Kamboja, Kāmboja, Kambojā: 28 definitions


Kamboja means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kāmboja (काम्बोज).—Sudakṣiṇa, the King of the country, Kāmboja. He was present at Draupadī’s svayaṃvara. In Mahābhārata, Karṇa Parva, Chapter 156 we read that his younger brother was killed by Arjuna. The Kings of Kāmboja were all known as Kāmbojas. Long ago, this country was ruled by a King named Kāmboja. In Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 77, we see that this Kāmboja was given a sword by the King Dhundhumāra. Perhaps it was from this King Kāmboja that the country came to be called 'Kāmboja'.

2) Kāmboja (काम्बोज).—This kingdom was situated in the north western part of India. It is the modern Kabul. We get the following information from Mahābhārata.

From Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 23, we see that Arjuna had subdued this Kingdom.

The horses which were tied to Yudhiṣṭhira’s chariot were brought from Kāmboja. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 5).

The Mlecchas (a tribe of low-class people) of Kāmboja will become Kings in Kaliyuga. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 36).

There were Kāmbojas in Duryodhana’s army. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 130).

At the time of Mahābhārata the King of Kāmboja was the brave and heroic Sudakṣiṇa. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 166, Verses 1-3).

In the battle between Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas, the Kāmbojas took their position in some places in the "Garuḍa Vyūha", a phalanx in the shape of an eagle made by Bhīṣma. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma parva, Chapter 56, Verse 7).

The horses of Kāmboja were beautiful in appearance and of the colour of parrots. The horses which were tied to Nakula’s chariot, were of this kind. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 7).

When the horses of Kāmboja ran, their tails and ears remained motionless. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 36).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kamboja (कम्बोज).—(c) Its king was vanquished by Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 35.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kāmboja (काम्बोज) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.177.15) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kāmboja) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Kamboja in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kavya

Kāmboja refers to an ancient district or cultural territory, as mentioned in the 7th-century Mudrārākṣasa written by Viśākhadeva. Kāmboja corresponds to modern Pakistan, east and south of the Indus.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Kāmboja (काम्बोज) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—It situated in Afghanistan or at least its northern part. In the Raghuvaṃśa, Kālidāsa (IV. 68-69) described this part is situated between the river Oxus and the Himālayas. The Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara mentions this region among the countries in the Uttarapatha.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)

Kāmboja (काम्बोज) or Kāmbojatantra refers to one of the twenty-eight Gāruḍatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Kāmboja belonging to the Garuḍa class.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Kamboja [କାମ୍ବୋଜ] in the Odia language is the name of a plant identified with Calophyllum inophyllum L. from the Clusiaceae (Garcinia) family. For the possible medicinal usage of kamboja, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Kamboja [काम्बोज] in the Sanskrit language, ibid. previous identification.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kāmboja (काम्बोज) refers to a country [possibly identified with the Combodia of Cochin China], belonging to “Nairṛtī (south-western division)” classified under the constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā represent the south-western division consisting of [i.e., Kāmboja] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7

Kamboja (कम्बोज) is the name of a country (possibly identified with Cambodia), classified as Kādi (a type of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Kamboja] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Kamboja (कम्बोज) refers to enemies of the Kauravas whom Karna had defeated

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

One of the sixteen Mahajanapadas which, with Gandhara, belonged, not to the Majjhimadesa but, evidently, to the Uttarapatha (A.i.213; iv.252, 256, 260). It is often mentioned as the famous birthplace of horses (assanam ayatanam) (E.g., DA.i.124; AA.i.399; Vsm.332; also J.iv.464). In the Kunala Jataka (J.v.445) we are told that the Kambojas caught their horses by means of moss (jalajata), and the scholiast (J.v.446) explains at length how this was done. They sprinkled the moss with honey and left it in the horses drinking place; from there, by means of honey sprinkled on the grass, the horses were led to an enclosure.

In the Assalayana Sutta (M.ii.149) it is stated that in Yona and in Kamboja, and also in the neighbouring countries, there were, in the Buddhas time, only two classes of people, masters and slaves, and that a master could become a slave or vice versa. The Commentary (MA.ii.784) explains that a brahmin would go there with his wife for purposes of trade and would die there. His wife would then be compelled to work for her living and her children would become slaves.

