Sutrakritanga

by Hermann Jacobi | 1895 | 52,880 words | ISBN-10: 8120801466 | ISBN-13: 9788120801462

The English translation of the Sutrakritanga, which represents the second Agama of the 12 Angas in Shevatambara Jainism. It is traditionally dated to the 4th-century BCE and consists of two parts (verse and prose) explaining various doctrinal aspects of Jainism. Alternative titles: Sūtrakṛtāṅga (सूत्रकृताङ्ग), Sūtrakṛta-aṅga (सूत्रकृत-अङ्ग), Prakr...

Lecture 2: On Activity

[Note: Kiriyāṭhāṇe = kriyāsthānam, literally, the subject of activity.]

O long-lived (Jambūsvāmin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following Discourse from the Venerable (Mahāvīra). We now come to the Lecture called ‘on Activity.’ The contents of it are as follows:

It treats, briefly, of two subjects: merit and demerit.

(The former is when the Self is) at rest, (the latter, when it is) in disturbance[1]. (1)

Now the explanation[2] of the first subject, viz. demerit, is as follows. Here in the East, West, North, and South, (&c., all as in II, I, 12, down to) ugly men. (2)

And as regards committing of sin[3], among denizens of hell, brute animals, gods, men, and whatever other suchlike beings there be, the sentient beings feel[4] the pain. (3)

And these beings practise the following thirteen kinds of activity--

  1. sinning for one’s interest;
  2. sinning without a personal interest;
  3. sinning by slaying;
  4. sinning through accident;
  5. sinning by an error of sight;
  6. sinning by lying;
  7. sinning by taking what is not freely given;
  8. sinning by a mere conceit;
  9. sinning through pride;
  10. sinning through bad treatment of one’s friends;
  11. sinning through deceit;
  12. sinning through greed;
  13. actions referring to a religious life. (4)

1. The first kind of committing sins is that prompted by a motive. This is the case when a man for his own sake, for the sake of his relations, his house, his family, his friends, for the sake of Nāgas, Bhūtas, or Yakṣas does injury to movable or immovable beings, or has it done by another person, or consents to another’s doing it. Thereby the, bad Karman accrues to him. This is the first kind of committing sins, that prompted by a motive. (5)

2. We now treat of the second kind of committing sins, viz. that which is not prompted by personal interest. This is the case when a man slays, kills, cuts, pierces, hacks, mangles, or puts to death movable living beings, not because he wants their body, skin, flesh, blood, heart, bile, feathers of their tail, tail, big or small horns, teeth, tusks, nails, sinews, bones, or marrow; nor because he has been wounded by them, or is wounded, or will be wounded; nor in order to support his children, or to feed his cattle, or to enlarge his houses, nor for the maintenance of Śramaṇas and Brāhmaṇas, nor for the benefit of his body; setting aside reason a fool acquires the habit of cruelty, being a wanton killer. (6)

This is the case when a man slays, &c. (see above) immovable living beings as Ikkaṭa-reed, Kaṭhina, Jantuka-grass, Para-grass[5], Mokṣa-trees[6], grass, Kuśa-grass, Kucchaka[7], Pappaka[8], or straw, not in order to support his children, (&c., all down to) wanton killer. (7)

Or when a man on a marsh, a lake, a sheet of water, a pasture-ground, a place surrounded by a ditch, a moat, a thicket, stronghold[9] in a thicket, forest, stronghold in a forest, [mountain, stronghold on a mountain[10]], piles up grass and lights a fire, or has it lighted by another person, or consents to another’s lighting it. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the second kind of committing sins, that prompted by no personal interest. (8)

3. We now treat of the third kind of committing sins, called slaying. This is the case when a man thinking that some one has hurt, hurts, or will hurt him, or one of his people, or somebody else, or one of that person’s people, kills movable and immovable beings, has them killed by another person, or consents to another’s killing them. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the third kind of committing sins, called slaying. (9)

