Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study)

by Debabrata Barai | 2014 | 105,667 words

This page relates ‘Identification of Geographical names mentioned in the Kavyamimamsa’ of the English study on the Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara: a poetical encyclopedia from the 9th century dealing with the ancient Indian science of poetics and rhetoric (also know as alankara-shastra). The Kavya-mimamsa is written in eighteen chapters representing an educational framework for the poet (kavi) and instructs him in the science of applied poetics for the sake of making literature and poetry (kavya).

Appendix 2 - Identification of Geographical names mentioned in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā

Anarta: It includes northern Gujrata and portions of the Malwa country. Its capital name was Anarttapura, Afterwards it called Anandapura and modern times it known as Vadnagar.

Andhra: The country Andhra lying between the river Godāvari in the north side and the Kṛṣṇa in the south side. Its capital name was Pratiṣṭhanapura.

Aṅga: This country lying between Bhāgalpur and Monghyr. Its capital name was Campāpuri, which is now located within two miles west side of Bhāgalpur.

Antarvedī: The tract of Antarvedī country surrounded by the north side in Gaṅges and south side in the Yamunā, its East side located Prayāga and west side placed Vināsana (or the place where Sarasvatī disappears).

Arbudā: Mount Ābu in the Ārāvallī range, now included in the Sirohi state of Rājputana (Rajasthan). In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā this part of the country surrounding Mount Abu is also called Arbuda, because Rājaśekhara makes Arbuda both a mountain and a Janapada.

Aryāvartta: It is the northern part of India lying between the Himālayas in the north and the Vindhya Range in the South; it lying between the Eastern and western oceans.

Aśmaka: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara mentions this region is located in South India, with the same view of Brahmandapurana. But the Kūrmapurāṇa and Bṛhatsaṃhitā places this country as the part of North India, near the Punjab. The Daśakumāracarita, Harṣacarita and Bhattasvamin (the commentator of the Arthaśāstra) view this Aśmaka as a part of the Mahāraṣṭra country. However, the Aśmaka region was situated between the Godāvarī and Māhiṣmatī and the formed part of Vidarbha.

Avantī: The region of which Ujjain was the capital. It is the kingdom of Vikramāditya and probably Rājaśekhara’s wife (Avantī sundari) belongs to this region.

Ayodhyā: This is situated on the river Sarayū in the united provinces.

Balhaveya: It is the part of northern India, where Rājaśekhara was locates. This may be the same as Bhāṭiā near multan. Historians and geographers mention Bhatia as a strong fortress near multan on the Indus.

Bālhīka: Same as Vāhīka.

Barbara: This country mentioned as one of the region of north India. According to Purāṇas, this country locates in the north or in the north-western provinces. It is the famous place for sandal-wood, which was known as Barbarikacandana. But Rājaśekhara’s note in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, places this region in the exact north, the northern part of Baluchistan may also be taken as the Barbara region. This country of the Barbaras may be identified with the name Barbari, Barbarike or Barbaricum, which is situated in the north-west province on the bank of the river Indus on its western course.

Bhādānaka: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara does not give the proper location of Bhādānaka but he says that the people of this region talked a language which had an admixture of Apabhraṃśa like the people of Maru and the Takkas. Therefore, Bhādānaka seems to be same as the Bhadiya or Bhadiyanagara of the Pāli books. The last Jain Tirthaṅkara (Mahāvīra) may be having to this place. But Rājaśekhara’s identification is open to objection and mentions the same view of Mahābhārata (sabhā parva- 32). Bhādānaka along with Takka and Maru countries, which are situated in the north-India. It may be possibly located somewhere between the rivers Satadru and Vināsana.

Bhaimarathī: It is the river Bhīmā in the Dakṣiṇāpatha, which is Join with the Kṛṣṇā.

Bhāratavarṣa: This is one of the varṣas in the Jambūdvīpa or Asia with the Himalayas as the varṣaparvata. The varsaparvata or Himālayas is the third mountain of the southern side of the Mahāmeru, which is situated exactly in the middle of the Jambūdvīpa or Asia. This Bhāratavarṣa is divided into nine parts; India is one of them and called the Kumārdvīpa.

Bhṛgukaccha: Broach and its surrounding parts.

Bindusāras: It is the sacred place in the Himālayās, which is two miles south of the origin of Gaṅgā or Gangotri.

Brahma: This is the country of eastern India. It is presumably the modern Burma including the upper and lower portions.

Brahmaśilā: Brahmaśilā is the former eastern boundary of the city Kannauj.

Brāhmaṇavāha: It is one of the region of western India, mentions by Rājaśekhara in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā This is said that “Itarmatalia”, the Greek historians a corrupt or foreign pronunciation of the Sanskrit word Brāhmanasthala. It to be the Hindu name of the city which the Muhammedans afterwards called called Brāhmanābād. It was situated on the eastern reaches of the river Indus and presently seems to be in the neighbor-hood of Hāla in Sindhu at two-thirds of the distance from Multān to the south of the Indus and it lies parallel to Hāla. This place Hāla is now known as Bambhraka-thul or the “Ruined Tower” and this name is derived from a broken brick tower, which is the only building now standing. It is one of the oldest cities in India and ancient thousand years ago it calls “Brahmanabad-al aliqah” to the historian Biladhura’s writing.

Brahmottara: A region in the part of eastern India, which northern portion of the Brahma country or the upper Burma. It is also noted that the Brahma region included both the upper and lower Burma.

