Jada, Jaḍa: 30 definitions


Jada means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Jad.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Jaḍa (जड) refers to “idiot” (one who is devoid of intelligence). The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (also see the Manubhāṣya verse 7.149)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Jaḍa (जड).—An immoral brahmin. Jaḍa, who set out to do commercial business once was killed by thieves. As a result of sins committed in previous births he was turned into a Piśāca. After his death his son, who led quite a moral life went to Kāśī (Banares) to perform his father’s obsequies, and at the particular spot where his father was living as Piśāca the son recited Chapter 3 of the Gītā, on hearing which Jaḍa got released from his state as Piśāca. (Padma Purāṇa, Uttarakhaṇḍa and Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra

Jaḍa (जड) refers to “one who is a non-irrational”, representing an undesirable characteristic of an Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He should not be a Punarbhū, a Svayambhū, a widow’s bastard, or a non-believer, nor irrational (jaḍa), pale, bald or crippled or fat. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., jaḍa), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., jaḍa) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Jaḍa (जड) refers to “inert, dull”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Jaḍa (जड, “numb”) refers to one of the sixty defects of mantras, according to the 11th century Kulārṇava-tantra: an important scripture of the Kaula school of Śāktism traditionally stated to have consisted of 125.000 Sanskrit verses.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Śrī Devī: “For those who do japa without knowing these defects [e.g., jaḍa—numb], there is no realization even with millions and billions of japa. [...] Oh My Beloved! there are ten processes for eradicating defects in Mantras as described. [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Jaḍa (जड) refers to “one who is dull”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, while describing the signs of one who is not a Siddha: “He is excessively tall, bald, deformed, short, dwarfish, his nose is ugly or he has black teeth and is wrathful . Some of his limbs are missing and is deceitful, cripple and deformed, foolish, inauspicious, envious, deluded, badly behaved, and violent; without any teacher, he is devoid of the rites, he maligns the Krama without cause, he is not devoted to the Siddhas, he (always) suffers and is without wisdom. He is (always) ill and one should know that he is (always) attached (to worldly objects) and has no scripture. He has no energy and is dull [i.e., jaḍa] and lazy. Ugly, he lives by cheating and, cruel, he is deluded, and devoid of (any) sense of reality. Such is the characteristic of one who is not accomplished (asiddha) in a past life”.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Jaḍā (जडा) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Jaḍā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Jaḍā (जडा) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Jaḍā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (shaivism)

Jaḍa (जड) refers to the “lifeless” (universe), according to Abhinavagupta’s Tantrāloka verse 3.247-249 and 250cd-251ab.—Accordingly, “(This vibration is that) subtle movement which is the pulsing radiance (of self-luminous consciousness that shines as all things). [...] This (awareness) is the essence of all things for consciousness is the essence of the lifeless (jaḍa) universe because its very foundation depends upon it. Again, the essence of that is the Great Heart”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Jaḍa (जड) refers to “insentient” [?], according to Somānanda’s Śivadṛṣṭi verse 3.42cd–47.—Accordingly, “Given that he [i.e., Śiva] exists of his own volition in the form of (all) the entities (that make up the universe), how is existence dependent on another than himself? If, for example, you say it [i.e., the purported dependence] is one similar to (the example of curds, whose genesis depends on the) milk (of which they are comprised), it [i.e., the universe] would be insentient, dependent on another (jaḍaparādhīnaṃ jaḍaṃ bhavet). The fault (attributed to our system) that must be corrected—being pure, being diminished, or the like—is precisely the result of this (wrong) point of view. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Jaḍa (जड) refers to “being a stupid person”, according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Some have intellects which have become insensitive through reasoning and [philosophical] speculations, [and some] are elevated by [their] conceit and ego. Some are self-satisfied with pride, [rendered] stupid (jaḍa) by [their obsession with] caste, and [some] are confounded by activities such as meditation. Generally speaking, the multitudes of people have deluded minds and various [mental] disturbances, for, those who experience nothing but the bliss of the undisturbed, natural [no-mind] state, are not seen in the world. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Jainism