4. We now treat of the fourth kind of committing sins, called accidental[11]. This is the case when in marshes (&c., all as above, down to) strongholds in a forest, a man who lives on deer, who likes deer, who dotes on deer, goes a hunting deer. Fancying to see deer, he takes aim with his arrow to kill the deer. Thinking that he will kill the deer, he kills a partridge, or a duck, or a quail, or a pigeon, or a monkey, or a francoline partridge. Here instead of one (being) he hurts another, (therefore he is called) an accidental killer. (10)

This is the case when a man weeding rice, Kodrava[12], panic seed, Paraka, or Rālaka, uses his knife to cut some weeds. Fancying that he is cutting some weed-grasses[13], he cuts rice (&c., down to) Rālaka. Here instead of one (plant) he hurts another; (therefore he is called) an accidental killer. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the fourth kind of committing sins, called accidental. (11)

5. We now treat of the fifth kind of committing sins, viz. by an error of sight. This is the case when a man living together with his mother, father, brothers, sisters, wives, sons, daughters, or daughters-in-law, and mistaking a friend for an enemy, kills the friend by mistake. (12)

This is the case when during a riot in a village[14], or a scot-free town, or a town with an earth wall, or a poor town, or an isolated town, or a large town, or a sea-town, or a mine, or a hermitage, or a halting-place of processions or caravans, or a capital, a man mistaking for a robber one who is not, kills him by mistake. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the fifth kind of committing sins, viz. by an error of sight. (13)

6. We now treat of the sixth kind of committing sins, viz. by lying. This is the case when a man for his own sake, or for the sake of his relations, his house, or his servants tells lies, causes another person to tell lies, or consents to another’s telling lies. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the sixth kind of committing sins, viz. by lying. (14)

7. Now we treat of the seventh kind of committing sins, viz. by taking what is not freely given. This is the case when a man for his own sake (&c., as above) takes himself what is not freely given, has it taken by another person, or consents to another’s taking it. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the seventh kind of committing sins, viz. by taking what is not freely given. (15)

8. Now we treat of the eighth kind of committing sins, viz. by a mere conceit. This is the case when a man, without being disappointed by anybody in any way, meditates, melancholy, sorry, angry, downcast, anxious in thoughts and ideas, plunged in a sea of sorrow and misery, reposing his head on the palm of his hand, overcome by painful reflections, and casting his eyes on the ground[15]. There are four mental, but real, conditions (of this kind), viz. wrath, pride, deceit, and greed; for wrath, pride, deceit, and greed are mental conditions. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the eighth kind of committing sins, viz. by a mere conceit. (16)

9. Now we treat of the ninth kind of committing sins, viz. through pride. This is the case when a man drunk (as it were) with pride of caste, family, beauty, piety, knowledge, success, power, intelligence[16], or any other kind of pride, slights, blames, abuses, reviles, despises somebody else and extols himself, (thinking:) ‘he is my inferior, I am of better caste or family, and possess greater power and other advantages.’ When he leaves this body and is only accompanied by his Karman, he, without a will of his own, goes forth from womb to womb, from birth to birth, from death to death, from hell to hell. He is cruel, stubborn, fickle, and proud. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the ninth kind of committing sins, viz. through pride. (17)

10. We now treat of the tenth kind of committing sins, consisting in bad treatment of one’s friends. This is the case when a man living together with his mother, father, brothers, sisters, wives, sons, daughters, or daughters-in-law, severely punishes even the smallest offence of theirs; e.g. he ducks the offender[17] in cold water, or pours hot water over him, or scalds him with fire, or lashes his sides sore with a halter, reed, rope[18], strap of leather, whip, or thong of a whip, or he beats the offender with a stick, bone, fist, clod, or potsherd. When such a man is at home, (his people) are miserable; but when he is abroad, they rejoice. Such a man, who is for ever punishing, severely punishing, is hateful in this world and the next, irritable, passionate, an extortioner[19]. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the tenth kind of committing sins, consisting in bad treatment of one’s friends. (18)