Bṛhadgṛha: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā Rājaśekhara mention it a mountain in the eastern India. It may be represent the Mount Everest in the eastern range of the Himālayās.

Cakora: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara says, Cakora is a mountain in Eastern India. It may be identified as Caraṇādri or Cunār, the hill-fort in the district of Mirzapur, builded by the Pāla kings.

Cakravartīkṣetra: India from Cape Comorin in the south to the Bindusāras in the Himālayās in the north as the Cakravartīkṣetra by designates of Rājaśekhara’s Kāvyamīmāṃsā This region consists of 1000 Yojanas. One who conquers and rules over the whole of this land is called a Cakravartin. It seems to be the same as the Kumārīdvīpa, one of the nine parts of the Bharatavarṣa. The Puarāṇas and the Kāvyamīmāṃsā use the word Bhāratavarṣa in a wider sense, so as to include greater India, means India is proper along with her eight colonies, Indradvīpa etc. These colonies are bounded by the southern sea or the Indian oceans and the Himālayān range are separated from one another by oceans.

Candanagiri: In the Bālarāmāyaṇa (ch. VII, 45), Rājaśekhara mentions Rāmasetu was built in continuation of the Candanagiri. It is placed on the Malayagiri or the southern portion of the Western Ghats.

Candarabhāga: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara places this river in Uttarapatha. The river Chenab, a tributary of the river Indus.

Candrācala: It is a peak of the Himālayās, wherefrom the river Candrabhāga rises. This also known as Candrabhāga in the Purāṇas. The Candragiri, the sacred place to the Jains, which is situated near seringapatam is apparently different from this and Rājaśekhara’s Kāvyamīmāṃsā locates this mountain in the northern India.

Coḍa: Coḍa country is represented by the districts of Tanjore and south Arcot in the Madras Presidency according to the Rājaśekhara. Because the other region of the Cola country are given different names i.e. Kāñchi and Kāvera.

Dakṣiṇadeśa: Dakṣiṇadeṣa is the part of southern India, bounded by the Narmada in the north side and the Cape Comorin in the south side.

Dakṣiṇāpatha: It is the same as Dakṣiṇādeśa. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, it is represents the portion of the Indian Peninsula lying to the south of the Māhiṣmatī.

Daṇḍaka: Daṇḍaka may be situated in south India between the countries of Cola and Kāñci. However it is difficult to identify with Daṇḍakāvana of the Rāmāyaṇa, since Rājaśekhara mentions Mahārāṣṭra etc. Comprising the real Daṇḍakāranya to the modern concepts as separate country.

Dardura: Mount Dardura may be little difficulty identified with the Nīlgiri in the Madras Presidency. Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa mention that, the mountains of Malaya and Dardura are situated in close proximity in the southern-most part of India near Tāmraparṇi (IV. 50-51). But Rājaśekhara locates the Dardura hills in the eastern India; it ought to be identified with the Deograrḥ peak in the eastern part of the Vindhyas.

Daśapura: Mondasor in Malwa, it is generally known as Dasore from which the Dasora Brahmins derive their names.

Daserka: It is Mālwā.

Devasabhā: To Rājaśekhara, Davasabhā is the name of mountain in western India. This may be indentified with the mountainous parts of either the Devās state or Udaipur, where the Dhebar lake is situated. The river Saravatī and Sabarmati rises from these parts near Udaipur and flow through the western India. In the Arthaśāstra of Kauṭilya mention that a variety of sandal as Daivasabheya and probably means either the hills or the country of the same name to the Rājaśekhara, where excellent sandal wood may be obtained.

Devikā: Devikā is river in northern India, which may be identified with the present river, the Deeg, a tributary of the Rāvī.

Dramila: same as Draviḍa.

Draviḍa: The use of the words Draviḍa and Dramila are the same as in the case of the word Gauḍa. These words mentioned by Rājaśekhara to denote the inhabitants of southern India, which is not the name of the country.

Droṇācala: The Dronagiri mountain in Kumaun.

Gabhastimān: One of the nine parts of Bhāratavarṣa. According to Purāṇa and Kāvyamīmāṃsā the division of nine parts, it is locate in the south-west of India.

Gādhipura: In the Bālarāmāyaṇa (ch-X. 88) of Rājaśekhara, Gādhipura is another name of the city Kanauj. But in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā described it as to be a suburb of Kanauj, which is situated on the northern part of the city.

Gandharva: One of the nine parts of the Bhāratavarṣa, in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā some of the Purāṇas mentioned it as Gāndharva. In the Uttarkanda (ch -cxiii, 10-11 and cxiv-11) in Rāmāyaṇa described this region is the valley of the Kābul, with a small tract of the land to the east of the Indus.

Gaṅgā (river): It is the holy river of Hindus. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara mentions Gaṅgā under the list of rivers of the northern and western India. Because the river Ganges flows through both of the parts.

Gaṅgā (place): This region located in the Dakṣiṇāpatha. May be identified as the Kongu country of the southern India, which is comprises on the districts of Coimbatore and Salem. Therefore, according to Belur inscription, this is the part of south Bengal and known as Gange or Gaṅgā. The name Gaṅgā or Kongu seems to have derived from the name of the dynasty of the Western Gaṅgās ruled over the south of Mysore with Salem, Coimbatore, the Nīlgiris and parts of Mālābār. So the Rājaśekhara mentions Gaṅgā country cannot be taken for the represent to Kaliṅga country, which was ruled over by the Eastern Gaṅgā dynasty. Because Rājaśekhara already described Kaliṅga, the district of Ganjam and Vizag amongst the Eastern region countries of India.

