The Brahmanda Purana

by G.V. Tagare | 1958 | 319,243 words | ISBN-10: 8120838246 | ISBN-13: 9788120838246

This page describes the description of bharata which is Chapter 16 of the English translation of the Brahmanda Purana: one of the oldest puranas including common Puranic elements such as cosmogony, genealogy, ethics, geography and yoga. Traditionally, the Brahmandapurana is said to consist of 12,000 verses metrical Sanskrit verses.

Chapter 16 - The Description of Bharata

Sūta said:

1. “The (mode of) creation of the sub-continents in the auspicious Bharata had been viewed thus alone, by those who were conversant with the greatest principles. What shall I describe once again unto you?”

The sage said:

2-3. “We wish to know (more about) this sub-continent Bharata[1] where these fourteen Manus, Svāyambhuva and others were born in the course of the creation of the subjects.

O excellent one, recount that to us.” On hearing these words of theirs,

Romaharṣaṇa said:

4. “I shall recount to you all the subjects here in the Bhārata Varṣa.

This is a mysterious sub-continent in the middle (of the universe) where the fruits (of Karimas) are enjoyed whether auspicious or mauspicious.

5. The sub-continent that is to the north of the ocean as well as to the south of the Himavān, is called the sub-continent of Bhārata where the subjects are Bhāratī (pertaining to Bhārata).

6. Manu is called Bharata because of his (efficiency in the) maintenance and nourishment of the subjects. That subcontinent is thus remembered as Bhārata in view of the expression defined thus.[2]

7. It is from here that heaven and salvation, are attained and people go to the middle (?) and ultimate end.[3] Nowhere else on the Earth has the holy rite been enjoined on the human beings.

8. Understand that there are nine different divisions or zones of Bhārata Varṣa.[4] It should be known that they are separated by oceans and it is impossible to traverse from one to the other.

9-11. The nine divisions are—1) Indradvīpa, 2) Kaśerūmān, 3) Tāmravarṇa, 4) Gabhastimān, 5) Nāgadvīpa, 6) Saumya, 7) Gandharva, 8) Varuṇa and this 9) is the island surrounded by the sea. This sub-continent (of Bharata) extends north-south, from the source of the river Gaṅgā to Cape Comorin, a thousand Yojanas (1 Yojana = 12 Km). The extent obliquely: (i.e. the breadth)on the northern part is nine thousand Yojanas.

12. All round in the bordering regions the sub-continent is colonized by Mlecchas (barbarous tribes). The Kirātas live in the Eastern border lands and the Yavanas in the Western border lands.

13. The Brāhmaṇas, the Kṣatriyas and the Vaiśyas live in the central areas and the Śūdras (are scattered) in different parts. They are well settled maintaining themselves by means of performance of sacrifices, wielding of weapons and carrying on trading activities.

14-16. The mutual inter-dealings among those different castes continue (indefinitely), based on virtue, wealth and love, in regard to their holy rites. The conception of the different stages of Life as well as of the Pañcamas (outcastes?) is duly maintained here among these people who have the tendency and endeavour to attain heaven and Mokṣa (Liberation).

The ninth division which is an island is said to extend obliquely. He who conquers it completely is called Samrāṭ (Emperor).

17. Indeed this world is Samrāṭ. The firmament is remembered as Virāṭ. That (other) world is remembered as Svarāṭ. I shall mention in detail once again (later on).

18-19. There are seven mountains of excellent knots and ridges well-known as Kulaparvatas.[5] They are Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Śuktimān, the Ṛkṣa mountain, the Vindhya and the Pāriyātra. These seven are Kulaparvatas. There are thousands of other mountains near these mountains.

20-23. They arc not well known (i.e. well explored). They possess good and essential things. They are vast (in expanse). Their ridges and peaks are of various shapes and sizes. They are[6] Mandara, the excellent mountain, Vaihāra, Dardura, Kolāhala, along with Surasa, Maināka, Vaidyuta, Vātandhama, Nāgagiri, the mountain Pāṇḍura (Pale-white in colour), Tuṅgaprastha, Kṛṣṇagiri, the mountain Godhana, the Puṣpagiri, Ujjayanta, the mountain Raivataka, Śrīparvata, Citrakūṭa and the mountain Kūṭaśaila. There are many mountains other than these. They are smaller than these, less well known and lesser number of living beings dependent on them.