11. We now treat of the eleventh kind of committing sins, viz. through deceit. Those who conceal their thoughts, who are shrouded in darkness, who are light as the feather of an owl or heavy like a mountain, use unworthy[20] speech though they be Āryas. They believe themselves different from what they really are; asked one thing, they answer another, they speak different from what is to be spoken. (19)

As a man in whose body sticks an arrow[21], does not extricate it (fearing the pain), nor has it extricated by somebody else, nor destroys it, but hides it; and the arrow, being not removed, goes deeper and deeper (in the flesh); so a deceitful man, having practised deception, does not confess it, expiate it, blame the deed to himself or others, does not remove it, annihilate it, and endeavour not to do it again, does not practise the prescribed austerities and penance. A deceitful man is generally not trusted[22] in this world, a deceitful man is not trusted in the next world. He blames and reviles (the person whom he has deceived), he praises himself, and rejoices, and does not desist (from his vile practices); he conceals the wrong he has done to others, and does not acquire a pure Leśyā. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the eleventh kind of committing sins, viz. through deceit. (20)

12. We now treat of the twelfth kind of committing sins, viz. through greed. Those (heretical monks) who live in woods, in huts, about villages, or practise some secret rites, are not well controlled, nor do they well abstain (from slaying) all sorts of living beings. They employ speech that is true and untrue at the same time[23]: ‘do not beat me, beat others; do not abuse me, abuse others; do not capture me, capture others; do not torment me, torment others; do not deprive me of life, deprive others of life[24].’ And thus they are given to sensual pleasures, desire them, are held captive by them, passionately love them for four or five years, for six or ten years--(the period) may be shorter or longer. After having enjoyed these pleasures, and having died at their allotted time, they will be born in some places inhabited by Asuras and evildoers. And when they are released therefrom, they will be born deaf and dumb, or blind[25], or dumb by birth. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. This is the twelfth kind of committing sins, viz. through greed. (21) These twelve kinds of committing sins should be well understood by a pious Śramaṇa or Brāhmaṇa[26]. (22)

13. We now treat of the thirteenth kind of acquiring Karman, that having reference to religious life[27]. A monk[28] who controls himself for the benefit of his soul, who in walking carefully avoids to cause the death of any living creature[29], who uses gentle and righteous speech[30], who receives alms in a manner to avoid the forty-two faults[31], who is careful in receiving and keeping of things necessary for religious exercises[32], who performs the operations of nature (excrements, urine, saliva, corporal impurities and mucus) in an unfrequented place[33], who is careful with regard to mind, speech, and body[34], who guards his mind, speech, and body so as to protect his soul from passions[35], who guards his senses, who leads a chaste life regulated by the three Guptis, who carefully walks, stands, sits down, lies down, and speaks, who carefully takes up and lays down his cloth, alms-bowl, blanket, broom,--(even) such a monk performs various subtile actions called īryapathika (if it did but consist in moving an eyelash). This Karman is acquired and comes in contact (with the soul) in the first moment, in the second moment it is experienced, in the third it is destroyed; thus it is acquired, comes in contact (with the soul), takes rise, and is destroyed. For all time to come (the person in question) is exempt from Karman[36]. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him[37]. This is the thirteenth kind of acquiring Karman, that inseparable from a religious life. (23)

All the Arhats and Bhagavats of the past, present, and future have told, tell, and will tell, have declared, declare, and will declare the above thirteen kinds of acquiring Karman. They have practised, practise, and will practise the thirteenth kind of acquiring Karman. (24)

