayatanam) (E.g., DA.i.124; AA.i.399; Vsm.332; also J.iv.464). In the Kunala Jataka (J.v.445) we are told that the Kambojas caught their horses by means of moss (jalajata), and the scholiast (J.v.446) explains at length how this was done. They sprinkled the moss with honey and left it in the horses drinking place; from there, by means of honey sprinkled on the grass, the horses were led to an enclosure.

In the Assalayana Sutta (M.ii.149) it is stated that in Yona and in Kamboja, and also in the neighbouring countries, there were, in the Buddhas time, only two classes of people, masters and slaves, and that a master could become a slave or vice versa. The Commentary (MA.ii.784) explains that a brahmin would go there with his wife for purposes of trade and would die there. His wife would then be compelled to work for her living and her children would become slaves.

The Jatakas (E.g., J.vi.208, 210; see also Manu.x.44) would lead us to believe that the people of Kamboja had lost their original customs and had become barbarous. Elsewhere Kamboja is mentioned as a place not visited by women of other countries. A.ii.82; on the reading of this passage, however, see GS.ii.92, n.2. The Commentary (AA.ii.523) distinctly supports the reading Kamboja.

The country was evidently on one of the great caravan routes, and there was a road direct from Dvaraka to Kamboja (Pv.p.23).

According to Asokas Rock Edict, No. XIII. (Shabhazgarhi Text), Kamboja was among the countries visited by Asokas missionaries. The country referred to is probably on the banks of the Kabul river (Mookerji: Asoka, 168, n.1).

In later literature (E.g., Cv.lxxvi.21, 55) Kamboja is the name given to Western Siam.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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India history and geogprahy

Kamboja (कम्बोज) refers to one of the two Mahājanapadas of the Uttarāpatha (Northern District) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—Kamboja must be located in some part of north-west India not far from Gandhāra. Nandipura seems to be the only city of the Kambojas that is known from Luder’s Inscriptions, Nos. 176 and 472. The Kambojas are mentioned in the Rock Edicts V and XIII of Asoka. They occupied roughly the province round about Rajaori, or ancient Rājapura, including the Hazārā district of the North western Frontier Province.

Kamboja is mentioned along with Gandhāra in the Aṅguttara Nikāya as one of the sixteen great countries of India. In the Paramatthadīpanī on the Petavatthu Dvārakā occurs along with Kamboja. But it is not expressly stated if Dvārakā was the capital of the Kamboja country. Dvārakā, in fact, was not really a city of Kamboja; nowhere in early or later Pāli literature is there any mention of the capital city of the Kamboja people, 05 nor of the location of their country.

In the Sumaṅgalavilāsinī, we are told that Kamboja was the home of horses. The Commentary on the Kunāla Jātaka gives us to know how the Kamboja people caught horses in the forest. In one of the Jātakas we are informed that the Kambojas were a north-western tribe who were supposed to have lost their original Aryan customs and to have become barbarous. In the Bhūridatta Jātaka we are told that many Kambojas who were not Aryans told that people were purified by killing insects, flies, snakes, frogs, bees, etc. The Jātaka tradition is corroborated by that contained in Yāṣka’s Nirukta as well as in Yuan Chwang’s account of Rājapura and the adjoining countries of the north-west. The Nirukta would have us believe that in Yāṣka’s time the Kambojas had come to be regarded as a people distinct from the Aryans of India proper, speaking a different dialect.

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Kamboja in Pali glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

kamboja : (m.) name of a country.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Kambojā, (f.) N of a country J. V, 446 (°ka raṭṭha); Pv. II, 91 (etc.); Vism. 332, 334, 336. (Page 189)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kamboja (कम्बोज).—

1) A shell.

2) A kind of elephant.

3) (pl) Name of a country and its inhabitants; शवतिर्गतिकर्मा कम्बोजेष्वेव भाष्यते (śavatirgatikarmā kambojeṣveva bhāṣyate) Mbh. on P.I.1.1. कम्बोजाः समरे सोढुं तस्य वीर्यमनीश्वराः (kambojāḥ samare soḍhuṃ tasya vīryamanīśvarāḥ) R.4.69. v.1.

Derivable forms: kambojaḥ (कम्बोजः).

--- OR ---

Kāmboja (काम्बोज).—[kamboja-aṇ]

1) A native of the Kambojas; Ms.1.44.

2) A king of the Kambojas.

3) The Punnāga tree.

4) A species of horse from the Kamboja country. शतं वै यस्तु काम्बोजान्ब्राह्मणेभ्यः प्रयच्छति (śataṃ vai yastu kāmbojānbrāhmaṇebhyaḥ prayacchati) Mb.12. 35.14.

5) A conch.

6) A kind of plant (somavalka); काम्बोजो हस्तिभेदे च शङ्खदेशविशेषयोः । अश्वे पुंनागवृक्षे च सोमवल्के तदिष्यते (kāmbojo hastibhede ca śaṅkhadeśaviśeṣayoḥ | aśve puṃnāgavṛkṣe ca somavalke tadiṣyate) || Nm.

Derivable forms: kāmbojaḥ (काम्बोजः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kamboja (कम्बोज).—(compare Kāmbojī), m. or f. pl., designation of a class of malevolent supernatural beings: Mmk 17.4 (prose) (vetāḍā) mahāvetāḍā kambojā mahākambojā bhaginyo mahābhaginyo etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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