Sutrakritanga

by Hermann Jacobi | 1895 | 52,880 words | ISBN-10: 8120801466 | ISBN-13: 9788120801462

The English translation of the Sutrakritanga, which represents the second Agama of the 12 Angas in Shevatambara Jainism. It is traditionally dated to the 4th-century BCE and consists of two parts (verse and prose) explaining various doctrinal aspects of Jainism. Alternative titles: Sūtrakṛtāṅga (सूत्रकृताङ्ग), Sūtrakṛta-aṅga (सूत्रकृत-अङ्ग), Prakr...

Lecture 3: Knowledge of Food

O long-lived (Jambūsvāmin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following discourse from the Venerable (Mahāvīra). We now come to the Lecture called ‘Knowledge of Food.’ The contents of it are as follows:

Here in the East, West, North, and South there are, all in all, in the world four kinds of seed: seeds generated at the top (of the plant), at its root, at its knots, at its stem[1]. According to the seed and place (of growth) of these plants some beings--born in earth, originated in earth, and grown in earth, having in it their birth, origin, and growth, being impelled by their Karman, and coming forth in it on account of their Karman, growing there in particles of earth, the origin of various things--come forth as trees[2]. (1)

These living beings feed on the liquid substance[3] of these particles of earth, the origin of various things; these beings consume earth-bodies, water-bodies, fire-bodies, wind-bodies, bodies of plants; they deprive of life the bodies of manifold movable and immovable beings; the destroyed bodies which have been consumed before, or absorbed by the rind, (are) digested and assimilated (by them). And the bodies of these (trees) which bring forth their different parts, are of manifold colours, smells, tastes, touches, forms, and arrangement of corporeal particles[4].

These beings (animating trees) come into existence because of their Karman; so we are taught (by the Tīrthakaras, &c.) (2)

And again it has been said of old: some beings born in trees, originated by trees, sprung from trees, (&c., as in § 1, down to) springing from trees that originated in earth, come forth as trees originated by trees[5]. These beings feed on the sap of the trees originated in earth, (&c., all as in § 2, down to the end). (3)

(In the same way, and in nearly the same words, the offshoots of the trees mentioned in the preceding paragraph are treated of.) (4)

And again it has been said of old: some beings born in trees, (&c., all as above, down to) growing in trees, that are originated by trees, come forth as their roots, bulb, stem, branches, twigs, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds[6]. These beings feed on the sap of those trees originated by trees, (&c., all as in § 2, down to) and the bodies of the roots, bulb, stem, &c. are of manifold colours, (&c., all as in § 2, down to the end). (5)

(The four paragraphs that come next, 6-9, are identical with the preceding ones, except that ‘creeper[7]’ is substituted for ‘tree.’) (6-9)

(In the same way ‘grass[8]’ is treated in four paragraphs, but the whole is much abridged; then it is said that ‘herbs[9]’ and ‘plants[10]’ are to be treated in four paragraphs each.) (10-15)

And again it has been said of old: some beings born in earth, (&c., all as in § 1, down to) growing there in particles of earth that are the origin of various things, come forth as Aya, Kāya, Kuhaṇa, Kandu, Uvvehaliya, Nivvehaliya, Esava, Saccha, Chattaga, Vāsāṇiya[11]. (The rest as in § 2, but substitute the words Āya, &c. for ‘trees.’) Here there is only one paragraph, the remaining three do not apply here[12]. (16)

_______________________

And again it has been said of old: some beings born in water, (&c., all as in §§ 1-11, substitute only ‘water’ for ‘earth.’ Thus we have four paragraphs for trees, four for creepers, four for grass, four for herbs, four for plants). (17)

Now it has been said of old: some beings born in water, (&c., all as above, down to) growing in particles of water that are the origin of various things, come forth as Udaga, Avaga[13], Paṇaga, Sevāla[14], Kalambuya[15], Kaseruya[16], Kacchabhāṇiya, Uppala, Pauma, Kumuya, Naliṇa[17], Subhagasoṇiya, Poṇḍariya, Mahāpoṇḍariya, Sayavatta, Sahassavatta, Kalhāra, Kokaṇada, Tāmarasa[18], as stalks and fibres of lotus, as Pukkhala[19], and Pukkhalatthibhaga. (The rest similar as in § 2.) (18)