The Jatakas (E.g., J.vi.208, 210; see also Manu.x.44) would lead us to believe that the people of Kamboja had lost their original customs and had become barbarous. Elsewhere Kamboja is mentioned as a place not visited by women of other countries. A.ii.82; on the reading of this passage, however, see GS.ii.92, n.2. The Commentary (AA.ii.523) distinctly supports the reading Kamboja.

The country was evidently on one of the great caravan routes, and there was a road direct from Dvaraka to Kamboja (Pv.p.23).

According to Asokas Rock Edict, No. XIII. (Shabhazgarhi Text), Kamboja was among the countries visited by Asokas missionaries. The country referred to is probably on the banks of the Kabul river (Mookerji: Asoka, 168, n.1).

In later literature (E.g., Cv.lxxvi.21, 55) Kamboja is the name given to Western Siam.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Kamboja (कम्बोज) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Kamboja).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kamboja (कम्बोज) is the name of an ancient kingdom, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, as Vasupūjya and Jayā spoke to Vāsupūjya, “All the existing kings, among men and the Vidyādharas, who are of good family, capable, heroic, wealthy, famous, possessing the fourfold army, known for guarding their subjects, free from blemish, faithful to engagements, always devoted to dharma, in Madhyadeśa, Vatsadeśa, [...] and also [... the Kambojas, ...] and other realms in the north. [...] These now, son, beg us constantly through messengers, who are sent bearing valuable gifts, to give their daughters to you. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism

Kamboja (कम्बोज) refers to one of the two Mahājanapadas of the Uttarāpatha (Northern District) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—Kamboja must be located in some part of north-west India not far from Gandhāra. Nandipura seems to be the only city of the Kambojas that is known from Luder’s Inscriptions, Nos. 176 and 472. The Kambojas are mentioned in the Rock Edicts V and XIII of Asoka. They occupied roughly the province round about Rajaori, or ancient Rājapura, including the Hazārā district of the North western Frontier Province.

Kamboja is mentioned along with Gandhāra in the Aṅguttara Nikāya as one of the sixteen great countries of India. In the Paramatthadīpanī on the Petavatthu Dvārakā occurs along with Kamboja. But it is not expressly stated if Dvārakā was the capital of the Kamboja country. Dvārakā, in fact, was not really a city of Kamboja; nowhere in early or later Pāli literature is there any mention of the capital city of the Kamboja people, 05 nor of the location of their country.

In the Sumaṅgalavilāsinī, we are told that Kamboja was the home of horses. The Commentary on the Kunāla Jātaka gives us to know how the Kamboja people caught horses in the forest. In one of the Jātakas we are informed that the Kambojas were a north-western tribe who were supposed to have lost their original Aryan customs and to have become barbarous. In the Bhūridatta Jātaka we are told that many Kambojas who were not Aryans told that people were purified by killing insects, flies, snakes, frogs, bees, etc. The Jātaka tradition is corroborated by that contained in Yāṣka’s Nirukta as well as in Yuan Chwang’s account of Rājapura and the adjoining countries of the north-west. The Nirukta would have us believe that in Yāṣka’s time the Kambojas had come to be regarded as a people distinct from the Aryans of India proper, speaking a different dialect.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kamboja in India is the name of a plant defined with Coccinia grandis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Turia moghadd J.F. Gmel. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association (1981)
· Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association (1980)
· Enumeratio Plantarum Africae Australis Extratropicae (1836)
· Annales des Sciences Naturelles; Botanique (1866)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2002)
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1996)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kamboja, for example health benefits, diet and recipes, chemical composition, side effects, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kamboja in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kamboja : (m.) name of a country.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kambojā, (f.) N of a country J. V, 446 (°ka raṭṭha); Pv. II, 91 (etc.); Vism. 332, 334, 336. (Page 189)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kamboja (कम्बोज).—

1) A shell.

2) A kind of elephant.

3) (pl) Name of a country and its inhabitants; शवतिर्गतिकर्मा कम्बोजेष्वेव भाष्यते (śavatirgatikarmā kambojeṣveva bhāṣyate) Mahābhārata on P.I.1.1. कम्बोजाः समरे सोढुं तस्य वीर्यमनीश्वराः (kambojāḥ samare soḍhuṃ tasya vīryamanīśvarāḥ) R.4.69. v.1.

Derivable forms: kambojaḥ (कम्बोजः).

