Ama, Āma, Amā: 18 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Ama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Āma (आम) is a Sanskrit technical term, translating to an “unripe” fruit. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Āma (आम):—The concept of āma is quite peculiar to Āyurveda. Āma is immature Rasa caused by diminished agni prone to produce pathological syndromes. It is, in fact, endotoxin produced by incomplete digestion or transformation of edibles or metabolites due to diminished agni at respective levels. Āma associates in the process of pathogenesis (saṃprāpti) by combining with doṣa and dūṣya and exhibits its characteristic symptoms.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

1) Āma (आम) (cf. āmapīnasa) refers to “indigestion”, as mentioned in verse 5.17 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] hot (water is) promotive (and) causative of digestion, conducive to the throat, light (on the stomach, and) purgative of the bladder; it is commended for hiccup, inflation, wind, phlegm, a recently purged (man), new fever, cough, indigestion [viz., āma], catarrh, dyspnea, and pain in the costal region”.

Note: Āma (“rawness, indigestion”) has been omitted and the following pīnasa (“catarrh”) represented by cham sar (“new, raw, catarrh”). From this it would appear that the Tibetans, on the strength of Candranandana’s commentary, took āmapīnasa for one term—a possibility also conceded by Aruṇadatta: [...].

2) Āma (आम) also refers to “raw milk”, as mentioned in verse 5.28-29.—Accordingly, “[...] among the (different kinds of milk [viz., payas]), [...] raw [viz., āma] milk (is) causative of effluxions (and) heavy, properly boiled one different from this; very heavy is (milk that has been) excessively boiled; (that which is still) warm from milking (is) nectar-like”.

Source: Hand book of domestic medicine: Basic principles of Āyurveda

Āma has been defined as

1) Undigested or semi-digested food.

2) Mala-Sañcaya (the accumulation of excretions).

3) First vitiation of Doṣa.

Generally, it is produced by diminished power of digestive juices (Mandāgni), but it may also form at other levels of the Agni i.e. Bhūtāgni and Dhātvagni. In short, Āma may be produced at any level of digestion and metabolism. It is also a frequent cause of the diseases. Great stress has been laid in Āyurveda on correction of the digestion.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Āma (आम) refers to “undigested food particle” (immature rasadhātu), and is dealt with in the 10th century Yogaśataka (stanza 102) written by Pandita Vararuci.—It has been told that “only after examining hetu (causative factors) and lakṣaṇa (sign and symptoms) of disease thoroughly, treatment should be prescribed. And any kind of drug or treatment can cure the disease if it is applied in nirāma (devoid of Āma) condition”. Thus author [Vararuci] gave more importance to Āma than drugs.

Decoction of śuṇṭhi, mustā, ativiṣā and guḍūcī is indicated for mandāgni (low digestive power), āmavāta, grahaṇī (sprue) and diseases caused by āma. It is also known as cāturbhadra decoction in Śārṅgadhara-saṃhitā. The famous phalatrikādi decoction which is available in Caraka-saṃhitā is also described using the same words.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Āma (आम).—See under AVATĀRA.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Amā (अमा).—A ray of the sun.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 12. 8.

2a) Āma (आम).—A son of Ghṛtapṛṣṭha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 21.

2b) A son of Kṛṣṇa and (Satyā) daughter of Nagnacit.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 13.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Āma (आम) or Āmājīrṇa refers to indigestion (ajīrṇa) due to āmā (undigested part of the chyle giving rise to mucus), as defined in the fourth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 4).—Symptoms of āmā-jīrṇa:—“heaviness of the body, nausea, swelling of the cheeks and pupils of the eyes, belching of wind having the same taste as the food taken, which remains in the stomach, long undigested. [...] The three kinds of indigestion, viz. āmā, viṣṭabdhā, and vidagdha, give rise to visūcī, alasaka, and vilambikā respectively”.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Amā.—(EI 21), abbreviation of amāvāsyā. Note: amā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