As a supplement[38] to the above (discussion) will now be told the subject of men’s success by occult sciences. Some men differing in intellect, will, character, opinions, taste, undertakings, and plans, study various evil sciences; (25) viz. (the divination) from terrestrial accidents, from strange phenomena[39], from dreams, from phenomena in the air, from changes in the body, from sounds, from mystical signs[40], from seeds[41]; (the interpretation of the) marks of women, men, elephants, cows, partridges, cocks, ducks, quails, of wheels, parasols, shields, sticks, swords, precious stones, jewels[42]; (26) the art to make one happy or miserable, to make a woman pregnant, to deprive one of his wits; incantations[43], conjuring[44]; oblations of substances; the martial arts; the course of the moon, sun, Venus, and Jupiter; the falling of meteors; great conflagration; divination from wild animals[45], the flight of crows, showers of dust, rain of blood, the Vaitālī and Ardhavaitālī arts[46], the art of casting people asleep, of opening doors, the art of Cāṇḍālas, of Śabaras, of Draviḍas, of Kaliṅgas, of Gauḍas, of Gāndhāras; the spells for making somebody fall down, rise, yawn; for making him immovable, or cling to something; for making him sick, or sound; for making somebody go forth, disappear, (or come)[47]. These and similar sciences are practised (by some men) for the sake of food, drink, clothes, a lodging, a bed, and various objects of pleasure. They practise a wrong science, the unworthy, the mistaken[48] men. After having died at their allotted time, they will be born in some places inhabited by Asuras and evildoers. And when they are released therefrom, they will again be born deaf and dumb, or night-blind. (27)

Some man for his own sake or for the sake of his relations, family, or servants, or entering the service of an acquaintance or neighbour of his, becomes his companion or his helpmate, or he goes to meet him, or he becomes a burglar, or a cut-purse, or he tends sheep, or he becomes a hunter[49], or he catches birds, or he uses nets (for catching deer), or he becomes a fisherman or a cowherd or a slayer of cows or a dog-keeper or he hunts with dogs. (28)

A man, becoming the companion of another man, will follow him everywhere, (and having inspired him with confidence) beats, cuts, pierces; tears, thrashes, or puts him to death, and thereby gets his food. By these very evil deeds he degrades himself[50]. (29)

A man, becoming the helpmate of another man, always attends on him, (and having inspired him with confidence) beats, &c. (all down to) degrades himself. (30) A man, going to meet somebody, on the road, beats, &c. (all down to) degrades himself. (3 I)

A man, becoming a burglar, breaks into a house and beats, &c. (all down to) degrades himself. (32)

A man, becoming a cut-purse, cuts the purse and beats, &c. (all down to) degrades himself. (33)

A man, becoming a tender of sheep, beats, cuts, pierces, tears, thrashes, or puts to death a ram or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (34)

A man, becoming a hunter, beats, &c. (all down to) puts to death a buffalo or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (35)

A man, using nets (for catching deer), beats, &c., an antelope or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (36)

A man, catching birds, beats, &c., a bird or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (37)

A man, becoming a fisherman, beats, &c., a fish or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (38)

A man, becoming a cowherd, beats, &c., a cow or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (39)

A man, slaying cows, beats, &c., a cow or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (40)

A man, becoming a dog-keeper, beats, &c., a dog or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (41)

A man, becoming the helpmate of a dog-keeper, beats, &c., a dog or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (42)

A man, rising in an assembly, may promise to kill some (animal) and he will beat, &c., a partridge, duck, quail, pigeon, monkey, a francoline partridge, or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (43)

A man, being angry for some reason, e.g. because his granary or his liquor-cask runs short[51], sets fire to the cornfields of the householders or their sons, has the fire set by another person, or consents to another’s setting fire to them. (The rest as above.) (44)

A man, being angry for some reason, e.g. because his granary or liquor-cask runs short, makes a deep cut in the strong limbs of the camels, cows, horses, or donkeys of the householders or their sons, has it made by another person, or consents to another’s making the cut. (The rest as above.) (45)

