Nigama: 27 definitions


Nigama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

The term Nigama (निगम) is synonymous with veda, and is found to be used as such. The term nigama is also found to be used as a name for that subsidiary science which explains the meaning of vedic texts,—i.e. in such statements as “Nigama Nirukta and Vyākaraṇa are the subsidiary sciences”. In the Nirukta also in found the expression—“These are nigamas”; and the term nigama here cannot be taken as standing for anything else but ‘Vedic texts’, as is dear from the examples cited. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 9.19)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Nigama (निगम).—A statement in the Vedic passage; a Vedic passage; sacred tradition or Vedic Literature in general; cf. the frequent expression इत्यपि निगमो भवति (ityapi nigamo bhavati) where निगम (nigama) means 'a vedic word, given as an instance'; if also means 'Veda'; cf. निगम एव यथा स्यात् । (nigama eva yathā syāt |) M. Bh. on VII. 2. 64. Durgacarya says that the word it also used in the sense of 'meaning';cf. तत्र खले इत्येतस्य निगमा भवन्ति (tatra khale ityetasya nigamā bhavanti) Nir. III.9. Durgacarya has also explained the word as गमयन्ति मन्त्रार्थान् ज्ञापयन्ति इति निगमाः (gamayanti mantrārthān jñāpayanti iti nigamāḥ), those that make the hidden meaning of the Mantras very clear.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Nigama (निगम) refers to:—Vedic texts. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (vaishnavism)

Nigama (निगम) refers to “Vedas”, according to the Vedānta Deśika’s Yatirājasaptati.—When we come to the poem’s understanding of the divinity of Rāmānuja we find a wide spectrum of meanings. [...] Verse 28 is particularly eloquent in describing and encapsulating all his nurturing and protecting qualities, which are compared to those present everywhere in nature itself—as the mountain from which originate all the streams of knowledge, the tree under which the weary traveler wandering in saṃsāra takes rest, the rising sun that keeps the illusionary darkness of those with distorted views at bay and the full moon that brings to high tide the ocean of the Vedas (nigama-jaladhi).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Nigama (निगम) refers to “studying the Vedas”, according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Putting on ochre garments, carrying a skull, plucking out clumps of hair, maintaining non-vedic religious observances, ashes, ascetic clothing and matted locks, behaving as if mad, [the ascetic practice of] nakedness, [studying] the Vedas, Tantras (nigama-āgama) and so on and the meeting [of learned people] for [reciting] poetry in the assembly: All [this] is exertion for the sake of filling one's stomach and is not the cause of the highest good. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Nigama (निगम) refers to “villages”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 8).—Accordingly, “[Question: How does the Bodhisattva fulfill the virtue of wisdom (prajñāpāramitā)?]—[Answer]—When his great mind reflects and analyses. Thus the Brahmin Govinda, the great minister (mahāmātya), divided the great earth (mahāpṛthivī) of Jambudvīpa into seven parts; he also divided into seven parts a determined number of large and small cities (nagara), of villages (nigama) and hamlets (antarāpaṇa). Such is the avirtue of wisdom”.

2) Nigama (निगम) refers to a “den” (of thieves), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 21).—Accordingly, “The immoral person is not respected (satkṛta) by people; his house is like a cemetery into which people do not go; he loses all his virtues like a rotten tree that people despise; [...] he is like bad grain, having the outer appearance of good seed but which is inedible; he is like a den of thieves (caura-nigama) where it is not good to stop; he is like a great sickness which no one dares to approach; he does not succeed in avoiding suffering; he is like a bad path difficult to travel on; he is dangerous to visit like an evil thief whom it is difficult to befriend; he is like a big ditch that people who walk avoid; he is bad company like a poisonous snake; [...] Even though he is called Bhikṣu because he has a shaved head, the yellow robe and presents his ‘ticket’ in the proper order, in reality he is not a Bhikṣu”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Nigama (निगम) refers to “market-towns”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Save for those who were sitting in the pavilion in the sky, the rest of them in the great three-thousand of worlds, staying on the surface of the earth, as far as its foundations, thought that they disappeared. The king of the mountain (parvatarāja), Mount Sumeru, Mount Cakravāḍa, and Mount Mahācakravāḍa disappeared from the sight of living beings. Villages, towns, market-towns (nigama), royal cities, capitals disappeared as well. However, with the lion’s throne (simhāsana) of the Lord it was another matter, they perceived it as shining ten thousand yojanas high as placed in these pavilions placed in the vault of the sky”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Nigama (निगम) is mentioned as a synonym for “town” or “city” according to the Amarakośa 2.2.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nigama : (m.) a market town.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nigama, (Sk. nigama, fr. nigacchati=a meeting-place or market, cp. E. moot-hall=market hall) a small town, market town (opp. janapada); often combined with gāma (see gāma 2) Vin. I, 110 (°sīma), 188 (°kathā), 197 (Setakaṇṇika°); D. I, 7 (°kathā), 101 (°sāmanta), 193, 237; M. I, 429, 488; Pv. II, 1318; J. VI, 330; PvA. 111 (Asitañjana°, v. l. BB nagara). Cp. negama. (Page 354)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nigama (निगम).—m (S) A common term for the four Vedas as incomprehensible or inscrutable. 2 In this sense, God. 3 End, result, issue.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nigama (निगम).—m End, result, issue.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—The Veda or Vedic text; साढ्यै साढ्वा साढेति निगमे (sāḍhyai sāḍhvā sāḍheti nigame) P.VI.3.113; VII.2.64; निगमकल्पतरोर्गलितं फलम् (nigamakalpatarorgalitaṃ phalam) Bhāgavata 1.1.3; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.4; निगमशब्दो वेदवाची (nigamaśabdo vedavācī) Sāyaṇa Bhāṣya.

