Nigama: 19 definitions



Nigama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

The term Nigama (निगम) is synonymous with veda, and is found to be used as such. The term nigama is also found to be used as a name for that subsidiary science which explains the meaning of vedic texts,—i.e. in such statements as “Nigama Nirukta and Vyākaraṇa are the subsidiary sciences”. In the Nirukta also in found the expression—“These are nigamas”; and the term nigama here cannot be taken as standing for anything else but ‘Vedic texts’, as is dear from the examples cited. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 9.19)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Nigama (निगम).—A statement in the Vedic passage; a Vedic passage; sacred tradition or Vedic Literature in general; cf. the frequent expression इत्यपि निगमो भवति (ityapi nigamo bhavati) where निगम (nigama) means 'a vedic word, given as an instance'; if also means 'Veda'; cf. निगम एव यथा स्यात् । (nigama eva yathā syāt |) M. Bh. on VII. 2. 64. Durgacarya says that the word it also used in the sense of 'meaning';cf. तत्र खले इत्येतस्य निगमा भवन्ति (tatra khale ityetasya nigamā bhavanti) Nir. III.9. Durgacarya has also explained the word as गमयन्ति मन्त्रार्थान् ज्ञापयन्ति इति निगमाः (gamayanti mantrārthān jñāpayanti iti nigamāḥ), those that make the hidden meaning of the Mantras very clear.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Nigama (निगम) refers to:—Vedic texts. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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India history and geography

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Nigama (निगम) is mentioned as a synonym for “town” or “city” according to the Amarakośa 2.2.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nigama : (m.) a market town.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nigama, (Sk. nigama, fr. nigacchati=a meeting-place or market, cp. E. moot-hall=market hall) a small town, market town (opp. janapada); often combined with gāma (see gāma 2) Vin. I, 110 (°sīma), 188 (°kathā), 197 (Setakaṇṇika°); D. I, 7 (°kathā), 101 (°sāmanta), 193, 237; M. I, 429, 488; Pv. II, 1318; J. VI, 330; PvA. 111 (Asitañjana°, v. l. BB nagara). Cp. negama. (Page 354)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nigama (निगम).—m (S) A common term for the four Vedas as incomprehensible or inscrutable. 2 In this sense, God. 3 End, result, issue.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nigama (निगम).—m End, result, issue.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—The Veda or Vedic text; साढ्यै साढ्वा साढेति निगमे (sāḍhyai sāḍhvā sāḍheti nigame) P.VI.3.113; VII.2.64; निगमकल्पतरोर्गलितं फलम् (nigamakalpatarorgalitaṃ phalam) Bhāg.1.1.3; Māl.9.4; निगमशब्दो वेदवाची (nigamaśabdo vedavācī) Sāyaṇa Bhāṣya.

2) Any passage or word quoted from the Vedas, a Vedic sentence; तथापि च निगमो भवति (tathāpi ca nigamo bhavati) (often found in Nirukta).

3) A work auxiliary to, and explanatory of the Vedas; नित्यं शास्त्राण्यवेक्षेत निगमांश्चैव वैदिकान (nityaṃ śāstrāṇyavekṣeta nigamāṃścaiva vaidikāna) Ms.4.19. and Kull. thereon.

4) A sacred precept, the words of a god or holy man.

5) A root (as the source of a word).

6) Certainty, assurance.

7) Logic or science of ethics; सर्वे च येऽन्ये धृतराष्ट्रपुत्रा बलप्रधाना निगमप्रधानाः (sarve ca ye'nye dhṛtarāṣṭraputrā balapradhānā nigamapradhānāḥ) Mb.5.2.6.

8) Trade, traffic.

9) A market, fair.

1) A caravan of wandering merchants; Rām.2.15.2.

11) A road, market-road.

12) A city.

13) Insertion of the name of a deity into a liturgical formula.

14) Resolution; स्वनिगममपहाय मत्प्रतिज्ञाम् (svanigamamapahāya matpratijñām) Bhāg.1.9.37.

15) Precept, advice; इमं स्वनिगमं ब्रह्मन्नवेत्य मदनुष्ठितम् (imaṃ svanigamaṃ brahmannavetya madanuṣṭhitam) Bhāg.1.5.39.

16) Obtainment (prāpti); पन्था मन्निगमः स्मृतः (panthā mannigamaḥ smṛtaḥ) Bhāg.11.19.42.