Gauḍa: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara describes the Gauḍas are a people inhabiting the whole tract of country lying between Benāras and the Bay of Bengal. To Rājaśekhara, the word Gauḍa is not the name of any particular country, so he describes the costume of Gauḍa ladies and mentions the fondness of the Gauḍa for the Sanskrit language. But N. L. Dey thinks that the whole of Bengal is known as the Gauḍa country with its capital at Gaud, the ruins of which have been discovered near Māldā in Bengal at a distance of about ten miles. The king of Pāla and Sena dynasties made this city of Gauḍa their capital on the several occasions. Further this city was also known as Lakṣmahavati or Lakhnauti after the name of king Lakṣmanasena of the Sena dynasty of Bengal.

Girinagara: Girinagara is well-known by the Girnar hills. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, describes this hill in the western India, situated at a small distance from the town of Junagadh in Kathiawar. This is now presumed to be the Raivatakagiri of the Purāṇas.

Godāvarī: A popular river in south India. Its origin has been traced to the Brahmagiri, situated on the side of a village Tryambak, which is twenty miles away from Nāsik. The river Godāvarī flows eastward to the Bay of Bengal.

Govardhana: It is the mountain of north India. This Govardhana mount is eighteen miles away from Vṛnadāvana in the district of Mathurā.

Harahūrava: The region lying between the Indus and the Jhelum, the Gandgarḥ Mountain and the salt range. The Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara places this country in the northern India.

Harivarṣa: Harivarṣa is the first varṣa on the southern side of the Mahāmeru. Nisādha is known to be the principle mountain of this varṣa.

Hastināpura: The place Hastināpura was the capital of the Kurus, placed on North West of Delhi. It was situated on the right bank of the Ganges at a twenty two miles distance of north-west of Meerut.

Hemakūṭa: It is a varṣa parvata, being the second from the Mahāmeru on the southern side. This is the principle mountain range of the Kimpuruṣavarṣa, which is situated on the northern side of the Himavān and the Bhāratavarṣa.

Hiḍimbā: The river in the western India described by the Kāvyamīmāṃsā This river may be identified with Chambal or Carmaṇavati, which rises from the vindhyas, flows through the western India and meets with the Yamunā near the Ekacakra which is adjacent to Etawah. This river flows through the Hidimba forest and identified as an alternative measure, with the river Gambhira which is a tributary of the river Śiprā in central India.

Himavān: It the Himālayā range, Himavān is the principal mountain of the Bhāratavarṣa.

Himālaya: Himālaya is same as Himavān.

Himsamārga (haṃsamārga): Himsamārga is known as the name of Krauñcarandhra or Haṃsadvāra in the Himālaya. This is said to have been opened by Parasurāma with an arrow. It is identified with the Nīti pass in the district of Kumaon, which connecting Tibet with India.

Hiraṇmayavarṣa: Hiraṇmayavarṣa is one of the seven varṣas constitutions the Jambudvīpa or Asia. It is the second varṣa on the northern side to the Mahāmeru and may be identified with northern Kāśmīra. The Sveta range forms the principal mountain of this varṣa.

Huhūka [Hūhuka?]: Huhūka is the region in the northern India. It may be identified with the northern Kāśmir. This part surrounding Huskapura [Huṣkapura] or Uskar may represent the Huhūka of Rājaśekhara and presumably this may represents the part of Kaśmir which is otherwise omitted in the list of north Indian countries to the Rājaśekhara’s Kāvyamīmāṃsā

Hūṇa: The region of north India. The poet Kālidāsa while describing the Digvijaya of Raghu, mentions this country of the Hūṇas in the northern direction.

This part may be identified with the country between the modern Waksh and Aksu, the two tributaries of the Oxus.

Ilāvrtavarṣa: Itāvrtavarṣa region surrounding by the Mahāmeru or the Mountain situated in the middle of the Jambudvīpa. The Meru is said to have three varṣas in the north side and three in the south side, with Bhāratavarṣa being the third to the south.

Indrakīla: It is one of the peaks in the interior of the Himālayas.

Indradvīpa: In the Purāṇas, as well as in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara divided Bhāratavarṣa in nine parts, where Indradvīpa is one of the part of it. But some of the scholars are inclined to identify this with Burma as it is situated in the east, the direction of Indra.

Irāvatī: Irāvatī may be identified with the river Ravi on the Banks of which Lahore is situated. Some of the scholars identified this with the river Rāpti in Oudh, but it does not seem to be correct. It the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara locates the river in the northern India.

Jambūdvīpa: It is the famous one of the seven Dvīpas in the world. This is situated in the middle of three Dvīpas on both sides. At present times this Dvīpa may identified with the Asia and the mountain Mahāmeru, is situated in the middle of this Jambūdvīpa. According to Purāṇas and Rājaśekhara’s Kāvyamīmāṃsā, this Jambūdvīpa is consists of seven varṣas or parts and seven mountains. The Bhāratavarṣa is the southern-most varṣa or country in the Jambūdvīpa and includes within its boundary the mighty Himālayas.

Jānhavī: The River Gaṅgā.

Kacchīya: Cutch. It was also known as the Maru-Kaccha in the Bṛhatsaṃhitā.

