Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study)

by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words

This page relates ‘Mimamsa (cogitation—an outcome right knowledge)’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “The Eight Yogadrishtis and the nature of a Liberated Soul”.

Chapter 4.6b - Mīmāṃsā (cogitation—an outcome right knowledge)

Moreover Haribhadrasūri says that the kāntā dṛṣṭi beholder is characterized by the cogitation (mīmāṃsā). The cogitation is of the nature of righteous thoughts. Such cogitation is considered to be an outcome right knowledge (samyagjñāna). Therefore Haribhadrasūri says that the cogitation always causes spiritual welfare of the subject in question[1] .

For an ordinary person the enjoyment of worldly objects begets transmigration. Whereas such is not the case with the kāntā dṛṣṭi beholder. Haribhadrasūri states that since the beholder of kāntā dṛṣṭi possesses the ākṣepaka type of knowledge, he does not get involved mentally in the sensual pleasures even while enjoying them physically. It is so because the ākṣepaka knowledge always seizes his mind towards matters scriptural. Thus, his every act of worldly enjoyment turns out to be a mere physical activity[2] . Therefore it is said that the kāntā dṛṣṭi beholder’s act of enjoying sensual pleasures does not become a cause of further transmigration.

Upādhyāya Yaśovījaya has defined the technical term ākṣepakajñāna in the twenty fourth dvātriṃśikā of his treatise Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā. He says that ākṣepakajñāna is nitya pratibandharupa cittākṣepakāri jñāna[3] . It is that knowledge which always stops one’s mind from involving into the sensual pleasures and keeps it engaged in the matter spiritual as well as scriptural.

The beholder of the kāntā dṛṣṭi is the one who, in spite of indulging in worldly enjoyments, continues to move in on the path of liberation. He has to go through them because of the rise of the previously bound karmans. Since he is free from the inclination for the worldly enjoyments, he goes through them remaining detached. He rightly acknowledges their illusory nature. Hence he is not deluded by their glamour[4] . Without being entangled in the worldly pleasures he just undergoes them. Therefore in spite of going through worldly enjoyments he keeps going on the path of liberation.

The subject in question’s such act of undergoing materialist pleasures is compared with a person who walks through mirage by Haribhadrasūri[5] . A person, who knows that the water impression created by mirage is illusory, does not hesitate walking across it. He does not consider that water like reflection as real water. Hence while crossing it he remains non-agitated. Therefore he is not worried about being physically obstructed by that watery reflection. Hence he crosses it remaining non-agitated[6] .

While a person, who considers the watery reflection of a mirage as real water, never dares to make his way through it. That means he stops there only. Similarly the one, who is incapable of comprehending the real nature of sensual pleasures, considers them worthy. He is attracted towards their glamour. Due to his delusion pertaining to worldly existence he never thinks of crossing the ocean like transmigration. He gets entangled in it[7] . He undoubtedly stays in its midst and have no strength to move in on the path of liberation[8] . Haribhadrasūri clarifies that the path of liberation is the one which is characterized by three gems (ratnatraya) namely right faith, right knowledge and right conduct[9] . Such is the state of a soul who has not obtained the sixth yogadṛṣṭi. The beholder of sixth dṛṣṭi does not get deluded by the worldly existence. It is so because he cogitates on the scriptural truths. Such cogitation [i.e., mīmāṃsā] is always beneficial for his soul[10] .

The kāntā dṛṣṭi beholder’s act of walking on the path of liberation even while going through the sensual pleasures implies that at this stage his karmans have become less powerful than his spirituality. The subject in question has lessened the strength of karmans by their ample destruction. Hence at this stage whatever worldly enjoyments he has to go through, as a result of rise of previously bound karmans, are not capable of binding him intensely. The verses are found in works of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya which precisely present the implied meaning of above said matter.

The verses are:

1. dharmaśaktiṃ na hantyasyāṃ bhogaśaktirbalīyasīm |
hanti dīpāpaho vāyujvarlanaṃ na davānalam ||
24.15 || [11]

2. badhyate bāḍhamāsavatto yathāśleṣmaṇi makṣikā |
śuṣkagolavadaśliṣṭo viṣayebhyo na badhyate ||
5.21 || [12]

In both the dṛṣṭis fifth as well as sixth the rise of karmans which beget enjoyment of sensual objects do exist. However, such karmans are incapable of obstructing spirituality. The strength of the karmans is more decreased in sixth dṛṣṭi than in the fifth dṛṣṭi. The cause of this difference between these two dṛṣṭis is presented in the following lines of Upādyaya Yaśovijaya.