24. The regions interspersed with these mountains are partially inhabited by Āryas and partially by the Mlecchas (tribal-barbarous-people). The following rivers (beginning with) the Gaṅgā, the Sindhu and the Sarasvatī are utilised by them for drinking purposes.

25-27a. The foregoing three and the following rivers originate from the foot of the Himalayas,[7] viz.: the Śatadru, the Candrabhāgā, the Yamunā, the Sarayū, the Irāvatī, the Vitastā, the Vipāśā, the Devikā, the Kuhū, the Gomatī, the Dhūtapāpā, the Budbudā, the Dṛṣadvatī, the Kauśikī, the Tridivā. the Niṣṭhīvī, the Gaṇḍakī and the Cakṣurlohitā.

27b-29a. The following rivers are remembered as dependent on (i.e. originating from) the Pāriyātra mountain:[8] The Vedasmṛti, the Vedavatī, river Vṛtraghnī, the Varṇāśā, the Nandanā, the Sadānīrā, the Mahānadī, the Pāśā, the Carmaṇvatī, the Nūpā, the Vidiśā, the Vetravatī, the Kṣiprā and the Anantī (Avantī?).

29b-32a. These rivers originate from the Ṛkṣavān.[9] They are sacred and their waters are crystal-like. They are: The Śoṇa, the Mahānada, the Narmadā, the Surasā, the Kriyā, the Mandākinī, the Daśārṇā, the Citrakūṭā, the Tamasā, the Pippalā, the Śyenā, the Karamodā, the Piśācikā, the Citropalā, the Viśālā, the Vañjulā, the Vāstuvāhinī, the (Sa) Nerujā, the Śuktimatī, Maṅkutī, the Tridivā and the Kratu.

32b-33. The following auspicious rivers of holy waters have originated from the foot-hills of the Vindhya ranges.[10] viz.: The Tāpī, the Payoṣṇī, the Nirvindhyā, the Sṛpā; the river Niṣadhā, the Veṇī, the Vaitaraṇī, the Kṣiprā, the Vālā, the Kumudvatī, the Toyā, the Mahāgaurī, the Durgā, and the Annaśilā. [Probably durgā (difficult to cross) and annarather antaśilā (rocky within) are adjectives of Mahāgaurī.]

34-35. The Godāvarī, the Bhīmarathī, the Kṛṣṇaveṇā, the Vañjulā, the Tuṅgabhadrā, the Suprayogā, the Bāhyā and the Kāverī are the rivers originating form the foot-hills of the Sahya range.[11] They flow to the south.

36. The following rivers have originated from the mountain Malaya.[12] All of them are auspicious and they have cool waters. They are: the Kṛtamālā, the Tāmraparṇī, the Puṣpajātī and the Utpalāvatī.

37. The following rivers remembered as daughters of the mount Mahendra:[13] The Trisamā, Ṛṣikulyā, The Vaṃjulā, the Tridivā, the (A)balā, the Lāṅgūlinī and the Vaṃśadharā.

38. The following rivers are remembered as originating from Śuktimān:[14] The Ṛṣikulyā, the Kumārī, the Mandagā, the Mandagāminī, the Kṛpā and the Palāśinī.

39. All these rivers are identical with the Sarasvatī and the Gaṅgā. They flow into the sea. All of them are remembered as the mothers of the universe and dispellers of the sins of the worlds.

40-42. They have hundreds and thousands of ancillary tributaries. The following territories and realms have been, founded on (the banks of) these rivers:[15] the Kurus, the Pāñcālas, the Śālvas, the Mādreyas. the Jāṅgalas, the Śūrasenas, the Bhadrakāras, the Bodhas, the Paṭaccaras, the Matsyas, the Kuśalyas, the Sauśalyas, the Kuntalas, the Kāśis, the Kosalas, the Godhas, the Bhadras, the Kaliṅgas, the Magadhas and the Utkalas. These are the realms in the middle of the country[16] and most of them have been recounted.