2) Any passage or word quoted from the Vedas, a Vedic sentence; तथापि च निगमो भवति (tathāpi ca nigamo bhavati) (often found in Nirukta).

3) A work auxiliary to, and explanatory of the Vedas; नित्यं शास्त्राण्यवेक्षेत निगमांश्चैव वैदिकान (nityaṃ śāstrāṇyavekṣeta nigamāṃścaiva vaidikāna) Manusmṛti 4.19. and Kull. thereon.

4) A sacred precept, the words of a god or holy man.

5) A root (as the source of a word).

6) Certainty, assurance.

7) Logic or science of ethics; सर्वे च येऽन्ये धृतराष्ट्रपुत्रा बलप्रधाना निगमप्रधानाः (sarve ca ye'nye dhṛtarāṣṭraputrā balapradhānā nigamapradhānāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.2.6.

8) Trade, traffic.

9) A market, fair.

1) A caravan of wandering merchants; Rām.2.15.2.

11) A road, market-road.

12) A city.

13) Insertion of the name of a deity into a liturgical formula.

14) Resolution; स्वनिगममपहाय मत्प्रतिज्ञाम् (svanigamamapahāya matpratijñām) Bhāgavata 1.9.37.

15) Precept, advice; इमं स्वनिगमं ब्रह्मन्नवेत्य मदनुष्ठितम् (imaṃ svanigamaṃ brahmannavetya madanuṣṭhitam) Bhāgavata 1.5.39.

16) Obtainment (prāpti); पन्था मन्निगमः स्मृतः (panthā mannigamaḥ smṛtaḥ) Bhāgavata 11.19.42.

Derivable forms: nigamaḥ (निगमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—nt., a high number: Gaṇḍavyūha 134.1; Mahāvyutpatti 7919, cited from Gaṇḍavyūha; = Tibetan dpag bral. Equivalent to vigama, q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. A town, a city. 2. A market, a fair. 2. Holywrit, the Vedas collectively. 4. A road, a market road. 5. Trade, traffic. 6. A camp or caravan of itinerent dealers, as Bazaris, &c. 7. Certainty, assurance. 8. Logic. E. ni affirmative prefix, gama to go, affix ghañ by which people go, &c. nigamyate atra anena vā ni + gama-ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—[ni-gam + a], m. 1. Holy writ, the Vedas, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 19. 2. A passage (of the Vedas), Chr. 9, 45. 3. A precept, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 5, 39. 4. A merehant, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 125, 10 Gorr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—[masculine] insertion ([ritual or religion]); source, root, etymon ([grammar]); sacred text or precept; lesson, rule i.[grammar]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Nigama (निगम) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—the fourteenth Pariśiṣṭa of Kātyāyana. W. p. 54. Oxf. 387^a. L. 1800. Ben. 5. Np. V, 64. 146. Quoted by Hemādri.

2) Nigama (निगम):—the fourteenth Pariśiṣṭa of Kātyāyana. Stein 164 (inc.).

3) Nigama (निगम):—the 14th Pariśiṣṭa of Kātyāyana. Ulwar 154. 192.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nigama (निगम):—[=ni-gama] [from ni-gam] m. insertion ([especially] of the name of a deity into a liturgical formula), [???]

2) [v.s. ...] the place or passage ([especially] of the Vedas) where a word occurs or the actual word quoted from such a passage, [Nirukta, by Yāska]

3) [v.s. ...] the root (as the source from which a word comes; hence ifc. ‘derived from’), [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] the Veda or the Vedic text, [Harivaṃśa; Pāṇini; Purāṇa] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] any work auxiliary to and explanatory of the Vedas, [Manu-smṛti iv, 19] ([Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti])

6) [v.s. ...] a sacred precept, the words of a god or holy man, [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] doctrine, instruction in, art of ([compound]), [Bālarāmāyaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] certainty, assurance, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] trade, traffic, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] a town, city, market-place, [Āpastamba; Caraka; Lalita-vistara]

11) [v.s. ...] a road, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a caravan or company of merchants (ifc. f(ā). ), [Rāmāyaṇa; Daśakumāra-carita]

13) [v.s. ...] = pariśiṣṭa, [Catalogue(s)]

14) [v.s. ...] n. a [particular] number, [Buddhist literature]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigama (निगम):—[ni-gama] (maḥ) 1. m. A town; a market; holy writ; a road; trade; a caravan; certainty.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Nigama (निगम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇigama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nigama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nigama (निगम) [Also spelled nigam]:—(nm) the Vedas or any portion thereof; a corporation.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Ṇigama (णिगम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Nigama.

2) Ṇigāma (णिगाम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Nikāma.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nigama (ನಿಗಮ):—

1) [noun] the veda or vedic text.

2) [noun] the words or passage quoted from the vedas.

3) [noun] a work that auxiliary to or explanatory of the vedas.

4) [noun] the fact of being certain; certainty.

5) [noun] the science of correct reasoning; logic.

6) [noun] the buying and selling of commodities commercial dealings; trade.

7) [noun] a market place.

8) [noun] a merchant or caravan of merchants.

9) [noun] a road; a path.

10) [noun] a city.

11) [noun] insertion of the name of a deity into a liturgical formula.

12) [noun] an avowed oath.

13) [noun] the act, fact or an instance of getting, having.

14) [noun] a corporate body, which exists as a legal entity independent of the person or persons who established or running it; a corporation.

15) [noun] the science or art of versification dealing with the study of metrical structure, stanza forms etc.; prosody.

16) [noun] (gram.) the root or base of a word having no inflections.

17) [noun] (logic) the act or process of deducing; reasoning from the general to the specific or from premises to a logically valid conclusion; deduction.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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