Derivable forms: nigamaḥ (निगमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—nt., a high number: Gaṇḍavyūha 134.1; Mahāvyutpatti 7919, cited from Gaṇḍavyūha; = Tibetan dpag bral. Equivalent to vigama, q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. A town, a city. 2. A market, a fair. 2. Holywrit, the Vedas collectively. 4. A road, a market road. 5. Trade, traffic. 6. A camp or caravan of itinerent dealers, as Bazaris, &c. 7. Certainty, assurance. 8. Logic. E. ni affirmative prefix, gama to go, affix ghañ by which people go, &c. nigamyate atra anena vā ni + gama-ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—[ni-gam + a], m. 1. Holy writ, the Vedas, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 19. 2. A passage (of the Vedas), Chr. 9, 45. 3. A precept, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 5, 39. 4. A merehant, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 125, 10 Gorr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigama (निगम).—[masculine] insertion ([ritual or religion]); source, root, etymon ([grammar]); sacred text or precept; lesson, rule i.[grammar]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Nigama (निगम) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—the fourteenth Pariśiṣṭa of Kātyāyana. W. p. 54. Oxf. 387^a. L. 1800. Ben. 5. Np. V, 64. 146. Quoted by Hemādri.

2) Nigama (निगम):—the fourteenth Pariśiṣṭa of Kātyāyana. Stein 164 (inc.).

3) Nigama (निगम):—the 14th Pariśiṣṭa of Kātyāyana. Ulwar 154. 192.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nigama (निगम):—[=ni-gama] [from ni-gam] m. insertion ([especially] of the name of a deity into a liturgical formula), [???]

2) [v.s. ...] the place or passage ([especially] of the Vedas) where a word occurs or the actual word quoted from such a passage, [Nirukta, by Yāska]

3) [v.s. ...] the root (as the source from which a word comes; hence ifc. ‘derived from’), [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] the Veda or the Vedic text, [Harivaṃśa; Pāṇini; Purāṇa] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] any work auxiliary to and explanatory of the Vedas, [Manu-smṛti iv, 19] ([Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti])

6) [v.s. ...] a sacred precept, the words of a god or holy man, [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] doctrine, instruction in, art of ([compound]), [Bālarāmāyaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] certainty, assurance, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] trade, traffic, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] a town, city, market-place, [Āpastamba; Caraka; Lalita-vistara]

11) [v.s. ...] a road, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a caravan or company of merchants (ifc. f(ā). ), [Rāmāyaṇa; Daśakumāra-carita]

13) [v.s. ...] = pariśiṣṭa, [Catalogue(s)]

14) [v.s. ...] n. a [particular] number, [Buddhist literature]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nigama (निगम):—[ni-gama] (maḥ) 1. m. A town; a market; holy writ; a road; trade; a caravan; certainty.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Nigama (निगम):—(von gam mit ni) m. [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 3, 119.]

1) Einfügung, insbes. der betreffenden Götternamen in eine liturgische Formel, [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 5, 12. 17.] [morgenländischen Gesellschaft 9, LXXVI.] devatānāmadheyaṃ copāṃśu nigamasthāneṣu [Śāṅkhāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 1, 1, 37.] ijyamānā devatā nigacchanti tasmānnigamasthānāni [16, 10. 9. 9, 23, 13.] [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 3, 5. 5, 3.] —

2) Belegstelle (die Stelle, in die sich ein Wort einfügt, in der es auftritt) [Yāska’s Nirukta 1, 1. 5, 5. 8, 2.] —

3) die Wurzel, insofern auf dieselbe ein Wort zurückgeführt wird, das Etymon eines Wortes [Yāska’s Nirukta 5, 3.] piparti papuririti pṛṇātinigamau vā priṇātinigamau vā 24. —

4) vedischer Text, die heilige Schrift [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 22, 142.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 116.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 467.] [Medinīkoṣa Manu’s Gesetzbuch 45.] [Halāyudha 5, 10.] nigame [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 6, 3, 113. 4, 9. 7, 2, 64. 3, 81. 4, 74.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 1, 3. 7, 6, 26.] nigamāṃśca vaidikān ([Kullūka]: vedārthāvabodhakānnigamākhyāṃśca granthān) [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 19.] tathā ca śrutayo bahvyo nigītā nigameṣvapi [9, 19.] sarvāṇi smṛtiśāstrāṇi gāthāśca nigamāstathā [Harivaṃśa 14078.] nigamaniruktaṣaḍaṅgagranthāḥ [NYĀYAMĀLAV.] bei [MUIR, Sanskrit Texts II, 190.] ṣaḍaṅganigamādhyetṛdvijaiḥ [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 877.] jña [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 5, 74.] — nigamāḥ, nigamapariśiṣṭa zum Yajurveda gehörig [MÜLLER, SL. 254. 256.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 269.] —