43. The land towards the northern extremity of the Sahya mountain where the river Godāvarī flows, is the moṣṭ fascinating realm on the whole of the earth.

44-45. A city named Govardhana[17] was built there by Rāma. Heavenly trees and divine medicinal herbs liked by Rāma were planted there by sage Bharadvāja to please Rāma. Hence the region of that excellent city became charming.

46-51a. The following ones are the realms in the northern parts.[18] The Bāhlikas, the Vātadhānas, the Ābhīras, the Kālatoyakas, the Aparāntas (? Westerners), the Suhmas, the Pāñcālas, the Carmamaṇḍalas, the Gāndhāras, the Yavanas, the Sindhusauvīramaṇḍalas, the Cīnas, the Tuṣāras, the Pallavas, the Girigahvaras (dwellers of mountain caves), the Śakas, the Bhadras, the Kulindas, the Pāradas, the Vindhyacūlikas, the Abiṣāhas, the Ulūtas, the Kekayas, the Daśamālikas the Brāhmaṇas, the Kṣatriyas, the Vaiśyas and the families of the Śūdras, the Kāmbojas, the Daradas, the Barbaras, the Aṅgalauhikas, the Atris, along with the Bharadvājas, the Prasthalas, the Daśerakas, the Lamakas, the Tālaśālas, the Bhūṣikas and the Ījikas. Now understand the realms of the eastern parts.[19]

51b-55a. The Aṅgas, the Vaṅgas, the Golabhadras, the Kirāta tribes, the Tomaras, the Haṃsabhaṅgas, the Kāśmīras, the Taṅgaṇas, the Jhillikas, the Āhukas, the Hūṇadarvas, the Andhravākas, the Mudgarakas, the Antargiris, the Bahirgiris, the Plavaṅgus, the Maladas, the Malavartikas, the Samantaras, the Prāvṛṣeyas, the Bhārgavas, the Gopapārthivas (cowherd kings), the Prāgjyotiṣas, the Puṇḍras, the Videhas, the Tāmraliptakas, the Mallas, the Magadhagonardas. These are remembered as the realms in the East.

55b-59. Then, there are the other realms of the dwellers of the southern territories.[20] They are the Pāṇḍyas, the Keralas,

the Colas, the Kulyas, the Setukas, the Mūṣikas, the forest dwelling Kṣapaṇas, the Mahārāṣṭras, the Mahiṣikas, the entire realm of the Kaliṅgas, the Ābhīras, the Aiṣīkas, the Āṭavyas (Forest-dwellers), the Sāravas, the Pulindas, the Vindhyamaulīyas, the Vaidarbhas, the Daṇḍakas, the Paurikas, the Maulikas, the Aśmakas, the Bhogavardhanas (those who increase sensual pleasures), the Koṅkaṇas, the Kantalas, the Āndhras, the Kulindas, the Aṅgāras and the Māriṣas. These are the lands of the south; understand the western regions.

60-63a. (Now) know the realms in the western regions.[21] They are the Sūryārakas, the Kalivanas, the Durgālas, the Kuntalas, the Pauleyas, the Kirātas, the Rūpakas, the Tāpakas, Karīṭis, the whole of Karamdharas, the Nāsikas, the others who are in the valleys of the Narmadā, the (Saha) Kacchas, the (Sa)māheyas, the Sārasvatas, the Kacchipas, the Surāṣṭras, the Ānartas and the Arbudas. The above realms are the western ones. Now listen, to those who reside on the Vindhyas:[22]

63b-66. The Maladas, the Karūṣas, the Mekalas, the Utkalas, the Daśārṇas, among the excellent ones the Bhojas, the Kiṣkindhakas, the Tośalas, the Kośalas, the Traipuras, the Vaidiśa, the Tuhuṇḍas, the Barbaras, the Ṣaṭpuras, the Naiṣadhas, the Anūpas, the Tuṇḍikeras, the Vītihotras and the Avantis. All these realms are founded on the ridges of the Vindhya.