Jain philosophy

Source: archive.org: Anekanta Jaya Pataka of Haribhadra Suri

Jaḍa (जड) refers to “those persons who are dull in intelligence (but who are all the same open to correction)”, as used in the Anekāntajayapatākā-prakaraṇa, a Śvetāmbara Jain philosophical work written by Haribhadra Sūri.—[Cf. Vol. I, P. 1, l. 20]

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General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Jaḍa (जड) refers to “stupid (persons)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Companions are born only for this one to enjoy possessions but not to endure the pitiless succession of calamities arising from one’s own action. Why do the stupid (jaḍa), who are afflicted by the planet of [their] birth, not see solitariness which is perceived directly in the occurrence of birth and death?”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Jada in India is the name of a plant defined with Ricinus communis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Croton spinosus L. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Tropical Plant Science Research. New Delhi (1983)
· Species Plantarum
· Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames (1984)
· Cytologia (1980)
· Kew Bulletin (1984)
· Catalogus Plantarum Madagascariensium (1906)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Jada, for example side effects, diet and recipes, extract dosage, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jaḍa (जड).—a (S) Heavy. 2 fig. Dull, stupid, obtuse, sluggish, slow. 3 Cold, phlegmatic, apathetic. 4 Heavy of digestion. 5 Grievous, afflictive, mournful. 6 Difficult or arduous: also important or momentous--a work, an affair. Pr. kēlēṃ nāhīṃ taṃvara jaḍa khāllēṃ nāhīṃ taṃvara gōḍa. 7 Of dignity, influence, authority. 8 Costly; of high price or worth. 9 Profound, grave, abstruse--a treatise, discourse, subject. 10 Severe--a disease. 11 Languid, listless, lethargic. 12 Inanimate, inert, material. 13 Hard;--used of water, in opp. to halakā Soft or light. 14 In grammar. Double--a letter. 15 In philosophy. Solid;--opp. to fluid, aëriform, or gaseous: also as s n A solid body; or a material body. jaḍa dharaṇēṃ To hold or esteem highly. jaḍa vāṭaṇēṃ To feel heavy, hard, difficult, grievous, irksome &c. jaḍa sāṅgaṇēṃ To increase on; to become more and more serious--disease or a difficulty of which the remedy is procrastinated; to tell hearily in the end.

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jaḍa (जड).—f ( H) A root or a ramification.

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jaḍa (जड).—f (jaḍaṇēṃ) Stock, capital, property, heap. Ex. tyā sāvakārācī lākha rupayāñcī jaḍa āhē.

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jāḍa (जाड).—a Thick--a plank &c.: thick or coarse--cloth: thick, not dilute--liquids: stout, sturdy--the body. 2 (Used for jaḍa) Large and heavylooking--a load.

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jāḍā (जाडा).—a ( H) jāḍagā a Thick--a plank, post &c.: thick or coarse--cloth: stout, sturdy, robust--the body: deep, solid, substantial with sense, learning, talent &c.--a paṇḍita, kavi, kavitā, kalpanā, kōṭi, lēkha &c.

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jādā (जादा).—a ind ( A) More. The is ja.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jaḍa (जड).—a Heavy. Fig. Dull, stupid, slug gish, slow. Cold, apathetic. Heavy of digestion. Grievous, afflictive, mournful. Difficult or arduous: also important or momentous-a work, an affair. Of dignity, influence, autho- rity. Costly, of high price or worth. Profound, grave, abstruse-a treatise, subject. Severe-a disease. Languid, listless, lethargic. Inanimate, inert- material. Hard-used of water. jaḍa vāṭaṇēṃ To feel heavy, hard, grievous, irksome.

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jaḍa (जड).—f Stock, capital, property.