5) heilige Verordnung, - Vorschrift, der Ausspruch eines Gottes, eines Heiligen: sarve ca ye nye dhṛtarāṣṭraputrā balapradhānā nigama pradhānāḥ [Mahābhārata 5, 32.] imaṃ svanigamaṃ brahmannavetya madanuṣṭhitam [Bhāgavatapurāṇa.1,5,39.9,37.2,7,36. 37.6,5,30.7,10,26.9,24,65.] [ŚIVA-Pāṇini’s acht Bücher] in [Oxforder Handschriften 63,b,24.] = niścaya Entscheidung, Beschluss [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] —

6) Stadt [Amarakoṣa 2, 2, 1.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 972.] [Halāyudha 2, 130.] [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 130.] noch ein Mal so klein als ein pattana [Vācaspati] zu [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 972.] grāmanagaranigamajanapadarāṣṭrarājadhānīṣu [SADDH. Pāṇini’s acht Bücher.4,9,b.] —

7) Weg [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 983.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Halāyudha 2, 105.] —

8) Handelsmann [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] sayodhaśreṇinigamaḥ sopādhyāyapurohitaḥ sarvaḥ prarudito janaḥ [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 2, 123, 5.] saṃmūḍhanigamāṃ sarvāṃ saṃkṣiptavipaṇāpaṇām (purīm) [125, 10.] = baṇikpatha [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 23, 142.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] Nach [Śabdakalpadruma] ist dieses Wort = haṭṭa Markt, nach [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] bedeutet es Handel (vgl. [KĀM. NĪTIS. 5, 78]); der pl. in der Bed. Handelsleute erscheint [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 8, 11, 25.] Diese letztere Bed. kann das Wort in [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] und [Medinīkoṣa] nicht haben, da baṇij und bāṇija daneben erwähnt werden. naigama Handelsmann führt auch auf die Bed. Handel. nigama = kaṭa [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 298.] [Medinīkoṣa] Handelskarawane [Wilson’s Wörterbuch]; vgl. baṇikkaṭaka unter kaṭaka 5. —

9) = luṇḍī [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 298.] —

10) eine best. Zahl, n. [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 182.] — Vgl. naigama .

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Nigama (निगम):—

4) arthanirṇayo vyākaraṇena nigamena niruktena vā na labhyate [SARVADARŚANAS. 125, 9. Z. 6] lies [NYĀYAMĀLĀV.] —

5) [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 10, 23, 29. 83, 4. 11, 27, 8.] —

8) vṛddhāḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 7, 37, 21.] Kaufmannsgesellschaft: mahati nigame naigamānām [Daśakumāracarita 135, 10.] An allen Stellen des R. kann das Wort die Bed. Kaufmannschaft haben. —

11) Titel eines Pariśiṣṭa des Kātyāyana [Oxforder Handschriften 387,a,8.]

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Nigama (निगम):—

6) nagaraṃ vā nigamaṃ vā grāmaṃ vā goṣṭhaṃ vāgāraṃ vā [SĀMAVIDH. BR. 2, 4, 2.] grāmanagaranigamajanapada [CARAKA 2, 6.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Nigama (निगम):——

1) m. — a) Einfügung , insbes. der betreffenden Götternamen in eine liturgische Formel. — b) Belegstelle. — c) die Wurzel , insofern auf die selbe ein Wort zurückgeführt wird , das Etymon eines Wortes. Nur am Ende eines adj. Comp. so v.a. stammend von , zurückzuführen auf. — d) vedischer Text , die heilige Schrift. — e) eine heilige Verordnung , — Vorschrift , der Ausspruch eines Gottes , — eines Heiligen ; Lehre überh. cāpa [Bālarāmāyaṇa 78,24.] — f) eine Art Stadt , Marktplatz , -flecken [Āpastamba’s Dharmasūtra] [Carakasaṃhitā 3,3.] [Lalitavistarapurāṇa 571,19.] catuṣpatha neben gramacatuṣpatha und nagaracatuṣpatha [Mānavagṛhyasūtra 2,14.] — g) *Weg. — h) Kaufmannschaft , auch wohl Bürgerschaft überh. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. — i) Pl. = pariśiṣṭa. —

2) *n. eine best. Zahl (buddh.).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nigama (निगम) [Also spelled nigam]:—(nm) the Vedas or any portion thereof; a corporation.

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