Hereafter, I shall recount the realms founded on the mountains (Hill-tribes).

67-687a.[23] They are the Nihīras, the Haṃsamārgas, the Kupathas, the Taṅgaṇas, the Śakas, the Apaprāvaraṇas, the Ūrṇas, the Darvas, the Hūhukas, the Trigartas, the Maṇḍalas, the Kirātas and the Tāmaras.

68b-69. Sages have said that there are four Yugas, in the Bhārata sub-continent, viz. Kṛta, Tretā, Dvāpara and Tiṣya (Kali). I shall mention their detailed divisions wholly later on.

Footnotes and references:


This topic is discussed in details in other Purānas also e.g. AP.118, VP.II.3, Vā.P. 45.68-137.


This is a new definition of Bhārata attributing the credit to Manu who is called Bharata, as he maintained the subjects. This supersedes the old tradition which attributed this name to Bharata the son of Nābhi. Cf. Mt.P.114.5-6.


This is claimed as the special feature of India. Due to this special importance, Bharata is called Karmabhūmi, cf. Bm.P.27.2, Mk.P.55.21-22, Mt.P.l 14.6-7 also Siddhānta Śiromaṇi III.4.


Cf. MK.P. 57.5, Mt.P.l 13.7-9. This is a new definition which includes what is known as “greater Bhārata” today. It indicates the period when Hindu culture was assimilated by countries in the south and south-east Asia. V.S. Agrawala identifies some of the divisions of Bhārata as follows:

Indra-dvīpa= Indradyumna or Andamans
Nāgadvīpa=Nicobars (Nakkavara in Cola inscriptions)

It is suggested that Gabhastimān and Saumya may be identified with Java and Sumatra (Mt.P.—a study, pp. 191-193). For the different opinions of scholars on the above identifications vide M. Ali: Geog. of Purāṇas, pp. 126-127. M. Ali contradicts the claim of Agrawala, Majumdar and others regarding the inclusion of countries in south East Asia in Bhāratavarṣa (Ibid. pp. 128-130). M. Ali identifies them as follows:

Tāmravarṇa= Indian peninsula south of the Kāverī.
Kaserumat=The coastal plain between the deltas of Godāvarī and Mahānadī.
Gabhastimān=The hilly belt between the Narmadā and Godāvarī
Saumya=The coastal belt west of the Indus.
Gandharva=The trans-Indus region.
Varuṇa=The Western coast of India.
But these are mere speculations of scholars.


Out of the seven mountain ranges mentioned here the Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya ranges arc well-known. The Vindhya of the Purāṇas included the Satpurā range south of the Narmadā, (he Mahādeo Hills, the Hazaribagh Range and the Rājamahal Hills. Śuktimān, according to De (p. 196) is the portion of the Vindhya-range joining Pāriyātra and Ṛkṣa mountains including the hills of Gondwana and Chhota Nagpur. But M. Ali. in the topographical Map of Bhārata, shows it as a ring of ranges encircling the Mahānadī basin, very nearly coinciding the present Mahākosala (Purāṇic Dakṣiṇa Kosala) region.

The Pāriyātra mountain is the ring of ranges north of the Narmadā, nearly encircling the catchment areas of the Chambal and the Betwā and thus corresponds with the Aravallis and (modern) Western Vindhya.

The Ṛkṣa mountain represents the modern Vindhya from the source of the Sonar to the eastern ranges marking the catchment area of the river Son. (M. Ali. Op. Cit., pp. 112-113.)