Kālapriya: Kālapriyanātha is the name of the Lord Śiva (Mahādeva) worshipped in a temple situated in the southern part of the city Kanauj or Kānyakubja. It the writing of Bhavabhuti, Kalapriyanatha is mentioned as a court poet of the king Yasovarman of Kanauj.

Kalinda: One of the parts of Himālayas known as the name of Kalinda. It is the source place of the river Yamunā, which is called Kalindī in consequence.

Kaliṅga: The northern Circārs, a place lying between Orissa in the north and Andhra in the south on bordering on the sea. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā described this place amongst the countries situated in the southern and the eastern India.

Kāmarūpa: One of the district of Assam. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara mentions Kāmarūpa as one of the mountains situated in the eastern part of India but not as a Janapada. In the Raghuvaṃśa of Kālidāsa (IV. 83-84) described Prāgjyotiṣapura was the capital of Kāmrūpa. It may be possible that, Kāmarūpa parvata represents the Nīla hill or Nīlakutaparvata where the temple of the celebrated Kāmākhya Devi is situated.

Kāmboja: It situated in Afghanistan or at least its northern part. In the Raghuvaṃśa, Kālidāsa (IV. 68-69) described this part is situated between the river Oxus and the Himālayas. The Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara mentions this region among the countries in the Uttarapatha.

Kanei/ kanci: This is known as Kāñcipura or Conjeevaram, the capital of the Draviḍa or the Cola country on the river Palār. This situated at a distance of forty-three miles south-west of Madras.

Kapiśa: It is the river Suvarṇarekhā in Singbhūm and Orissa. In the Raghuvaṃśa of Kālidāsa (IV. 38) also admitted it. The source of the river is said to be the Rkṣāparvata.

Karkaṅṭha: Karakantha, is one of the place in the Uttarāpatha. It may be identified with the valley of Karakoram. As the Karachi is situated in the western India, so its identification with Karakaṇṭha will be hazardous. However the Karapatha or Karabagh as it is now called, on the right or the west bank of the Indus at the foot of the range locally called Nīli hill in the Bannu district may be. But the identification as an alternative with the Krakaṇṭha by Rājaśekhara.

Karatoyā: A sacred river, which is flowing through the districts of Rangpur, Dinājpur and Bogrā in Bengal. It is joining the river Brahmaputra near the Gangetic delta.

Karṇāṭas: People living in the Karṇāṭadeśa. That is includes the state of Mysore, Coorg and part of the Ceded districts.

Kārttikeyanagara: Baijanātha or Vaidyanātha in the district of Kumāun. It is about eighty miles from Almorā.

Kaserumān: The division referred by the Purāṇas and Rājaśekhara’s Kāvyamīmāṃsā, it is one of the nine parts of the Bhāratavarṣa. Some people identified this as Singapore in the Malaya states.

Kāśmīra: Kāśmīra. It is the important place situated in the northern India. It is popularly known as the name ‘Haven of this Earth’.

Kāvera: Some of the districts of Draviḍadeśa on the banks of the Kāverī and especially the delta of the river.

Kāverī: Kāverī is the famous river in the southern India, which rises from a spring called the Candratīrtha on the Brahmagiri mountain in Coorg.

Kekaya: This region lying between the Biās and the Sutlej in the Punjab.

Kerala: Kerala is the region of southern India; know as the Mālābār Coast or the Cera country. This comprises on Mālābār, Travancora and Cochin states.

Kimpuruṣavarṣa: It is situated immediately to the north of the Himālayas encircling the Hemakūta Parvata. This is the second Varṣa from the Mahāmeru on the southern side. Some of the scholars are indicated this varṣa with Nepal, but Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara does not agree about it. He mentioned, Nepal in the eastern part of the Bhāratavarṣa and Kimpuruṣavarṣa to the north of the Himālayas.

Kīra: Kīrāgrāma or Baijnātha in the Punjab. However, Rājaśekhara in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā includes it amongst the countries of the Uttarāpatha. Therefore, it may be possible to locate this region in south Afghanistan to the north of the Kīrthār range.

Kollagiri: Coorg is situated now in the Mysore state. The Kāverī River rises from this place. It is also well-known by the name Kolagiri or Kodagu.

Konkana: This country known as Paraśurāmakṣetra. This is the tract of land lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. In the Raghuvaṃśa of Kālidāsa (IV.58) identified this country as Aparānta.

Kośala: Kośala is the southern part of the kingdom of Oudh. It is divided into two kingdoms called Uttarākośala and Kośala. Ayodhyā and Kusavatī were the capitals of these two kingdoms respectively.

Krathakaiśika: The country of Vidarbha is called the land of Krathakaiśikas (by the Raghuvaṃśa of Kālidāsa: V.39-40). However RS in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā mentions these two countries separately in the Dakṣiṇāpatha. In the story of Mahābhārata, a Vidarbha king had two sons’ kratha and kaiśika and further based on their names these country was known as Krathakaisika (Sabhā-13). But very probably Rājaśekhara means Krathakaisika was only a part of the Vidarbha country.

Kumārīdvīpa: One of the parts of Bhāratavarṣa. To the Rājaśekhara opinion, this Dvīpa seems to represent India, situated between the Himālayas in the north and the Cape Comorin in the south. Because he mentions the seven Kulaparvatas i.e. Vindhya, Pariyatrā etc. as situated in the Kumārīdvīpa.

Krauñcadvīpa: It is one of the seven Dvīpas of the world. This is said to be encircled by the Dadhi Ocean.