And again it has been said of old: some beings come forth as movable beings from trees born in earth, from trees originated by trees, from the roots, (&c., down to) seeds produced by trees, originated by creepers born on trees, from creepers born on creepers, from the roots, &c. of creepers born on creepers, from grass[20], from herbs[20], from plants[20], from Aya, (&c., all down to) Kūra born in earth; from trees born in water (the rest similar as with trees born in earth), from Udaga, (&c., all down to) Pukkhalatthibhaga born in water. (19)

These creatures feed on the sap of the trees, creepers, grass, herbs, plants, be they born in earth or water, on trees or creepers or grass or herbs or plants; (the sap) of their roots, (&c., all down to) seeds, of Āyas, &c., of Udakas, &c. And these creatures consume earth-bodies, (&c., all as in § 2, down to) assimilated by them. And the bodies of these beings born of trees, creepers, grass, herbs, plants, their roots, &c., of Āyas, &c., of Udagas, &c., are of manifold colours, (&c., the rest as in § 2, down to the end). (20) And again it has been said of old: a man and a woman combine in cohabitation in a cunnus, which was produced by their Karman, and there they deposit their humours. Therein are born the souls of different men, viz. of those born in Karmabhūmi[21], or in Akarmabhūmi, or in the minor continents, of Āryas and barbarians, as women or men or eunuchs, according to the semen and blood of the mother[22] and the other circumstances[23] (contingent on their coming into existence). These beings at first feed on the menses of the mother and the semen of the father, or both combined into an unclean, foul (substance). And afterwards they absorb with a part (of their bodies) the essence[24] of whatever food the mothers take. Gradually increasing and attaining to the proper dimensions of a foetus[25] they come forth from the womb, some as males, some as females, some as neuters. As long as they are babies, they suck the mother’s milk; but when they grow older, they eat boiled rice, or gruel, or both movable and immovable beings. These beings consume earth-bodies, (&c., all as before, down to) assimilated by them. And the bodies of these men, viz. those born in Karmabhūmi, or Akarmabhūmi, or in the minor continents, of Āryas and barbarians, are of manifold colours, (&c., all as in § 2, down to the end). (21)

(This paragraph is nearly identical with the preceding one, but substitute ‘aquatic animals of five organs of sense, viz. fishes, (all down to)[26] porpoises,’ for ‘different men’ in the beginning and the end. The following sentence in the middle is slightly different; it runs thus: ‘as long as they are young, they feed on the mothers’ humours, but when they grow older they eat plants, or both movable and immovable beings.’) (22)

(This paragraph treats of) quadrupeds[27], terrestrial animals with five organs of sense, viz. solidungular animals, biungular animals, multiungular animals, and animals having toes with nails. (All as in the last paragraph, only ‘as long as they are young, they feed on their mothers’ milk.’) (23)

(This paragraph treats of) reptiles moving on the breast, (being) terrestrial animals with five organs of sense, viz. snakes, huge snakes[28], Āśālika, and dragons[29]. (All as before, but the following passage is different.) Some bring forth eggs, some bring forth living young ones; some come out of the egg as males, some as females, some as neuters. As long as they are young, they live on wind. (The rest as above.) (24)

(This paragraph treats of) terrestrial animals with five organs of sense, walking on their arms, viz. iguanas, ichneumons, porcupines, frogs, chameleons, Khoras, Gharakoillas[30], Vissaṃbharas[31], rats, man-gooses, Païlāiyas, cats, Johas, Cāuppāiyas[32]. (The rest as in the last paragraph.) (25)

(This paragraph treats of) aerial animals with five organs of sense: birds with membranous wings, birds with feathered wings, birds with wings in the shape of a box, and birds (which sit on) outspread wings[33]. (All as before; only the following passage is different): ‘As long as they are young, they are hatched by their mothers’ warmth.’ (The rest as above.) (26)