A man, being angry for some reason, e.g. because his granary or his liquor-cask runs short, covers with brambles or twigs the householders‘, or their sons’, stable for the camels, cows, horses, or donkeys, and burns them, or has them burnt by another person, or consents to another’s burning them. (The rest as above.) (46)

A man, being angry for some reason, &c. (as above), steals a householder’s or his sons’ earrings (or girdle)[52], or jewels, or pearls, has them stolen by another person, or consents to another’s stealing them. (The rest as above.) (47)

A man, being angry, &c. (as before), robs Śramaṇas or Brāhmaṇas of their umbrella, stick, staff, small property, pot, chair, clothes, blanket, leather boots, knife, or scabbard, has it done by another person, or consents to another’s robbing them. (The rest as above.) (48)

A man, without consideration (and without any provocation), sets fire to the cornfields of the householders, &c. (All as in § 44.) (49)

A man, without consideration, makes a deep cut in the strong limbs of the camels, &c. (All as in § 45) (50)

A man, without consideration, covers with brambles and twigs the stables for the camels, &c., and burns them, &c. (All as in § 46.) (51)

A man, without consideration, steals the earrings, &c. (All as in § 47.) (52)

A man, without consideration, robs Śramaṇas or Brāhmaṇas of their umbrella, &c. (All as in § 48.) (53)

A man, on seeing Śramaṇas or Brāhmaṇas (whom he detests), degrades himself by various evil deeds. Either he gives them a slap with the open hand to turn them away[53], or he abuses them. And when the monk at the proper time calls (at his house on the begging-tour), he does not give him alms (but says): those who become Śramaṇas are the meanest workmen, men unable to support (their family), low-caste men, wretches, idlers! (54)

Such men praise this life, this miserable life; they do nothing on behalf of the next world; they suffer, grieve, blame themselves, grow feeble, are afflicted, and undergo great pain; they do not cease to cause others to suffer, grieve, &c., to slay and to put men in fetters; and while they make suffer or kill, or make suffer and kill (beings), and do various evil deeds, they enjoy the excellent pleasures of human life; viz. such a man eats at dinner-time, he drinks at drinking-time, he dresses himself at dressing-time, he goes to bed at the proper time, and sleeps at sleeping-time. Doing everything in its turn, he bathes, makes the offering (to the house-gods)[54], performs auspicious rites and expiatory acts, washes his head, hangs a wreath round his neck, adorns himself with precious stones and golden (trinkets), puts on (his head) a chaplet of flowers; with his body strengthened, with a wreath hanging down to the girdle of his loins, dressed in new clothes, his limbs and body anointed with sandal, (sitting) on a large throne in a lofty upper room (of his house), surrounded by women and a troop of followers, in the light (of torches) burning the whole night, under the great din of uninterrupted storytelling, dramatical plays, singing, and music, as beating of time, performing on the Vīṇā, Tūryā, the great drum, and Paṭupaṭaha[55], he enjoys the excellent pleasures of human life. (55)

When he gives an order to one man, even four or five men will, without being asked, go up to him (and say): ‘Speak, beloved of the gods, what shall we do? what shall we fetch? what shall we give you? what (trinket) shall we put on you? what is your heart’s desire? what relishes your mouth?’

Unworthy men who see him will say: ‘Forsooth, this man is a god; this man is the anointed of the gods, this man will support (us), as he supports others.’ But noble men who see him will say: ‘This man does cruel actions, and maintains himself by them. His is the southern region, the hell, the dark fortnight[56]. In the future he will not easily obtain enlightenment.’ (56)

(The conduct described in the preceding) part[57] is agreeable to some (heretical) monks, to some householders, to men governed by love of life. This conduct is unworthy, impure, void (of virtues), not holy, not right, not eradicating sins; it is not the road to perfection, liberation, Nirvāṇa, final delivery, not the road of those who are freed from all misery; it is thoroughly untrue, and bad.