Kṛṣṇaveṇā: The Kṛṣṇā River. This is flows through the Dakṣiṇāpatha or the southern India. It is also called the Kṛṣṇaveṇā at the point where it is united with the river Veṇā.

Kuhū: It is the river in the Uttarāpatha. This is probably the same as the Kabul River, which is known as the Kubha in the Vedas or Kophes of the Greeks. This is an affluent of the river Indus and rises at the foot of Kohi Baba.

Kulūta: This region is situated in the Uttarāpatha or northern India. It is refers to the modern Kulu in the Kāṅgrā district in the upper valley of the Bias in the Punjab. Its old capital was at Nagarkot, while Sultānpur or Sthānpur is its present headquarters.

Kuśadvīpa: One of the seven Dvīpas of the world, which is surrounded by the Sarpis-samudra.

Kumārīpuram: [Kumārīpura] Cape Comorin, which also known as Kanyākumārī.

Kuntala: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara locates Kuntala in the southern part of India, where Sātavāhanas are mentioned as the rulers of this region. The tract of this region between the two rivers Godāvarī and Kṛṣṇā. However, sometimes a portion of Karnataka as also of Vidarbha is included in this region.

Laṅkā: Laṅkā seems to be identified in the most-southern parts of the Indian peninsula, as an island somewhere in the Indian Ocean. In the Rāmāyaṇa, Rājaśekhara’s Kāvyamīmāṃsā and Bālarāmāyaṇa, the description of this island does not favour its identification with Ceylon or Siṃhala. This island is situated on the western side of the peninsula beyond Travancore, while Siṃhala or Ceylon is on the eastern side of it.

Lāṭa: Southern Gujarat including Khāndeśa or the tract of territory situated between the river Māhī and the lower Narmadā.

Lauhitya: The River Brahmaputra.

Limpāka: Rājaśekhara in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā places this region in northern India. However some of the think this with the Lapo of Hiuen Thsang and Lambotoe of Ptolemy or the present Lamghan. This is a small tract of country lying along the northern bank of the Kābul river and bounded on the west and east by Ālingar and Kunar rivers and on the north by the snowy mountains.

Lohitagiri: One of the famous mountains of the eastern India. It is also represents the eastern range of the Himālayas through which the river Lauhitya or Brahmaputra flows.

Madhyadeśa: This region bounded by the river Sarasvatī in Kurukṣetra, Allahabad, the Himālayas and the Vindhyas.

Magadha: This is the province located in the Bihar or southern part of Bihar.

Mahārāṣṭra: In ancient times it was called by Daṇḍakāranya. It is the Mārāthā country or the country watered by the upper Godāvarī or the land lying between this river and the Kṛṣṇā.

Mahendra: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara mentions Mahendra in the mountains of south India. But Kālidāsa in his Raghuvaṃśa (IV. 39-40) says, Mahendra is situated in the Kaliṅga country. However Rājaśekhara includes Kaliṅga both in the group of eastern as well as southern countries. So it is probable that, Mahendragiri located near Ganjam was the northern boundary of the Kaliṅga country.

Mahī: The river Mahī which is springs in Mālavā region and fall into the gulf of Combay.

Māhiṣaka: It is one of the regions on lower Narmadā, which capital name Māhiṣmatī.

Māhiṣmatī: Maheśvara or Maheśa on the right bank of the Narmadā and forty miles to the south of Indore. According to Rājaśekhara from this city onwards to the south begins the Dakṣināpatha.

Mahodaya: Kanauj or Kānyakubja.

Māladā: A side part of the district of Śāhābād in Bihar. Rājaśekhara mentions it as a one eastern part of India.

Mālavā: Mālwā or Avantī, which capital was Ujjayini.

Mallavartaka: One of eastern region of India mentions by Rājaśekhara. It may be possible that the Mallavartaka represent the country in which Mallaparvata or Parsvanātha hills are situated. Now this part forming the districts of Hazaribag and Manbhum in the province of Bihar and Orissa.

Mālvā or malaya: The southern ranges of the Western Ghats, lying south of the river Kāveri.

Mālyaśikhara: It is a mountain in western India, which Rājaśekhara also accepted in his Kāvyamīmāṃsā Therefore, it cannot be identified with mount Malyavān supposed to be situated near Kiṣkiṇḍhā in south India. In the story of Rāmāyaṇa, Rāma stayed on this mountain during the rainy season. So it seems to different from Rājaśekhara’s Malyaśikara and the mount Malyavān of Rāmāyaṇa and its identification may be sought for in the Vindhya range as a peak near about the Mālavā country on the west.

Mañjara: Same as Pāla.

Māru: Rājaputanā or Marwar.

Mekala: It is the part of Vidhya range called Amarakantaka. From where the river Narmadā rises.

Merū: Mahāmerū or the mountain situated in the middle of the Jambudvīpa. It is encircled by the Ilāvrtavarṣa.

Mudgara: According to Rājaśekhara this region locates in the eastern India, which is identified with Monghyr in Bihar.

Murala: It is the region of southern India, which characterizes the complexion of the ladies of this country as black. Rājaśekhara does not identify it with Kerala, because Kerala is mentioned separately by him. Murala is a river in south India, which is different from the Narmadā. In the Raghuvaṃśa (IV. 53-55) Kālidāsa identified this river flowing near the Sahya mountain and the Aparantadeśa. The region lying between Kerala and Aparantaka near Sahya on the Murala, therefore be taken to be the present equivalent of the Murala country.

Nāgadvīpa: One of the nine parts of Bhāratavarṣa, which may be placed in the western part of India.