And again it has been said of old: there are beings of manifold birth and origin, (&c., all as in § 1, down to) growing there on the animate or inanimate bodies of manifold movable or immovable creatures, come forth as parasites[34]. These beings feed on the humours of various movable and immovable creatures, &c. And the bodies of these movable and immovable parasites are of manifold colours, (&c., as above). (27)

In the same way vermin generated in filthy substances[35] and in the skin of living animals[36] are to be treated of. (28, 29)

And again it has been said of old: there are some beings of manifold birth and origin, (&c., all as in § 1, down to) growing thereon (or in) the animate or inanimate bodies of manifold movable or immovable creatures as that (water)-body[37], which is produced by wind, condensed by wind, and carried along by wind; it goes upwards, when there is an upward wind; it goes downwards, when there is a downward wind; it goes in a horizontal direction, when there is a horizontal wind; (its varieties are) hoar-frost, snow, mist, hailstones, dew, and rain. These beings feed on the humours of these manifold movable and immovable creatures, &c. And the bodies of these (water-lives, viz.) hoar-frost, &c., produced by manifold movable or immovable creatures, are of manifold colours, (&c., as above)[38]. (30)

And again it has been said of old: some beings, born in water, (&c., all similar as in § 1, down to) come forth in water(-bodies) in the water produced by manifold movable or immovable beings. These beings feed on the humours of the water(-bodies) produced by manifold movable and immovable creatures. (The rest similar as above.) (31)

And again it has been said of old: some beings, born in water, (&c., all similar as in § 1, down to) come forth in water-bodies produced by other water-bodies. These beings feed on the humours of those other water-bodies produced by water-bodies. (The rest similar as above.) (32)

And again it has been said of old: some beings, born in water, (&c., all similar as in § 1, down to) come forth as movable creatures in the water produced by water-bodies. These beings feed on the humours of the water(-bodies) produced by water. (The rest similar as before.) (33)

And again it has been said of old: some beings, of various birth and origin, (&c., all as in § 1, down to) come forth as fire-bodies in the manifold animate or inanimate bodies of movable or immovable creatures[39]. These beings feed on the manifold movable or immovable creatures. The rest similar as before.)

The remaining three paragraphs are similar (to those treating of) water-bodies. (34)

(This paragraph treats of wind-bodies in the same way as the preceding ones treated of fire-bodies; like it, it consists of four paragraphs). (35)

And again it has been said of old: some beings, of various birth and origin, (&c., all as in § 1, down to) come forth, in the manifold animate and inanimate bodies of movable and immovable creatures[40], as earth, gravel, &c. Here the following verses (from the Uttarādhyayana XXXVI, 74-77) are to be made use of:

1. Earth, gravel, sand, stones, rocks, rock-salt, iron, copper, tin, lead, silver, gold, and diamond;

2. Orpiment, vermilion, realgar, Sāsaka, antimony, coral, Abhrapaṭala, Abhravāluka; these are varieties of gross (earth-)bodies, and precious stones.

3. Hyacinth, natron, Aṅka, crystal, Lohitākṣa, emerald, Masāragalla, Bhujamocaka, and sapphire;

4. Candana, red chalk, Haṃsagarbha, Pulaka, and sulphur; Candraprabha, lapis lazuli, Jalakānta, and Sūryakānta.

These beings feed on the humours of these manifold movable and immovable beings. (The rest as above.)

The remaining three paragraphs are similar (to those treating of) water-bodies. (36)

And again it has been said of old: all sorts of living beings, of manifold birth, origin, and growth, born in bodies, originated in bodies, grown in bodies, feeding on bodies, experience their Karman, are actuated by it, have their form and duration of life determined by Karman, and undergo changes through the influence of Karman. This you should know, and knowing it you will be careful and circumspect with regard to your food, and always exert yourself. (37)

Thus I say.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

The commentators here give the reading of the Nāgārjunīyas: 'the growth of seeds of the plants is fivefold, viz. they grow from the top (of the plant), its root, its knots, its stem, and its beads; p. 389 and some are of a sixth kind called sammūrchima' (i.e. those plants which are believed to be originated by the coalescing particles of the substance in which they grow, e.g. grass springing up on ground lately cleared by fire).--The various readings of the Nāgārjunīyas are occasionally quoted in commentaries (see e.g. part i, p. 32, note 2). But I do not think that it has been satisfactorily made out who these Nāgārjunīyas were.