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jāḍā (जाडा).—a Thick, Coarse-cloth. Stout, sturdy-the body. Deep, solid, substantial with sense, learning, talent &c.-a paṇḍita, kavi, kalpanā, kōṭi.

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jādā (जादा).—a ind More.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jā़ḍa (जा़ड).—a Thick. Coarse-cloth. Stout. sturdy-the body.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jaḍa (जड).—a. [jalati ghanībhavati jal ac lasya ḍaḥ Tv.]

1) Cold, frigid, chilly; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.13; Uttararāmacarita 6.13.

2) Dull, paralysed, motionless, benumbed; चिन्ताजडं दर्शनम् (cintājaḍaṃ darśanam) Ś.4.5; Uttararāmacarita 3.41; 6.28;6.39; परामृशन् हर्षजडेन पाणिना (parāmṛśan harṣajaḍena pāṇinā) R.3.68;2.42.

3) Dull, senseless, stupid, irrational, dull-witted; जडा- नन्धान् पङ्गून (jaḍā- nandhān paṅgūna) ... त्रातुम् (trātum) G. L.15, so जडधी, जडमति (jaḍadhī, jaḍamati) &c. Y.2. 25; Manusmṛti 2.11; जडबुद्धिः, जडप्रकृतिः (jaḍabuddhiḥ, jaḍaprakṛtiḥ), Ratnāvalī 2 (between verses 12 and 13); also जडाशयः (jaḍāśayaḥ) Kathāsaritsāgara 6.58,132.

4) Dulled made senseless or apathetic, devoid of appreciation or taste; वेदाभ्यासजडः कथं नु विषयव्यावृत्त- कौतूहलः (vedābhyāsajaḍaḥ kathaṃ nu viṣayavyāvṛtta- kautūhalaḥ) V.1.9.

5) Stunning, benumbing, stupefying.

6) Dumb.

7) Unable to learn the Vedas (Dāyabhāga).

-ḍaḥ 1 Cold, frost, winter.

2) Idiocy, stupidity.

3) Dulness, apathy, sluggishness.

-ḍam 1 Water.

2) Lead.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Jaḍa (जड).—= Sanskrit jala, water: Lalitavistara 372.15 (all mss., both edd.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jaḍa (जड).— (probably for original jala, to which the [Grammarians.] give the same signification; [Latin] gĕlu gelidus: [Gothic.] kald; [Anglo-Saxon.] ceald; cf. jata), adj. 1. Cold, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 353. 2. Rigid, immoveable, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 6, 1. 3. Material, irrational, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 215, 22. 4. Dimmed, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 81. 5. Unfeeling, apathetic, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 7, 10. 6. Stupid, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 9, 8. 7. Dumb, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 110.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jaḍa (जड).—[adjective] cold, cool; apathetic, stupid, idiotic; [masculine] an idiot. — Abstr. [feminine], tva [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jaḍa (जड):—mf(ā)n. (cf. jaḍhu) cold, frigid, [Pañcatantra i, 12, 4; Kāvyādarśa ii, 34; Rājataraṅgiṇī iv, 41]

2) stiff, torpid, motionless, apathetic, senseless, stunned, paralysed, [Raghuvaṃśa iii, 68; Śakuntalā] etc.

3) stupid, dull, [Manu-smṛti viii, 394] (also a- [negative], [148]), [Yājñavalkya ii; Mahābhārata] (ifc. ‘too stupid for’, [ iii, 437]) etc.