āma : (adj.) raw; fresh; uncooked; not ripe. (ind.), yes. || āmā (f.),a slave woman.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Āma, 2 (adj.) (Vedic āma = Gr. w)mόs, connected with Lat. amārus. The more common P. form is āmaka (q. v.)) raw, viz. (a) unbaked (of an earthen vessel), unfinished Sn.443; (b) uncooked (of flesh), nt. raw flesh, only in foll. cpds.: °gandha “smell of raw flesh”, verminous odour, a smell attributed in particular to rotting corpses (cp. similarly BSk. āmagandha M Vastu III, 214) D.II, 242 sq.; A.I, 280; Sn.241, 242 (= vissagandha kuṇapagandha SnA 286), 248, 251; Dhs.625; and °giddha greedy after flesh (used as bait) J.VI, 416 (= āmasaṅkhāta āmisa C.). (Page 103)

2) Āma, 1 (indecl.) (a specific Pāli formation representing either amma (q. v.) or a gradation of pron. base amu° “that” (see asu), thus deictic-emphatic exclamn. Cp. also BSk. āma e. g. Av. Ś I.36) affirmative part. “yes, indeed, certainly” D.I, 192 sq. (as v. l. BB.; T. has āmo); J.I, 115, 226 (in C. expln. of T. amā-jāta which is to be read for āmajāta); II, 92; V, 448; Miln.11, 19, 253; DhA.I, 10, 34; II, 39, 44; VvA.69; PvA.12, 22, 56, 61, 75, 93 etc. (Page 103)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

amā (अमा).—f S The day of the conjunction of sun and moon.

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amā (अमा).—m (Poetry and Nursery.) The mother's breast. 2 f (Ama, Port.) A nurse, esp. a wet nurse.

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āma (आम).—a S Undressed, uncooked, raw. 2 Unripe.

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āma (आम).—m S Affection of the bowels; diarrhœa &c. 2 Used for āmāṃśa.

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āmā (आमा).—m A breast or bubby. Esp. used in nursery language. 2 (Ama. Port.) A nurse.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

amā (अमा).—m The mother's breast. f A nurse. The day of the conjunction of sun and moon, amāvāsyā.

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āma (आम).—a Raw; unripe. m Diarrhœa, &c.

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āmā (आमा).—m A breast or bubby. A nurse.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ama (अम).—a. Unripe (as fruit).

-maḥ 1 Going.

2) Pressure, weight; strength, power (balam).

3) Fright, terror.

4) Sickness, disease.

5) A servant, follower, an attendant.

6) Vital air, life-wind (prāṇa).

7) This self.

8) Unmeasured state.

-mā 1 Soul.

2) Unmeasured state.

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Amā (अमा).—a. [na mā-ka] Measureless. -ind. Ved.

1) At home, in the house; कामश्चरताममाभूत् (kāmaścaratāmamābhūt) Rv.2.38.6.

2) In this world, here below (ihaloke).

3) With, near, close to; अमैवासां तद्भवति (amaivāsāṃ tadbhavati) Bṛ. Up.1.5.2.

4) Together with, in conjunction or company with, as in अमात्य, अमावास्या (amātya, amāvāsyā) q. v.; अमाकृ (amākṛ) to draw near, have near oneself. अमा सह समीपे च (amā saha samīpe ca) Nm. -f.

1) The day of the new moon, the day of the conjunction of the sun and moon; अमायां तु सदा सोम ओषधीः प्रतिपद्यते (amāyāṃ tu sadā soma oṣadhīḥ pratipadyate) Vyāsa.

2) The sixteenth digit of the moon.

3) The fifteenth digit also. m. The soul.

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Āma (आम).—a. [āmyate īṣat pacyate; ā am karmaṇi ghañ Tv.]

1) Raw, uncooked, undressed (opp. pakva) (oft. applied to the cow in the Veda; Rv.3.3.14.); आमान्नम् (āmānnam) Ms.4.223; Y.1.287.

2) Unripe, immature; तुदन्त्या- मत्वचं दंशा मशका मत्कुणादयः (tudantyā- matvacaṃ daṃśā maśakā matkuṇādayaḥ) Bhāg.3.31.27.

3) Unbaked, unannealed (as a jar); आमकुम्भ इवाम्भःस्थो विशीर्णः (āmakumbha ivāmbhaḥstho viśīrṇaḥ) H.4.66.

4) Undigested.