The lines are:

............ | yadyapi sthirāyāmapi jñānā'pekṣayā bhogānāmakiñcitkaratvameva, tathāpi tadāṃ (daṃ)śe pramādasahakāritvamapi teṣām | kāntāyāṃ tu dhāraṇayā jñānotkarṣānna tathātvamapi teṣām |......... || 24.15 || [_22_]

The commentator of Nayalatā throws ample light on the above written lines of Upādhyay Yaśovijaya. The Nayalatā commentator states that,

“........... tathāpi tadaṃśe = sukhā'nubhavāṃ'śe teṣāṃ bhogānāṃ pramādasahakāritvamapi = abhiṣvaṅgādisahakāritvamapi sambhavatīti sthirāyāṃ bhogaśaktiḥ kathañcid dharmaśaktiṃ virūṇaddhi api | kāntyāṃ tu dṛṣṭau dhāraṇayā = śuddhacaitanyasvabhāvagocarā'ntaḥ karaṇasthirīkaraṇalakṣaṇayā ṣaṣṭhayogāṅgātmikayā jñānotkarṣāt = vivekajñānaprakarṣāt hetoḥ teṣāṃ bhogānāṃ na tathātvamapi = naiva abhiṣvaṅgādi–sahakāritvaṃ sambhavati | ata eva na tannimittaḥ karmabandhaḥ kāntyāṃ sambhavati |........... || 24.19 || [13]

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

| tathā nityaṃ sarvakālaṃ, mīmāṃsā'sti-sadvicārātmikā, ata evā''ha-hitodayā samyagjñānaphalatvena || 162 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya

[2]:

śrutadharme mano nityaṃ, kāyastvasyā'nyaceṣṭite |
atastvākṣepajñānā-nna bhogā bhavahetavaḥ ||
164 ||
   –Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya

[3]:

See line-2, Pg: 1645, Part-6, auto-commentary on Dvātiṃśad-dvātriṃśikā.

[4]:

bhogānindriyātharsambandhān svarūpataḥ paśyan ...., bhuñjāno'pi hi karmākṣiptān asaṅga san pratyātyeva paraṃ padaṃ, tathā'nabhiṣvaṅgatayā'paravaśabhāvāt || 166 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya

[5]:

bhogān svarūpataḥ paśya-ṃstathā māyodakopamān |
bhuñjāno'pi hayasaṅgaḥ san, prayātyeva paraṃ padam ||
166 ||
   –Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya

[6]:

amumevā'rthaṃ dṛṣṭāntamadhikṛtyā''ha
māyāmbhastattvataḥ paśya-nnanudvignastato dratu m |
tanmadhyena prayātyeva
, yathāvyāghātavarjitaḥ || 164 ||

māyāmbhastattvataḥ paśyan māyāmbhastvenaiva, anudvignastatomāyāmbhasaḥ dratuṃ-śīghraṃ tanmadhyena-māyāmbhomadhyena prayātyeva-na na prayāti, yathā ityudāharaṇopanyāsārthaḥ, vyāghātavarjito-māyāmbhastattvenavyāghātāsamarthatvāditi || 164 ||

–Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya

bhogātattvasya tu puna-nar bhavodadhilaṅghanam |
māyodakadṛḍhāveśa-stena yātīha kaḥ pathā? ||
107 ||
sa tatraiva bhayodvigno
, yathā tiṣṭhatyasaṃśayam |
mokṣamārge'pi hi tathā
, bhogajambālamohitaḥ || 168 ||
   –ibid

[7]:

bhogajambālamohitaḥ–bhoganibandhana-dehādiprapañcamohita ityarthaḥ || 168 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya

[8]:

yathā ityudāharaṇopanyāsārthaḥ tiṣṭhatyasaṃśayaṃtiṣṭhatyeva jalabuddhisamāveśāt | mokṣamārge'pi hi-jñānādilakṣaṇe tathā tiṣṭhatyasaṃśayaṃ.... || 168 ||
   –ibid.

[9]:

mokṣamārge'pi hi-jñānādilakṣaṇe... || 168 ||
   –ibid.

[10]:

mīmāṃsābhāvato nityaṃ, na moho'syāṃ yato bhavet |
athastattvasamāveśāt, sadaiva hi hitodayaḥ ||
169 ||
   –Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya

[11]:

Dvātiṃśad-dvātriṃśikā, Part-6, Pg: 1653

[12]:

Adhyātmasāra.

[13]:

See p.1657, part-6, -ibid.

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