This is the explanation of the first subject, viz. demerit. (57)

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Now the explanation of the second subject, viz. merit, is as follows:

Here in the East, West, North, and South there are some men, viz. Āryas, non-Āryas, (all down to) ugly men. They own fields and houses, (&c., all as in II, 1, §§ 34-59, down to) reach final beatitude. (58)

(The conduct described in this) part is holy, right, (all just the reverse of what was said in § 58, down to) thoroughly true, and good. This is the explanation of the second subject, viz. merit. (59)

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Now the explanation of the third subject, viz. the mixed state, is as follows:

Those who live in woods, in huts, near villages, (&c., all as above, § 21, down to) or blind. (The conduct described in this) part is not holy, (&c., all as in § 57, down to) thoroughly untrue, and bad.

This is the explanation of the third subject, viz. the mixed state. (60)

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Now the explanation of the first subject, viz. demerit, is as follows:

Here in the East, West, North, and South live some men; they are householders, men of great desires, great undertakings, great possessions, unrighteous men, men practising unrighteousness, very unrighteous men, men speaking unrighteously, living unrighteously, thinking unrighteously, given to unrighteousness, men of unrighteous character and conduct, men gaining an unrighteous livelihood. (61)

They beat, cut[58], pierce, skin, are bloody-handed, violent, cruel, wicked, rash; they habitually practise bribery[59], fraud, deceit, imposture, dishonesty, and trickery; they are of bad character and morals, they are difficult to please, they do not abstain from killing living beings; as long as they live they do not abstain from wrath, (&c., all as in II, 1, 51, down to) the sin of wrong belief; nor from bathing, rubbing, painting, anointing themselves; from sounds, touches, tastes, colours, smells; from wreaths and ornaments; from cars, carriages, vehicles, litters, swings[60], coach and pair[61], palankins[62], beds, seats; from enjoying a ride or drive; from having many followers; from buying, selling, doing business with Māṣas[63], half Māṣas, and Rupees; from silver, gold, riches, corn, precious stones, pearls, conches, stones, and corals; from using wrong weights and measures; from undertakings and slaughter; from working and making others work; from cooking and making others cook; from cutting, pounding, threatening, beating, binding, killing, and causing pain; and whatever other suchlike wicked and sinful actions of worthless men there be, that cause pains to other beings: these men do not abstain from them as long as they live. (62)

As some idle, cruel men wantonly injure Kalama[64], Masūra[65], sesamum, Mudga[66], beans, Nishpāva[67], Kulattha[68], Ālisanda[69], Elamiccha[70], so an idle, cruel man wantonly hurts partridges, ducks, quails, pigeons, francoline partridges, deer, buffaloes, boars, iguanas, tortoises, and snakes.

A man will (occasionally) severely punish even the smallest offence of his domestics, viz. a slave or messenger or hired servant or vassal[71] or parasite; e.g. punish him, pull out his hair, beat him, put him in irons, in fetters, in stocks, into prison, screw up in a pair of shackles (his hands and feet) and break them, cut off his hands or feet or ears or nose or lips or head or face (?)[72], pierce his feet, tear out his eyes, teeth, tongue, hang him, brush him, whirl him round, impale him, lacerate him, pour acids (in his wounds), belabour him with cutting-grass, bind him to a lion’s tail (!), or a bull’s tail, burn him in a wood on fire, let him be devoured by crows and vultures, stop his food and drink, keep him a prisoner for life, let him die any of these horrid deaths. (63)

A man will (occasionally) severely punish even the smallest offence of his next of kin, viz. his mother or father or brother or sister or wife or sons or daughters or daughters-in-law; e.g. he ducks the offender in cold water, (&c., all as in § 18, down to) hateful in this world and the next. They suffer, grieve, blame themselves, grow feeble, are afflicted, and undergo great pain; they do not cease to cause others to suffer, grieve, &c., to slay and to put men in fetters[73]. (64)