Some of these mountains are identified as follows:

Mandara—A portion of the Himalayas to the east of Sumeru in Garhwal. The hill in the Banka sub-division of Bihar is, however, popularly believed as Mandara (De, pp. 124-125).
Vaihāra (?)
Dardura =The Nilgiri hills (De, p. 53)
Kolāhala =The Brahma-yoni hill in Gayā (De, p. 101)
Maināka =The Sewalik range from the Gaṅgā to the Bias (De, p. 121)
Vaidyuta =The Gurla range, south of lake Manasasarovar; the Śarayū is said to rise in this mountain (De, p. 16)
Vātandhama (?)
Kṛṣṇagiri =The Karakorum mountain, Mus-tagh (De, p.104)
Godhana =Garatha Hills in Bāṇa’s Harṣa-carita VI (De, p. 70)
Puṣpagiri = The part of the Malaya range, the source of the Kṛtamālā or Vaiga (De, p.164).
Ujjayanta=Mt. Girnar (De, p. 211)
Raivataka=Mt. Girnar near Junagarh in Gujarat.
Śrīparvata=The famous hill in Eastern ghat in Kurnool Dist. Andhra Pradesh.
Citrakūṭa—Kāmptānāth girí in Bundelkhand, Madhya Pradesh (De, p.50)


The ranges of mountains described in note 1 p. 152 above are watersheds which bound wholly or partly the catchment areas of important rivers in India. Here is a list of rivers rising from the Himalayas. The modem names of the rivers are given in brackets:

The Śatadru (Sutlej), the Candrabhāgā (Chenab), the Irāvatī (Ravi), the Vitastā (Jhelum), the Vipāśā (Beas), the Devika (Deeg-a tributary of the Ravi), the Kuhu (Kabul), The Dhūtapāpā (Śāradā, with its head streams), the Budbudā (misprint for Bāhudā-Rapti), the Dṛṣadvatī (Chitang, a tributary of the Ghaggar), the Kauśikī (Kosi) with its three headwaters.

The Tridiva (?), the Niṣṭhīvī (?)
The Cakṣurlohitā (Brahmaputra?)—M. Ali. Op. Cit. pp.114-115.


The modern names of the rivers are bracketed:

The Vedasmṛti (Banās), Vedavatī (Berach), Vṛtraghnī (Banganga-Utangaṇ). These were the big, perennial rivers of ancient Matsya-desha (now a part of M.P.) The Varṇāśā. is VV. Banas which flows west of Aravallis, the Nandanā (Sabarmatī), the Sadānīrā (Sarasvatī), the Mahānadī, the Pāśā (If Pārā=Pārbatī), the Carmaṇvatī (Chambal), the Nūpā, (Gambhīra), the Vidiśā (Bes), the Vetravatī (Betwā), the Kṣiprā (Śiprā); the Anantī (should be Avantī. It rises near Mhow) M. Ali. Op. Cit. pp. 116-117)


The Purānic mountain ranges are so much mixed up in our times that some rivers are attributed to either of them:

These do not rise in the Puranic Ṛkṣa Parvata:
The Śoṇa,
The Mahānada (mahānadī)
The Narmadā

These are the rivers from Bundelkand (M.P.):
The Surasā (?)
The Kriyā (?)
The Mandākinī
The Daśārṇā (Dhasan)
The Citrakūṭā
The Tamasā (Tons)
The Pippalā
The Śyenā
Note: The above three seems to be one river called Pippaliśyenī sa in Mt.P., (mod. name: Paisunī)
The Karamodā (Karam-nāśā)
The Piśācikā
The Citropalā
The Viśālā (Bewas near Sagar in M.P.)
The Vañjukā (As in Vā.P. it should be Jambūlā mod. Jammi)
The Vastuvāhinī (Baghain, a tributary of the Yamunā)
The (Sa) Nerujā (rather Sumerujā as in Vā.P. (Sonar-Bearma))
The Śuktimatī (Ken)—M. Ali Op. Cit. pp. 118-119,


As noted above Puranic writers include even Satpurā hills in the Vindhya ranges. The modern names of the rivers are given in Brackets:

The Tāpī (The Taptī and Tāpī also)
The Payoṣṇī (Pain-ganga—De, p. 150)
The Nirvindhyā (Newuj) R. mentioned in Meghadūta
The Sṛpā or Śiprā
The Niṣadhā (Sind, on this Narwar, the capital of Niṣadhas was located)
The Veṇī (Wainganga)
The Vaitaraṇī (Baitarani)
The Kṣiprā (Probably, the same as śiprā)
The Vālā (?)
The Kumudvatī (Suvarṇa-rekhā)
The Toyā (Brāhmaṇī)
The Mahāgaurī (Damodar)

The following: Durgā (difficult to cross) and anna (anta-) Śilā (full of rocks) are probably the adjectives of the Mahāgaurī.—M. Ali—Op. Cit. pp. 120-121.