4) void of life, inanimate, unintelligent, [Kapila’s Sāṃkhya-pravacana i, 146; vi, 5o; Nṛsiṃha-tāpanīya-upaniṣad; Vedāntasāra; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

5) dumb, [Manu-smṛti ii, 110; Suśruta]

6) ifc. stunning, stupefying, [Śakuntalā iv, 6]

7) m. ([gana] aśvādi) Name of Sumati (who simulated stupidity) cf. [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa x, 9]

8) cold, frost, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) idiocy, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) dulness, apathy, [Horace H. Wilson]

11) ‘inanimate’, lifeless, matter (opposed to cetana)

12) n. water (= jala), [Śārṅgadhara-paddhati] ([Subhāṣitāvali])

13) lead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Jaḍā (जडा):—[from jaḍa] f. Name of a plant (= jaṭā, Mucuna pruritus, Flacourtia cataphracta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Caraka vi, 2] (ifc. f(ā). ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jaḍa (जड):—[(ḍaḥ-ḍā-ḍaṃ) a.] Cold, frigid; stupid; dumb. m. Frost; idiocy. f. Cowach. n. Water; lead.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Jaḍa (जड) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Jaḍa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Jada in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Jaḍa (जड):—(nf) root; (a) inanimate, immovable, inert; idiot, stupid; -[cetana] the animate and the inanimate; —[jagata] the inanimate world; —[padārtha] matter; ~[buddhi/mati] idiot; stupid; ~[buddhitā] idiocy; ~[vāda]/~[vāditā] materialism; ~[vādī] a materialist; materialistic; —[ukhāḍanā] to root out, to strike at the root; to destroy completely; —[kāṭa kara tane ko pānī denā] to cut the root and water the leaves; —[kāṭanā/khodanā] to undermine, to eat into the vitals of; to inflict heavy damage; —[jamanā/pakaḍanā] to strike deep roots; to establish; to consolidate (oneself); -[peḍa/mūla se] root and branch; thoroughly; —[hilā denā] to cause a thorough shake-up, to shake the foundation (of).

2) Jada (जद) [Also spelled jad]:—(nf) striking range, range.

3) Jadā (जदा):——a suffix used to mean afflicted by (as [gamajadā, musībatajadā]).

4) Jāḍā (जाडा):—(nf) cold; winter; —[khānā] to be struck by cold; —[laganā] to feel cold.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Jaḍa (जड) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Jaḍa.

2) Jaḍa (जड) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Jaṭā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Jaḍa (ಜಡ):—

1) [adjective] lacking warmth or proper heat; cold; frigid.

2) [adjective] not inclined to act; being inactive; inert.

3) [adjective] without warmth of feeling; indifferent; unfeeling; dull.

4) [adjective] hard; rigid.

5) [adjective] having much weight; heavy; weighty.

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Jaḍa (ಜಡ):—

1) [noun] a matter having no power to move, act or resist; that which is characterised by inertia; an inert matter.

2) [noun] a heavy object.

3) [noun] the quality of being ignorant or inability to know or understand.

4) [noun] disinclination to work or lack of energy; indolence; sluggishness.

5) [noun] want of health of soundness of the body; sickness.

6) [noun] a man lacking ordinary quickness and keenness of mind; a slow-witted man; a stupid.

7) [noun] an inactive, indolent man; a lazy man.

8) [noun] a man lacking power of speech; a dumb fellow.

9) [noun] water.

10) [noun] a mountain.

11) [noun] a religious sacrifice.

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Jāḍa (ಜಾಡ):—

1) [noun] a person who weaves; esp. one whose profesion is weaving; a weaver.

2) [noun] any of an order (Araneae) of small, chiefly land arachnids having a body composed of a cephalothorax bearing the legs and an abdomen bearing two or more pairs of spinnerets that spin the silk threads from which are made nests, cocoons for the eggs or webs for trapping insects; a spider.

3) [noun] the net made by a spider.

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Jāḍa (ಜಾಡ):—[noun] = ಜಾಡೆ [jade].

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Jāḍa (ಜಾಡ):—[noun] a variety of horse.

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Jādā (ಜಾದಾ):—[adjective] great in amount, degree or number.

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Jādā (ಜಾದಾ):—[adverb] in great number, degree or amount.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of jada in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

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