And thus they are given to sensual pleasures, desire them, are held captive by them, passionately love them for four or five years, for six or ten years --the period may be shorter or longer[74]. Having enjoyed pleasures, having produced the effects of iniquity, having acquired the Karman of many sinful actions which generally bear him downwards, (he goes to the bottom of the hell)[75]. As a ball of iron or stone, when thrown in the water, sinks below the surface of the water till it stops at the bottom, so a man of the sort we are treating of, who is full of Karman, full of sin, full of demerit, full of disgrace[76], full of iniquity, full of wicked thoughts, deceit, imposture, and fraud, and, as a rule, kills animals, having died at the allotted time, will sink below this earth, and go to the bottom of the hell. (65)

These hells are round inside, square outside, on their floor razorlike arrows are thick-set (and covered with flowers), they are filled with perpetual darkness, never lighted up by the planets, moon, sun, Nakṣatras, and stars; their floor is slippery with a coating of marrow, fat, flesh, blood, and matter, and besmeared with grease; these hells are impure, smelling detestably, black, of the colour of fire, very rugged, difficult to pass, horrid. And horrid are the pains in these hells. (66)

And those who are condemned to live in these hells, do not sleep nor slumber, nor do they get any consolation[77] or comfort or recreation or encouragement; but the denizens of hell there suffer exquisite, great, deep, hard, rough, violent, painful, sharp, intolerable agonies. (67)

As a tree growing on a hill falls by its weight when its roots are cut, on a low, rugged, inaccessible place, so a man of the sort we are treating of wanders from womb to womb, from birth to birth, from death to death, from hell to hell, from pain to pain. His is the southern region, the hell, the dark fortnight[78]. In the future he will not easily obtain enlightenment. (The . conduct described in the preceding) part is unworthy, impure, (&c., see § 57, all down to) it is thoroughly untrue, and bad. This is the explanation of the first subject, viz. demerit. (68)

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Now the explanation of the second subject, viz. merit, is as follows:

Here in the East, West, North, and South there are some such men as abstain from undertakings and possessions, righteous men, men practising righteousness, (&c., all as in § 58, but substitute ‘righteous’ for ‘unrighteous,’ down to) men gaining a righteous livelihood. They are of good character and morals, they are easy to please and good. They abstain from killing living beings as long as they live, (&c., all just the reverse of what was said in § 62, down to) whatever other suchlike wicked actions there be, that cause pains to other beings: these men abstain from them as long as they live. (69)

There are such monks as in walking carefully avoid to occasion the death of any living creature, (&c., all as in § 23, down to) as lead chaste lives regulated by the three Guptis, as are free from anger, pride, deceit, and greed, as are calm, tranquil, passionless, happy, free from the Āsravas, and bondage, without sorrow; as water does not adhere to a copper vessel, or collyrium to mother-of-pearl (so sins find no place in them); their course is unobstructed like that of Life; like the firmament they want nothing to support them; like the wind they know no obstacles; their heart is pure like the water (of rivers or tanks) in autumn; like the leaves of a lotus they cannot be soiled by anything; their senses are well protected like the limbs of a tortoise; they are single and alone like the horn of a rhinoceros; they are free like birds; they are always waking like the fabulous bird Bhāruṇḍa; they are valorous like elephants, strong like bulls, difficult to attack like lions, steady and firm like Mount Mandara, deep like the ocean, mild like the moon, refulgent like the sun, pure like excellent gold; like the earth they patiently bear everything; like a well-kindled fire they shine in their splendour[79]. (70)

There are no obstacles anywhere for these reverend men. The obstacles have been declared to be of four kinds, viz. animals born from eggs, viviparous animals, things belonging to somebody, articles necessary for religious exercises[80]. In whichever direction they want to go, there they meet with no obstacle; but being pure and free, full of learning, control, and austerities, they purify themselves. (7I)