[2]:

The meaning is, that souls who on account of their Karman are to be born as trees, previously are embodied in earth, and thence they are transferred by their Karman to the seed which brings forth the tree.

[3]:

Siṇeha, explained: snigdhabhāva. In the sequel where plants are spoken of, I shall render this word by 'sap' or 'humours,' as the context may require.

[4]:

I.e. the food assimilated by the tree is the material of which its different parts, as root, stem, leaves, &c., are formed, and these parts are of manifold form, colours, &c.

[5]:

Apparently trees sprung from shoots, sprouts, aerial-roots, &c. are meant. They are considered as a class different from those whose offshoots they are.

[6]:

One soul, jīva, pervades the whole tree; it is the soul of the tree. Separate jīvas, however, reside in the roots, &c.

[7]:

Ajjhoruha = adhyāroha, explained in the Dīpikā: vallīvṛkṣa.

[8]:

Trina.

[9]:

Osahi = Oṣadhi.

[10]:

Hariya = harita.

[11]:

All the commentators say about the words Āya, &c. (which offer some various readings in the MSS.), is that they denote particular plants (vanaspativiśeṣa) which must be learned from people (who know them). I give the words in their Prākṛt form, and do not attempt to transpose them into Sanskrit.

[12]:

For there are no Āyas originated by Āyas except through their seed.

[13]:

Avakā, a grassy plant growing in marshy land, Blyxa Octandra.

[14]:

Śaivāla, the aquatic plant Vallisneria.

[15]:

Kadamba, Nauclea Kadamba.

[16]:

Kaśeru, Scirpus Kysoor.

[17]:

The last four are well-known varieties of lotus, called in Sanskrit: utpala, padma, kumuda, nalina.

[18]:

The Sanskrit of the last seven items is: puṇḍarīka, mahāpuṇḍarīka, śatapattra, sahasrapattra, kahlāra, kokanada, and tāmarasa; they are all varieties of lotus.

[20]:

This is to be detailed in the same way as with trees and creepers.

[21]:

Compare note 1, p. 225.

[22]:

Both are indicated in the text by bīja. According to Śīlāṅka, a male will be produced if the semen is in excess; a female, if the blood; a neuter, if they are equally balanced.

[23]:

Avakāśa. According to Śīlāṅka, a male is produced from the right side of the womb, a female from the left, a neuter from both together.

[24]:

Oyam = ojas.

[25]:

Paliyāgam, explained garbhaparipāka.

[26]:

See Uttarādhyayana XXXVI, 173; above, p. 223.

[27]:

Compare Uttarādhyayana XXXVI, 180, ibidem.

[28]:

Ajagara, literally serpents which devour goats.

[29]:

Mahoraga. According to the Guzeratī gloss these snakes are a thousand yojanas long.

[30]:

Gṛhakokila, probably identical with gṛhagolika, a lizard.

[31]:

Viśvaṃbhara is given in the smaller Petersburg Dictionary as the name of a scorpion or some similar animal. However, it must denote here some other animal.

[32]:

This may be catuṣpādika, quadruped; but then the word must be taken in a restricted sense, perhaps, small quadrupeds.

[33]:

See Uttarādhyayana XXXVI, 187; above, p. 224. Perhaps beetles and butterflies are intended by the two last kinds of pakṣins?

[34]:

Aṇusūya = anusūta or anusyūta.

[35]:

Durūvasaṃbhava.

[36]:

Khuruduga.

[37]:

There is apparently no predicate in this sentence.

[38]:

This paragraph gives the 'scientific' explanation of the way by which water-bodies or the bodies of water-lives are produced by wind.

[39]:

E.g. when two bulls or elephants rush upon one another, sparks of fire are seen issuing from their horns or teeth. Fire is produced when two pieces of wood or stone are rubbed one against the other.

[40]:

According to the commentators, earth-bodies are produced in the shape of precious stones, in the head of snakes, of pearls in the teeth (sic) of elephants, and so in reeds, &c.

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