Most of these rivers continue the same old names though some of them are modified e.g. The Bhīmarathī (Bhīmā), Kṛṣṇaveṇā (Kṛṣṇā), the Vañjulā (Mañjirā), the Suprayogā (Vedavatī. Its original name signifies easiness to bathe), the Bāhyā (Varadā, The AP. correctly reads it as Varada).


Modern names [of] these rivers are bracketed: the Kṛtamālā (Vaigai), the Tāmraparṇī, the Puṣpajāti (or Puṣpajā=Pambiar), the Utpalavatī (Periyar).—M. Ali—Op. Cit. pp. 122-23.


The modern names of these rivers are given in brackets:

The Trisamā (Ghoda-hada, Bhagava, Pataṇaa—ṃese three headwaters of the Ṛṣikulyā have this collective name)

Ṛṣikulyā (repeated under rivers from Śuktimān), the Vañjulā (?), the Tridivā (collective name for Vegavatī, Nāgavatī and Suvarṇamukhī—the three headwaters of the Lāṅgūlinī).

The Langulini (Lānguliā)—M. Ali—Op. Cit. p. 24.


The modern names are given in brackets:

The Ṛṣikulyā (the same as mentioned above).

The Kumārī (Suktel, joins the Mahānadī near Sonpur, Orissa), The Mandagā (Mand), The Mandagāminī (Mahānadī—proper), The Kṛpā (Arpā), Palāśinī (Jonk in Raipur Dist.. M.P.)—M. Ali—Op. Cit. p. 125.


The author of this Purāṇa includes the following parts of India in “Madhyadeśa”. These are originally names of tribes applied to the land where they settled:

Kurus: Between the Ghaggar in the West and the Gaṅgā on the east and with forest belt on the north and the south.

Pañcālas:—coterminus with modern Rohilkhand with the central portion of the Ganga-Yamuna doab added to it.

Śālvas: Near Kurukṣetra to the west of tht Matsyadeśa. De thinks it comprised of some portion of former Jodhpur, Jaipur and Alwar states (De, p. 175).

Mādreya or Madra: The region between the Rāvi and the Chinab in the Punjab (De, p. 116).

Jāṅgala:—generally associated with Kurus and called Kuru-Jāṅ[j?]gala. Probably it occupied the wooded north eastern part of Kurus (M. Ali.—Op. Cit. p.135).

Bhadrakaras and Bodhas (along with Śālvas) occupied the border land of the Middle country (Madhya-desha of Purāṇas).

Paṭaccaras on the south bank of the Yamunā are located in Banda district (M. Ali. Op. Cit. p. 171).

The Matsyas:—consisted of the territory of the former Alwar state and some adjoining areas from former Jaipur and Bharatpur (De, p. 128).


Now a village in Nasik District of Maharashtra. Formerly it was an important centre of learning and Brāhmaṇas coming from that area are known as Govardhana Brāhmaṇas. It is mentioned several times in the famous Nasik Inscription of uṣasadāta (100 B.C.)—E.I.VIII p. 78. (Epigraphia Indica).


Now a village in Nasik District of Maharashtra. Formerly it was an important centre of learning and Brāhmaṇas coming from that area are known as Govardhana Brāhmaṇas. It is mentioned several times in the famous Nasik Inscription of uṣasadāta (100 B.C.)—E.I.VIII p. 78. (Epigraphia Indica).


Generally realms or countries are named after the names of the tribes or peoples settled there. The identifications of the realms on northern part are based on M. Ali’s discussion in his Geog. of the Purāṇas, pp. 137-146. D. C. Sircar’s GAMI is also referred to and only the page no. is mentioned.