--- OR ---

Kāmboja (काम्बोज).—[kamboja-aṇ]

1) A native of the Kambojas; Manusmṛti 1.44.

2) A king of the Kambojas.

3) The Punnāga tree.

4) A species of horse from the Kamboja country. शतं वै यस्तु काम्बोजान्ब्राह्मणेभ्यः प्रयच्छति (śataṃ vai yastu kāmbojānbrāhmaṇebhyaḥ prayacchati) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12. 35.14.

5) A conch.

6) A kind of plant (somavalka); काम्बोजो हस्तिभेदे च शङ्खदेशविशेषयोः । अश्वे पुंनागवृक्षे च सोमवल्के तदिष्यते (kāmbojo hastibhede ca śaṅkhadeśaviśeṣayoḥ | aśve puṃnāgavṛkṣe ca somavalke tadiṣyate) || Nm.

Derivable forms: kāmbojaḥ (काम्बोजः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kamboja (कम्बोज).—(compare Kāmbojī), m. or f. pl., designation of a class of malevolent supernatural beings: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 17.4 (prose) (vetāḍā) mahāvetāḍā kambojā mahākambojā bhaginyo mahābhaginyo etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kamboja (कम्बोज).—m.

(-jaḥ) 1. The name of a country in the north of India, Camboja or Camboya. 2. A kind of shell. 3. A description of elephant: see kāmboja.

--- OR ---

Kāmboja (काम्बोज).—m.

(-jaḥ) 1. A native of Kamboja, a foreign race going like the Yavanas, with the whole of the head shaved, one of the tribes originally Kshetriya, but degraded by omission of the essential rites. 2. A horse of the bread of Kamboya or Kamboja. 3. A white mimosa. 4. A tree, commonly Punnaga, (Rottleria tinctoria) f. (-jī) 1. A plant, commonly Mashani: see māṣaparṇī. 2. A white mimosa, as above. 3. The Gunja-plant. E. kamboja Kamboja or Kamboya, a country in the north of India, aṇ and ṅīṣ affixes: the plants, &c. being supposed indigenous to that district.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kamboja (कम्बोज).—m. pl. The name of a country and its inhabitants.

--- OR ---

Kāmboja (काम्बोज).—i. e. kamboja + a, I. adj. Originating from Kamboja, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 12, 36. Ii. m. The king of Kamboja, Mahābhārata 1, 6995. Iii. m. pl. The name of the people and of the country of Kamboja, Mahābhārata 1, 2668.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kamboja (कम्बोज).—[masculine] [plural] [Name] of a people.

--- OR ---

Kāmboja (काम्बोज).—[adjective] coming from Kamboja. [masculine] a king of the Kambojas; [plural] [Name] of a people = kamboja.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kamboja (कम्बोज):—[from kambu] m. [plural] Name of a people and its country

2) [v.s. ...] m. the king of this people, [Pāṇini 4-1, 175]

3) [v.s. ...] a shell, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a species of elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. kāmboja.)

5) Kāmboja (काम्बोज):—mfn. ([from] kamboja [gana] sindhv-ādi and kacchādi), born in or coming from Kamboja (as horses), [Rāmāyaṇa v, 12, 36 etc.]

6) m. a native of Kamboja (a race who, like the Yavanas, shave the whole head; originally a Kṣatriya tribe, but degraded through its omission of the necessary rites, [Horace H. Wilson])

7) a prince of the Kambojas, [Mahābhārata i, 6995]

8) a horse of the Kamboja breed, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) m. [plural] Name of a people= Kamboja, [Manu-smṛti x, 44; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] : [Raghuvaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

10) m. the plant Rottleria tinctoria (commonly Punnag), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) a kind of white Mimosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kamboja (कम्बोज):—(jaḥ) 1. m. A country in the north of India, Camboja.

2) Kāmboja (काम्बोज):—(jaḥ) 1. m. A horse of the breed of Camboja. f. () A plant.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kamboja (कम्बोज) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kaṃboya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kamboja in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kāṃbōja (ಕಾಂಬೋಜ):—[adjective] of, belonging to or born in Afghanistan; of the people or their language, culture of that country; Afghan.

--- OR ---

Kāṃbōja (ಕಾಂಬೋಜ):—[noun] a country in south central Asia, between Iran and Pakistan, having Kabul as its capital.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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