Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study)

by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words

This page relates ‘Jijnasa (inquisitiveness)’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “The Eight Yogadrishtis and the nature of a Liberated Soul”.

The beholder of tārā dṛṣṭi has already obtained non-antipathy in the first yogadṛṣṭi. Now, in the second yogadṛṣṭi he acquires inquisitiveness [i.e., jijñāsā] regarding doctrinal matters. His inquisitiveness results into a little bit acceptance of the truth (tattva). It is so because his inquisitiveness has taken place on the platform of feeling of non-antipathy[1] .

When the subject in question observes higher spiritual practices viz. meditation etc. of the head of mendicants (ācārya) and other such spiritual practices, he becomes inquisitive about how these practices can be performed, why they are performed in this way? Thus, in such cases his inquisitiveness [i.e., jijñāsā] is said to be associated with the desire to know more and more[2] . When he finds deficiencies in his own practices viz. taking posture for meditation (kāyotsarga) and so on, he regrets painfully. He accuses himself as an imperfect practitioner. He recognizes the difference between his imperfect practices and great personages perfect practices. He does not have jealousy or antipathy for them because he knows that they are more capable than he is[3] .

Due to slight acceptance for truth (tattvapratipatti) the tārā dṛṣṭi beholder realizes the miserable nature of transmigration. Hence, he is inquisitive about the means of getting rid of the transmigration. When he sees that the various spiritual performances are practiced by aspirants as means of achieving salvation, he tries to grasp the essence of their performances in totality[4] . He can do so either by his own intellect or by attempting direct reading and understanding of scriptural literature where various spiritual practices are explained. While doing it he realized that his intellect is not so profound and the scriptural literature is stupendous in expanse. Therefore whatever he grasps regarding spiritual activities of aspirants by his own intellect do not match with whatever is said in the scriptures. And he is unable to grab their subtle meaning with his undeveloped intellect.

Under such condition he thinks to himself:

“I should follow the path of cultured ones as per my capacity[5] ”.

This is how he cogitates on the subject in the stage called tārā dṛṣṭi.

Moreover, Haribhadrasūri states that a tārā dṛṣṭi holder also possesses intense interest for listening and reading uninterruptedly the stories pertaining to yoga path[6] . Jainism has enumerated dhammakathāṇuyoga as the fourth anuyoga. Jainācāryas are inclined to write stories meant for moral as well as religious teachings. We often found message conveying stories written in scriptural literature too. Thus, the tārā dṛṣṭi beholder’s such interest for stories brings to his knowledge the greatness of yoga path as well as yogins. As a result of it high regard is developed for genuine yogins in the heart of tārā dṛṣṭi beholder[7] .

Therefore he behaves modestly in their presence, praises them and also respects them by bowing them down and soon. As he is very much impressed by the greatness of yogins, he, as per his capacity, serves them by offering food etc. his act of serving them is full of faith for them. By offering such services he is obliged by blessings of the yogins. It causes his spiritual ascent in the path of yoga. Thus, the act of serving yogins turns most beneficial to the subject in question[8] . As this act is praiseworthy he gets approval from the cultured ones. Moreover due to offering the services the minor disturbances of the subject in question get destroyed[9] .

The subject in question, at this stage, is obviously not found indulging into highly sinful activities. Hence he does not accumulate that quality of karmans which increase his transmigration. That is why he is free from the intense fear of transmigration. He has reverence for religious precepts. Therefore,he never does anything inappropriate/improper that is not in accordance with religious precepts. At the same time the subject in question does not do highly immoral activities even unknowingly[10] .

Footnotes and references:


tathā jijñāsā tattvagocarā adveṣata eva tatpratipattyānuguṇyamiti || 41 ||
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kṛtye-dhyānādau adhikesvabhūmikāpekṣayā, adhikagateācāryādivartini, jijñāsā'sya “ kathametadevamiti lālasānvitāabhilāṣātirekayuktā |........... || 46 || -ibid.


tulye kṛtye vandanādau nijetvātmīye eva vikale kāyotsargakaraṇādinā, santrāso bhavatyātmani “ hā! virādhako'hamiti, dveṣavarjito'dhike 'dhikṛ tadṛṣṭisāmarthyāditi || 46 ||


daḥkharūpo bhavaḥ sava, ucchedo'sya kṛ taḥ katham ? |
citrāṃ satāṃ pravṛttiśca
, sā hayeṣā jñāyate katham ? || 47 ||

..., ku to hetoḥ kṣāntyādeḥ kathaṃ ke na prakāreṇa? |
citrā satāṃ-munīnāṃ pravṛttiśca caityakarmādinā prakāreṇa
, sā hayeṣā jñāyate kathaṃ tadanyāpohataḥ || 47 ||

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nā'smākaṃ mahatī prajñā, sumahān śāstravistāraḥ |
śiṣṭāḥ pramāṇamiha ta-dityakyāṃ manyate sadā ||
48 ||

nā'smākaṃ mahatī prajñā saṃvādinī, svaprajñāvikalpite visaṃvādadaśarnāt |... yattairācaritaṃ tadeva yathāśakti sāmānyena kartuṃ yujyata ityarthaḥ || 48 ||



bhavatyasyāṃ tathā'cchinnā, prītiryogakathāsvalam |
......................,.............................. || 42 ||

........................ acchinnā-bhāvapratibandhasāratayā ___________... || 42 ||

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,........................... |
śuddhayogeṣu niyamād
, bahumānaśca yogiṣu || 42 ||

...................... | tathā śuddhayogeṣvakalkapradhāneṣu niyamād–niyamena bahumānaśca yogiṣu bhavati || 42 ||



na ke valamayam, kiñcayathāśaktyupacāraśca, yogavṛddhi phalapradaḥ |
yogināṃ niyamādeva
, tadanugrahadhīyutaḥ || 43 ||

............, kimityāha–grāsādisampādanena, yathoktayogiṣviti prakramaḥ | sa eva viśeṣyate-yogavṛddhiphalapradaḥ tatsamyak pariṇāmena, yogināṃ niyamādeva nā'nyathā, tadvighātaheturiti, tadanugrahadhīyutaḥ upacārasampādakānugrahabuddhiyukta ityarthaḥ || 43 ||



ayameva viśeṣyate
lābhāntaraphalaścā'sya, śraddhāyukto hitodayaḥ |
, śiṣṭasammatatā tathā || 44 ||

lābhāntaraphalaścā'syopacārakartuḥ, śuddhopacārapuṇyāt tathāvipākabhāvāt |.......... | kṣudropadravahāniśca bhavati, ata eva vyādhiyādināśaḥ | śiṣṭasammatatā tathā, ata evā'syā'tisundaro bahumānaḥ || 44 ||



bhayaṃ nā'tīva bhavajaṃ, kṛtyahānirna cocite |
tathā'nābhogato'pyucai-rna cā'ṣyanucitakriyā ||
45 ||

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