Narmada: Rājaśekhara mentions Narmadā amongst the river of south India. Which is rises from the Amarakaṇṭaka hills in the Vindhya Range and flows into the Gulf of Cambay.

Nāsikya: The part of south India, known by Nasik. Same as Pañcavaṭī.

Nepāla: It is modern Nepal. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara included it in the list of the mountains, which is the country of the eastern India.

Nīlagiri: It is one of the Varṣa Mountains of Jamūdvīpa or Asia. This mountain is identified with immediately to the north of the Mahāmeru.

Niṣādha: It is mentioned by the mountain in the Jambūdvīpa or Asia. This situated immediately to the south of the Mahameru. It is to be the principal mountain of the Harivarṣa and Himālayas may be called the principal mountain of the Bhāratavarṣa.

Orissā: The northern part of Kaliṅga region.

Pāla: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā the words Pāla and Mañjara occur in two places. These both places appear joined together and said to be the Janapadas as well as mountains situated in the Dakṣināpatha. Therefore, these two also be taken as one word and identified with Pāla near Mahad.

Pallava: This name denotes a dynasty which was ruled over the southern India from the fifth to ninth century A.D. with the capital of Kāñchi. The country surrounding Kāñci very probably was known as the Pallava country after its rulers. Because Rājaśekhara mentioned Kāñchi as a separate country in the southern India.

Pāncāla: The Pāñcāla region is located in the central India or Madhyadeśa, which is extended from the foot of Himālayas to the Jamuṇā and between Vināsana and Prayāga. This region is divided into north and south Pāñcāla with their respective capital Ahiccatra and Kampilya. These two portions of Pāñcāla are separated by the river Gaṅgā. To Rājaśekhara the Pāñcāla of Antavedi was highly civilized and their capital was at Kanauj, which comprises the whole of the northern and central India.

Pāṇḍya: The district of Tinnevelley and Madura in modern Madras presidency. In the Raghuvaṃśa (VI. 59-60), Kālidāsa mentions Uragapura as the capital of the Pandya king.

Pāriyātra: One of the Kulaparvatas in the Kumārīdvīpa, which may be identified with the north-western part of the Vindhya Range extending right unto the Gulf of Cambay.

Paścāddeśa: Western India. This comprises on Sindh, western Rajputana, Cutch, Gujarat and a portion of the adjoining coast on the lower course of the Narmada. There Devasabhā is mentioned as its eastern boundary.

Pāṭaliputra: Modern Patna, the capital of Magadha.

Payoṣṇi: A south Indian River, which may be identified with the Pūrṇā, a tributary to the river Tāpī.

Plakṣadvīpa: One of the seven dvīpas in the world. It is the first dvīpa from Jambū, which is situated in the middle of the earth.

Prāgjyotiṣa: Kāmarūpa or Kāmākhyā in the Assam state. In the Raghuvaṃśa of Kālidāsa Prāgjotiṣa and Kāmarūpa are define the same. To Rājaśekhara, Kāmarūpa as one of the mountain in the eastern part of India.

Prayaga: Allahabad, which is the eastern boundary of the Madhyadeśa or central India. It is bounded by the Himālayas, the Vindhyas and the Vināsana.

Pṛthūdaka: Pehoa in the Karnāl district of the Punjab on the river Sarasvatī. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara considered Pṛthūdaka as the region lying beyond the Uttarāpatha or the northern India. In modern Pehoa is on the northern side of the Sarasvatī river and is fourteen miles to the west of Thaneśvar.

Puṇḍra: Puṇḍravardhana, it is locates in the district of Māldā in East Bengal.

Pūrvadeśa: The region of Eastern India. It is lies to the east of Benares and includes with Assam and Burma.

Puṣakaradvīpa: It is one the seven Dvīpas in the world. Jambūdvīpa is situated in the middle place, while the Puṣkara is the third from Jambū.

Ramatha: In the Bālābhārata (1.7), Rājaśekhara posits this region in the northern India, which may be represents the country parts near the Raumaka Mountain. The Viṣṇu-Purāṇa also mentions Ramas along with the Huṇas, Salvas, Sakalas in the Northern India. These Ramas may belong to foreign tribes and identified with the people living at Aornos or the ruined fortress of Ranigat. So it may be possible that Rājaśekhara’s described Ramatha may represent the Rama tribe of the Viṣṇu-Purāṇa.

Ramyakavarṣa: It is the first varṣa to the north side of the Mahāmeru, which is situated in the middle of the Jambūdvīpa. In this varṣa, mount Nīla forms the principal mountain.

Ratnāvalī: A city on the southern ranges of the Malaya Mountain.

Rāvaṇagaṅga: In is the south Indian river to Rājaśekhara. However, it is difficult to identify this river but it was situated in Ceylon or the Laṅkā of Rāvana. The Rāvanahṛada situated in the Himālayas with an image of Rāvana on its bank seems. Though it is to be different from this Rāvanagaṅgā.

Ṛakṣaparvata: It is one of the Kulaparvatas of Kumārīdvīpa of India. This parvata (mountain) forms a part of the eastern range of the Vindhyas extending from the Bay of Bengal to the source of the Narmadā.

Sahuda: According to Rājaśekhara this region is the part of the north India, which representing western Afghanistan where the present Safadkoh and Sabzawar are situated.

Sahya: The northern part of Western Ghats, which is situated between the river Kāverī in the south side and the Godāvarī in the north.