-m 1 State of being raw; शनैः शनैर्जहुः पङ्कं स्थलान्यामं च वीरुधः (śanaiḥ śanairjahuḥ paṅkaṃ sthalānyāmaṃ ca vīrudhaḥ) Bhāg.1.2.39.

2) Constipation, passing hard excretion.

3) Grain freed from chaff.

-maḥ 1 Disease; sickness.

2) Indigestion; आहारस्य रसः सारः यो न पक्वोऽग्निलाघवात् । आमसंज्ञां स लभते महाव्याधिसमाश्रयः (āhārasya rasaḥ sāraḥ yo na pakvo'gnilāghavāt | āmasaṃjñāṃ sa labhate mahāvyādhisamāśrayaḥ) || Suśr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ama (अम).—ind.

(-maṃ) 1. Quickly. 2. Little. mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) Unripe, (as fruit, &c.) m.

(-maḥ) Sickness. E. ama to go or to be sick, ac aff.

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Amā (अमा).—ind. 1. With, together with. 2. Near. f.

(-mā) Day of conjunction or new moon. E. a neg. māṅ to measure, kvip affix, and ṭāp fem. do.

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Āma (आम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Raw, undressed, unripe. 2. Unbaked, unannealed. m.

(-maḥ) 1. Sickness, disease. 3. Constipation, passing hard and unhealthy excretions. 4. Grain freed from the chaff. E. am to be sick, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āma (आम).—i. e. am + a, adj., f. . 1. Raw, undressed, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 223. 2. Unbaked (as a pot), [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 13.

— Cf. .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ama (अम).—1. ([pronoun] st.) this.

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Ama (अम).—2. [masculine] onset, impetuosity; fear, terror.

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Amā (अमा).—[adverb] at home, home; with kṛ appropriate or keep by one’s self.

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Āma (आम).—[adjective] raw.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ama (अम):—[from am] 1. ama m. impetuosity, violence, strength, power, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Atharva-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] depriving of sensation, fright, terror, [Ṛg-veda]

3) [v.s. ...] disease, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) 2. ama mfn. ([pronoun]; cf. amu) this, [Atharva-veda xiv, 2, 71] (quoted in [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv] and, [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra]) ([The word is also explained by prāṇa, ‘soul’ cf. [commentator or commentary] on [Chāndogya-upaniṣad v, 2, 6.]])

5) Amā (अमा):—[from ama] a See ss.vv.

6) 1. amā ind. ([Vedic or Veda] [instrumental case] [from] 2. ama q.v.) (chiefly [Vedic or Veda]) at home, in the house, in the house of ([genitive case]), with, [Ṛg-veda] etc.

7) together, [Pāṇini 3-1, 122]

8) (ā) f. = amā-vāsyā q.v. [commentator or commentary] on [Raghuvaṃśa xiv, 80] (in a verse quoted from Vyāsa) [commentator or commentary] on [Sūryasiddhānta]

9) [=a-mā] 2. a-mā (√3. ) f. (= a-pramāṇa) not an authority, not a standard of action, [Nyāyamālā-vistara]

10) Āma (आम):—1. āma mf(ā)n. raw, uncooked (opposed to pakva q.v.), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya] etc.

11) Name of the cow (considered as the raw material which produces the prepared milk), [Ṛg-veda iii, 30, 14, etc.]

12) unbaked, unannealed, [Atharva-veda; Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

13) undressed

14) unripe, immature, [Suśruta] etc.

15) undigested, [Suśruta]

16) fine, soft, tender (as a skin), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii, 31, 27]

17) m. Name of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

18) of a son of Ghṛta-pṛṣṭha, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 20, 21]

19) mn. constipation, passing hard and unhealthy excretions, [Suśruta]

20) n. state or condition of being raw, [Suśruta]

21) grain not yet freed from chaff

22) cf. [Greek] ὠμός; [Latin] amārus; [Hibernian or Irish] amh, ‘raw, unsodden, crude, unripe’; Old [German] ampher; [modern] [German] (Sauer-) ampfer.

23) 2. āma m. (probably identical with 1. āma), sickness, disease, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) 3. āma 1. ind. yes, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan]

25) Āmā (आमा):—[=ā-mā] -√2. [Parasmaipada] ([Potential] -mimīyāt, [Kāṭhaka xix, 13]) to bleat at.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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