The Bāhlikas or Vāhlikas=People of Balistan-region covered by the Bolon, Nari and Gokh rivers. It coincides with former British Baluchistan. But Balkh (N. Afghanistan) according to D. C. Sircar, p. 32.

The Vātadhanas = probably Waziristan. But Panjab-Rajasthan region.—Sircar p. 32.

The Ābhīras=South of Sauvīra but east of the Indus-Western Part of Hyderabad, District Sind.

The Kālatoyakas--Residents of Kalat region in Baluchistan.

The Aparantas—This is the North-Western region called Aparita in Vā.P.

The Suhmas (?)=This is in eastern India.

The Pāñcālas--Rohilkhand (?)

The Carma-maṇḍālas or Carma-khaṇḍa at the mouth of the river Hab and the Churma island.

The Gandharas=Kandahar—lower Kabul valley.

The Yavanas=Ionians, Greeks.

The Sindhu-Sauvīra-Maṇḍals=Sindhu and Sauvīra are different regions. Sauvīra coincides with Rohri-Khairpur region of Sind and the remaining portion is Sind.

The Tuṣāras -- Tokharians in north Afghanistan, but people on the Tochi according to M. AIi p. 142.

The Pallavas or Pahlavas=Region adjoining the Hingol Valley on the Parikan river.

The Śaka= Scythians.

The Kulinda—The Same as Pulinda in Mt. P. Kunets of Kulu. But formerly they extended to Saharanpur and Ambala—Sircar p. 33.

The Pārada=The same as Parita in Vā.P. = Mithankot region of Dera Gazi Khan District Pakistan. But Parthians of Khorasan according to D.G. Sircar p. 33.

The Kekayas=People of the country between the Beas and the Sutlej (De, p. 97).

The Kāmbojas=People from Kafirstan who colonised the Kunar basin.

The Daradas=The same ancient tribe living in the valley of the Kisenganga in Kashmir.

The Barbaras=People migrated from Barbary or North Africa.

The Prasthalas=The district between Ferozepur, Patiala and Sirsa (De, 159).

The Daśerakas=Mahva? But Marwar region of Rajasthan—Sircar, p.35.

The Lamakas—Probably the same as Lampāka or Lamghan of today—associated with upper Kabul.


The ancient tribes and their location? from Eastern India are identified as follows:

The Aṅgas=The country about Bhagalpur including Monghyr (De, 7).

The Colabhadras=The Coromandal Coast (?)

The Kirātas=Tipara and Morung west of Sikkim. They lived from Nepal to extreme east. (De, p. 100).

The Tomaras=The Garo hills of south west Assam (De, p. 205).

The Tanganas=Country from the Rāmgaṅgā river to the upper Sarayū (De p. 204).

The Hūṇadarvas=Country round Manasa-Sarovar? (De, p. 78).

The Mudgarakas=Monghyr and country around (?) (De, p. 132).

The Antargiris = Rajmahal hills in Santal Pargana Bengal (De, P. 8). But Sircar locates Antārgiri and Bahirgiri towards the north of Assam (p. 36).

The Maladas=A part of the district of Shahabad—The site of Viśvāmitra’s Āśrama near Buxar (De, p. 100) Malda District of Bengal and Rajashahi and West Dinajpur of Bengal (M. Ali p. 151).

The Prāgjyotiṣas= Kāmarūpa District in Assam.

The Puṇḍras=Between Aṅga and Vaṅga and on the north side of the Gaṅgā (De, p. 155) (M. Ali, p. 151).

The Videhas—Tirhut country between the Kosi and the Gaṇḍak to the north of the Gaṅgā (De, p. 35).

The Tāmraliptakas=Tamluk in Midnapur District including Kontai (De, p. 203), (M. Ali, p. 152).

The Mallas=Country round the Paraśnath hills (parts of Hazaribagh and Manbhum Districts), but at Buddha’s time they were at Pāvā and Kusinagar (De, p. 123).

The Magadha-Gonardas=Magadha is South Bihar. De identifies Gonarda with Gouda in Oudh (p. 71), but no such combined name is found in De and Sircar.

