by Narayana Gosvami | 2013 | 327,105 words
The Bhagavad-gita Verses 14.22-25, English translation, including the Vaishnava commentaries Sarartha-varsini-tika, Prakashika-vritti and Rasika-ranjana (excerpts). This is verse Verses 14.22-25 from the chapter 14 called “Guna-traya-vibhaga-yoga (Yoga through transcending the three modes of Material Nature)”
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of verses 14.22-25:
प्रकाशं च प्रवृत्तिं च मोहम् एव च पाण्डव ।
न द्वेष्टि संप्रवृत्तानि न निवृत्तानि काङ्क्षति ॥ २२ ॥
उदासीन-वद् आसीनो गुणैर् यो न विचाल्यते गुणा ।
वर्तन्त इत्य् एवं योऽवतिष्ठति नेङ्गते ॥ २३ ॥
सम-दुःख-सुखः स्व-स्थः सम-लोष्टाश्म-काञ्चनः ।
तुल्य-प्रियाप्रियो धीरस् तुल्य-निन्दात्म-संस्तुतिः ॥ २४ ॥
मानापमानयोस् तुल्यस् तुल्यो मित्रारि-पक्षयोः ।
सर्वारम्भ-परित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते ॥ २५ ॥
prakāśaṃ ca pravṛttiṃ ca moham eva ca pāṇḍava |
na dveṣṭi saṃpravṛttāni na nivṛttāni kāṅkṣati || 22 ||
udāsīna-vad āsīno guṇair yo na vicālyate guṇā |
vartanta ity evaṃ yo'vatiṣṭhati neṅgate || 23 ||
sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ sva-sthaḥ sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ |
tulya-priyāpriyo dhīras tulya-nindātma-saṃstutiḥ || 24 ||
mānāpamānayos tulyas tulyo mitrāri-pakṣayoḥ |
sarvārambha-parityāgī guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate || 25 ||
śrī bhagavān uvāca–the all-opulent Supreme Lord said; prakāśam–of illumination; ca–and; pravṛttim–activity; ca–and; moham–delusion; eva–certainly; ca–and; pāṇḍava–O son of Pāṇḍu; na dveṣṭi–does not hate; saṃpravṛttāni–the appearance; na–not; nivṛttāni–their disappearance; kāṅkṣati–he hankers; udāsīna-vat–as if neutral; āsīnaḥ–situated; guṇaiḥ–by the actions of the qualities of nature (such as happiness and distress); yaḥ–who; na vicālyate–is undisturbed; guṇāḥ–of the three qualities; vartante–following their cycles; iti–thus; evam–so; yaḥ–who; avatiṣṭhati–remains steady; na iṅgate–unmoved; sama–remains equipoised; duḥkha-sukhaḥ–in happiness and distress; sva-sthaḥ–who is situated in his svarūpa; sama–who considers equally; loṣṭa-aśma-kāñcanaḥ–dirt, stone and gold; tulya–who is equal; priya-apriyaḥ–amidst pleasant and unpleasant events; dhīraḥ–intelligent; tulya–equipoised; ninda-ātma-saṃstutiḥ–in hearing praise and defamation of himself; māna-apamānayoḥ–in honour and dishonour; tulyaḥ–equal; tulyaḥ–equal; mitra-ari-pakṣayoḥ–to parties of friends and enemies; sarva-ārambha-parityāgī–who renounces all endeavours (except those for bare bodily maintenance); guṇa-ātītaḥ–transcendental to the three modes of nature; saḥ–he; ucyate–is said.
Śrī Bhagavān said: O son of Pāṇḍu, a person who is transcendental to the three modes of material nature does not hate illumination, activity and delusion when they occur nor does he long for them to cease. Therefore, as if indifferent to and unmoved by the actions of the three modes such as happiness and misery, he knows that it is the modes alone that are active. He remains undisturbed and even-minded, he is always situated in his svarūpa, and he considers dirt, stone and gold to be the same. He maintains his equilibrium amidst pleasant and unpleasant circumstances, he is intelligent, and he is equipoised in both fame and defamation, honour and dishonour. He treats friend and foe equally, and he renounces all actions except those required to maintain the body.
Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Ṭīkā
“What symptoms indicate that one is guṇātīta, or transcendental to the three modes of material nature?” In response to this first question, Śrī Bhagavān says, “The effect of the mode of goodness is that knowledge illuminates all the senses of the body (14.11). The effect of the mode of passion is passionate action, and the effect of the mode of ignorance is delusion. These symptoms indicate the influence of the three modes. When the modes perform their appropriate functions, a person who is beyond the modes (guṇātīta) has no animosity toward the subsequent unhappiness that manifests. Similarly, when the modes are not acting, one who is guṇātīta does not desire them with a yearning to attain happiness. This verse (14.22) is related to 14.25. In response to the second question: kim ācāraḥ, “How do they behave?” Śrī Bhagavān speaks three verses beginning with the words udāsīna-vat. Those who are not disturbed by happiness and misery, which are the effects of the modes, always remain fixed in their constitutional svarūpa. They consider the modes to be working according to their respective functions and have no relationship with them. After careful deliberation, such wise persons remain silent. Those who do not endeavour for any bodily sense gratification are called guṇātīta. A person can only be called guṇātīta when all the symptoms of one who has transcended the modes are seen in his behaviour. But garrulous people who proclaim to have transcended the modes are not called guṇātīta.
Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti
Upon hearing Arjuna’s three questions, Śrī Bhagavān first explains the symptoms of a person who is beyond the modes (guṇātīta). The function of the mode of goodness is to illuminate; the function of the mode of the mode of passion is to engage in passionate action; and the function of the mode of of mode of ignorance, is to bewilder. A person is said to be beyond the three modes when he is not averse to them while they are engaged in their respective functions, because he sees them as a cause of misery. Nor does he hanker for pleasure from them when their functions cease. What is his conduct like? In response to this question, Śrī Bhagavān says that a person who is beyond the modes does not become disturbed in times of happiness or trouble, but remains indifferently situated. He is equally disposed to worldly happiness and misery, heat and cold, loss and gain, victory and defeat. Remaining neutral, he understands that these things have no relationship with the soul (ātmā). With this conception, he remains exclusively busy with the progressive development of his ātmā and is not the least concerned about bodily activities.
Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says, “After hearing Arjuna’s three questions, Śrī Bhagavān says, ‘Your first question is “What are the symptoms of a person who has transcended the modes?” The answer is freedom from envy and desire. As long as one is a conditioned soul situated in this material world, he is under the influence of the modes of material nature: goodness, passion and ignorance. These three modes are only destroyed when one attains complete liberation. But until, by the will of Bhagavān, one has attained liberation in the form of the destruction of the subtle body, one should know that the process to become transcendental (nirguṇa) is to give up envy and desire. As long as one has a body, there will certainly be illumination, action and delusion (the functions of sattva-, rajo-and tamo-guṇa), but one should not yearn for them, nor should one try to renounce them out of aversion. Those in whom these two symptoms are visible are called nirguṇa. Those who, due to the persistence of a certain selfish motive, engage in materialistic activities with effort, or who practise forced renunciation, considering this material world to be illusory, are not nirguṇa.
“‘Your second question is “What is the conduct of a person who is beyond the modes (guṇātīta)?” His conduct is as follows: He thinks, “The modes themselves are working within this body.” He lets the modes perform their work and does not become implicated in them. He remains separate from them, being an indifferent person who is nonetheless conscious. Misery, happiness, a clod of earth, stone, gold, favourable or unfavourable situations, criticism or glorification, appear as a result of his bodily activities, but, being situated in his own self, or constitutional position, he regards all of them with equal vision and treats them equally,. In his worldly dealings he thinks, “As a conscious entity, I have no relationship with honour and dishonour and the behaviour of enemies and friends.” Having given up all feelings of attachment and renunciation, he may be called guṇātīta.’”