Śaka: This is the Śakasthan, where the Śakas first settled after coming India. Sakala or Sialkot is situated in the Lahore and Punjab, which may be identified with this Śaka of Rājaśekhara. Sakala was the first made capital by Greek king Demetrius. Sakala was in ruins when Hiuen Thsang was on his travels in India. So it is possible that before Hiuen Thsang’s times several Hindu kings had attacked the Śakas and destroyed their capital at Sakala.

Śālmalidvīpa: This is one of the seven Dvīpas constituting the world. It is said to be surrounded by the ocean of Surā.

Sarasvatī: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara mentions two rivers of the same name Sarasvatī. One places in the northern India, while the other in the west. The first north Indian Sarasvatī River flows alongside. Thaneśvara, Pṛthudaka and disappears into the Sandy desert at Vināsana. The other western Indian Sarasvatī flows by Pattan in the Baroda territory and into the little Rann of cutch.

Sarayū: It is the river of united provinces. The Ayodhyā nagara (town) is situated on the bank of this river and it meets the Gaṅges near Chapra.

Śatadru: The River Sutlej.

Saumya: One of the nine parts of Bhāratavarṣa. It is seems to be a region situated in the North-west part of India.

Siṃhala: Ceylon, which is different from the Laṅkā.

Sindhu: The river Indus. According to Rājaśekhara it is situated in the Northern India.

Śiprā: A river on which Ujjyinī is situated.

Śoṇa: To Rājaśekhara, Śoṇa as a Nada in the eastern India. It is the same Sone which meets the Gaṅges near Pātnā.

Śrīparvata: Śrīparvata is a sacred spot, where have two temples, one is dedicated to Mallikārjuna Mahādeva and other to Bhramaramba Devi. Rājaśekhara identified this mountain in south India. Srisaila, which is situated near Kurnool and at a distance of fifty miles from the Kṛṣṇā station of the G.I.P Railways appears to be the same as Śrīparvata.

Śṛṅgavāḥ or śṛṅgavaṃ: [Śṛṅgava] It is the third mountain to the north of the Mahāmeru, which is situated in the middle of the Jambūdvīpa. It is the principal mountain of the continent Uttarākuruvarṣa.

Śuktimān: It is one of the Kulaparvatas of the Kumarīdvīpa or India. This part of the Vindhya Range connects the Pariyātra and the Rkṣāparvata.

Suṃaha: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara mentions Suṃha is one of the eastern countries. According to the Kālidāsa’s description on Raghuvaṃśa (IV. 35-38), this country is situated on the Coast of the Bay of Bengal near Vaṅga on the Gangetic delta. There he also posits the river Kapisa is to the south of this region. Therefore the river Kapisa is to be located in the land intermediate between Vaṅga and Utkala on the eastern Coast.

Sūrpāraka: According to Rājaśekhara, it is the region of south India. This is also identified with Śopārā in the district of Thānā, thirty seven miles north of Bombay (presently Mumbai) and four miles north-west of Bassein.

Surāṣṭra: Kaṭhiāwāḍ and other portion of northern most Gujarat.

Śūrasena: It is one of the countries in north India and mentions the king Kuvinda once ruled over Śūrasena, according to Rājaśekhara. Mathurā or Muthrā was the capital of the kingdom of Śūrasenas.

Śvabharavatī: It is the western Indian river, which identified with the river Sabarmatī in north Gujarat, flows into the Gulf of Cambay.

Śvetagiri: This is the second mountain to the north of the Mahāmeru, which is situated in the middle of Jambūdvīpa. It is regarded as the principal mountains of the continent know as Hiranmaya varṣa.

Takka: This region laying between two rivers the Vipāsā and the Sindhu. It was the country of Vāhikas. Sakala was the capital of the Takka-deśa, which included the Madra and Aratta countries. Kalhaṇa in his Rājataraṅginī locates this region on the banks of the Chenab or Candrabhāga. To Rājaśekhara, the people of this region used to talk in a language which had an admixture of Apabhraṃśa.

Tāmraliptaka: Modern Tamluk, which is situated on the western bank of the Rupanārāyaṇa in the district of Midnapur of West Bengal.

Tāmraparṇa: One of the nine parts of the Bhāratavarṣa, which is identified with Ceylon.

Tāmraparṇī: Tāmraparṇī is the river, which is rises from the Agastikuta on the Malaya hills and flows through the district of Tinnevelly in the Madras presidency.

Taṅgaṇa: It is the region in the Uttarāpatha.

Tāpī: Tāpī or Tāpatī is a river, which is rises from the Vindhyas and falls into the Arabian Sea near Surat.

Toṣala: This is identified with Dakṣinākośala, because Toṣala is mentioned in the Aśoka inscription at Dhauli. In Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara includes this region among the eastern countries of India.

Travaṇa: This part locates in the western India. Rājaśekhara noticed that the people of Surāṣṭra and Travana region could speak Sanskrit fluently with an Apabhraṃśa accent.

Tuṅgabhadrā: A tributary of the Kṛṣṇā River, Kiṣkiṇḍhā is situated on the banks of the river.

Turuṣka: Eastern Turkistan. Rājaśekhara mentioned it in the groups of countries included in the northern India.

Tuṣāra: It is the region of Northern India.

Tuṣāragiri: This is the peak of the Himālayas near Gangotrī. Rājaśekhara mentioned that at this place the son of Sarasvatī, Sārasvateya Kāvya-puruṣa married to the daughter of Gauri, Sāhity-vidhyā-vadhū.