The Bhargava=Aṅgaya was the Yarauna-Meghna Doab (M.Ali, Op. Cit. p. 152), but he does not mention merely Bhārgava as in this text.


The following identifications are based on De.

The Colas=The Coromandal Coast to the South of the Pennar including Tanjore (p. 51).

The Mūṣìkas=Travancorc on the Malabar coast (p.134). But Sircar suggests that they were probably people living on the Muri river (p. 36).

The Mahiṣikas=Southern Mysore (p. 120). also Sircar p. 39.

Setukas=People of Setubandha, Rāmeśvara.—Sircar p. 38.

The Kaliṅgas=South. Orissa. (Puri and Ganjam Districts)—Sircar p. 39.

The Ābhīras— South-eastern portion of Gujarat about the mouth of the Narmada (Sircar p.l.)

The Vaidarbhas—Vidarhha, a part of Maharashtra.

The Daṇḍakas=Daṇḍakāraṇya (Maharashtra) (p.52).

The Maulika— If ‘Mūlaka’, a part of Maharashtra near Aśmaka (p. 133). Mod. Aurangabad District (—Sircar p. 39).

The Āśmakas=Aurangabad district and Bodhan country round about in Nizamabad District—(Sircar p. 40).

The Bhogavardhanas=(Mod. Bhokardan Taluqa of Aurangabad District (Sircar, p. 40).

The Ka(Ku)ntalas= Southern Maharashtra and Northern Canara District—now a part of Karnataka.

The Kulindas=Garhwala (p.106). But it is surprising that it is mentioned as a state in the South.


Some of these can be identified as follows:

The Kirātas Possibly a reference to Kirāta settlement in the West.

The Nāsikas=Nasik, now in Maharashtra.

The Kacchas=Cutch, now in Gujarat State.

The Ānarta=Gujarat and a part of Malwa (De, p. 8).

The Arbuda— Country around mt. Abu (De, p. 16).


The following can be identified as per De and M. AH.

The Karūṣas=The country around Rewa (De, p. 95).

The Mekalas=Country round Amarkaṇṭaka, the source of the Narmadā (De, p. 130).

The Utkalas=Orissa.

The Daśārṇa=Modern Eastern Malwā—(Sircar, p. 43).

The Bhojas= Country around Bhilwara in the Chambal basin (M.Ali p. 159). Sircar identifies them with the people of Vidarbha who founded a Kingdom in Goa (p. 43).

The Kiṣkindhakas=Kikarava in other Purāṇas. Sircar identifies this Kiṣkandhā with mod. Kalyanpur, South of Udaipur Division (p. 43).

The Tośalas— It is the Southern part of Kosala or Gondwari District round Tosali (Mod. Dhanti) in Puri District (De, p. 43).

The Kosalas=Sircar identifies with Dakṣiṇa (Southern) Kosala—Mod. Raipur, Sitapur, Santalpur Districts.

The Vaidiśa—Eastern Malwa with Vidiśā or Bhilasa as the capital.

The Tripura=The region round Tewar—This covers upper Narmadā valley (present Jabalpur and parts of Mandla and Narasimhapur Districts.)

The Naiṣadhas=Marwar with Narwar as the Capital (De, p. 141).

The Anūpas=South Malwa. Country on the Narmadā about Nimar (De, p. 8).

The Vītihotras=The country is founded in the South by the Narmadā and North East, West by the Vindhya. The centre was Satwas 30 miles North West of Harda.

The Āvantis=Country around Ujjain.

The Tuṇḍikera=M. Ali locates it within the Narmada basin around the town Sainkheda (p.161).

The Nihāras=Location uncertain, D. C. Sircar GAMI, p. 45.

The Haṃsa-mārgas=People of Humza in North West Kashmir. This tribe had a location there—D. G. Sircar Ibid. p. 38 and 43.

The Kupathas—Hill tribes in the North West of India.


The Mountain-system described in this with Mt. Meru as the centre is substantiated by the geographer M. Ali. in Geog. of the Purāṇas, pp. 47-59. For the modern names of the Puranic mountains vide Supra Ch. 1. p. 11 FN. 1.

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