Ujjayinī: Modern Ujjain, situated in Madhya Pradesh state.

Utkala: Modern Orissa, which is the northern part of the Kaliṅga country. The river Vaitaranī forms its northern boundary.

Utpalāvatī: A river in the Tinnevelly district in the southern India. It is runs parallel to the Tāmraparṇī.

Uttarākośala: The kingdom of Oudh, which had divided into two divisions: uttarakośala and Kośala. There Ayodhyā and Kusavatī were the capital of the two Kośalas respectively.

Uttarakuru: In the Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata, Tibet and eastern Turkistan were included in this Uttarakuru. The Purāṇas consider this to be a varṣa surrounding the varṣa-parvata Śṛṅgvan, which is the third mountain range from the Mahāmeru in the north. Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara also accepted this same view.

Uttarāpatha: The region to the north of Pṛthudaka [Pṛthūdaka?] (or Pehoa, in the Karnal district of Punjab on the river Sarasvatī) is called by the name Uttarapatha. Pṛthudaka is fourteen miles to the west of Thaneśvara.

Vāhīka: It is same as Vālhīka.

Vaidiśā: Vidiśā, which is Bhilsā in Mālwa in the kingdom of Bhopal on the river Betwa or Vetravatī, twenty-six miles to the north-east of Bhopal. It was the capital of ancient Dasarna and Agnīmitra ruled in this city as a Victory of his father Pusyamitra.

Valhava: One of the regions in the Northern-India. In the Kalhaṇa’s Rājataranginī identified it with the Vallapura (Ballawar) one of the hill states. It is the south-eastern direction of Kāśmir [Kashmir].

Vālhīka: In the Rāmāyaṇa, this region between Bias and Sutlej, north of Kekaya. According to the Mahābhārata (karna. Ch-44) Baihikas living in Balkh are foreigners who invaded into India. They had Sakala or Sialkot as their capital which was to the west of the Ravi. In the Kātyayaṇa derivation of this word from “vahis”. Bahikas were contemptuous in the public eye and were compared as cows. C.f. “vāhīko gauḥ”

Vallāra: The Vāllara country ruled by the Vallāla dynasty in south India seems to be called Vallāra. It is represent the country near Veṅkaṭagiri including Chittoor and Vellore in the Madras presidency.

Vāmanasvāmī: Is the temple of Vāmana, which is situated in the western part of the city of Kanauj.

Vānavāsaka: North Kanārā was known by this name. Vanavāsi was the capital of the Kadamba dynasty and was founded by the king Mayurvarman.

Vāṇāyuja: A country in the north, which is generally identified with Arabia. Ācārya Kauṭilya considers the horses of the country as best.

Vaṅga: Vaṅga is applied to the eastern part of the delta of the Ganges on the Coast of the Bay of Bengal.

Vañjurā: It is known by the name Bañjulā or Mañjulā, a tributary of the Godāvarī. The Sahyapada Mountain or Western Ghats is known as the source of the two rivers.

Vārāṇasī: Benaras, situated in state of Uttara-Pradesa.

Varṇā: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara described it is the river in south India, its source being the Sahya mountain. It is also identified either with the river Kṛṣṇā or Beṇā, which is the branch of the Kṛṣṇā or rises from the Western Ghats.

Vārtaghnī: In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara accepts Vārtaghnī as a river in the western India. This may identify with the river Vatrak a tributary of the Sabarmatī, where the two rivers meet near Kaira.

Varuṇa: One of the nine parts of Bhāratavarṣa. In the mentions of Purana’s as well as the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, some are inclined to surmise that Varuna was situated in the north eastern direction of India. Which may be represents an Indian colony in central Asia.

Vatsagulma: In the Karpūramañjarī (act. I), Rājaśekhar say Vatsagulma is a city in the country of Vidarbha. Which may identified with the name Vamsagulma in the Mahābhārata and from this place the river Narmadā rises. So it is possible that, it may be situated in the Vidarbha country. However, Vātsyāyaṇa in his Kāmasūtra mentions one Vatsagulmaka, which is different from this from the Vidarbha.

Veṇā: It is a tributary of the river Kṛṣṇā.

Vidarbha: It is the country which is comprised in the whole of Berar, Khandeśa and portion of the Nizam’s territory and central provinces in ancient times.

Videha: It is Tirhut or Tirabhukti.

Vinaśana: Vinaśana may be located in Sir-hind of Patiala state. It is the place where the Sarasvatī disappears in the desert after taking a westerly course from the Thānesvar.

Vindhya: Vindhyadakṣināpatha or the Vindhya Range or the Satpura hills between the Tāpī and Narmadā.

Vipāśā: The Bias or Beas, a tributary of Sutlej.

Viśāla: It is the city of Ujjain and the capital of Avantī.

Vitastā: The River Jhelum.

Vokkāṇa: According to Rājaśekhara it is one of the regions of the North India. This region Vokkāṇa may be representing to Wakkan Pamirs, which lies beyond the Hindukush and the Badaksan.

Yamunā: The River Jumnā.

Yavana: It is a country of western India by the concepts of Rājaśekhara. It is popularly well-known that the Yavanas were foreigners and they were originally living in countries beyond the Indus. It the Mālavikāgnimitra, Kālidāsa mentions, Yavanas were ruling in the western bank of the river Sindhu. Most possibly the south-eastern part of at Baluchistan may represent the Yavana country which is mention by Rājaśekhar.

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