These reverend men practise the following mode of living which just suffices for carrying on existence; they eat but one meal in two, three, four, five, six, seven days, in half a month, in one, two, three, four, five, six months; they (have vowed to) live on such food only as has been taken out of the cooking-vessel, or as is still in it, or the first kind of food in one place and the second in another, or on low food, or bad food, or food collected in small bits, or food given with a dirty hand, or the reverse, or food given with a hand, &c. soiled by it; they (have vowed to) accept such alms only as are within sight (when they beg), or are out of sight, as they are asked whether they would accept, or as they are not asked about, as are given with contempt, or the reverse; they beg (in houses where they are) unknown, or when food is scarce[81]; they accept only such things as are at hand, or only a limited number of gifts, or only a fixed quantity of food; they beg according to the rules (laid down for begging); they eat low food or bad food or tasteless food or badly tasting food or rough food or disagreeable food; they lead a low or mean life; they drink sour gruel, they eat nothing seasoned with ghee or similar materials; they do not drink liquors or eat meat, they do not eat highly-flavoured food; they eat standing, or supported by something, or sitting on a stool or an armchair; they lie down stretched out like a stick, or curved like a bent piece of wood[82]; they sit in the sun, they go naked[83]; they do not scratch themselves; they do not spit; they do not cut their beard, hair, and nails, they do not take any care of their person. (72)

Living in this way they practise many years Śramaṇahood, and if then they fall sick, or even if they do not, they refuse food and omit many meals by abstaining from food. When they have attained that for whose sake they went about naked and bald-headed, did not bathe, nor clean their teeth, nor protect their head from the sun, nor wear shoes; they slept on the bare ground or a plank or a piece of wood, plucked out their hair, led a life of chastity, entered the houses of strangers, and bore, with indifference, success, failure, honour, disgrace, slights, blame, reviling, threatening, beating, all sorts of hardships[84], and the twenty-two calamities and troubles; (when they have attained their end), they reach, while they are breathing their last, the highest knowledge and faith, called Kevala, which is infinite, supreme, unobstructed, unimpeded, complete and full; and then they obtain absolute perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, final beatitude, and put an end to all misery. (73)

Some become liberated[85] without assuming another body (after quitting the last). But others, having died at the allotted time, are, on account of a residue of (good) Karman, born in one of the regions of the gods. Among very beautiful, very splendid, very excellent, very glorious, very strong, very powerful, very happy (gods), they become very beautiful, very splendid, &c., gods[86]; their breasts shining with necklaces; their arms encumbered with bracelets and armrings; wearing ear-ornaments[87] which play on their cheeks, and earrings which hang down to the bracelets on their upper arms; wearing various ornaments on their hands; their crowns adorned with gay wreaths; putting on highly perfumed, excellent clothes; using beautiful, excellent garlands and ointments; their splendid body ornamented with a long down-reaching garland; having divine colours, touches, constitution (of the body), and rank; lighting up and illumining all ten quarters (of the universe) with their divine beauty, splendour, lustre, brightness, brilliancy, and light; beautiful when they go, beautiful when they rest, and happy also in the time to come.

(The conduct described in the preceding) part is worthy, pure, (&c., see § 57, all down to) it is thoroughly true, and good.

This is the explanation of the second subject, viz. merit. (74)

_______________________

Now the explanation of the third subject, viz. the mixed state, is as follows:

Here in the East, West, North, and South there are some such men as have few desires, few undertakings, few possessions, righteous men, men practising righteousness, (&c., all as in § 69, down to) men gaining a righteous livelihood. They are of good character and morals, easy to please, and good. They abstain, as long as they live, from one kind of killing living beings, but they do not abstain from another, (&c., similar as in § 62, all down to) whatever suchlike wicked actions there be, that cause pains to other beings, from some of them these men abstain as long as they live, from others they do not abstain. (75)

There[88] are, for instance, followers of the Śramaṇas, who comprehend (the doctrine about) living beings and things without life, who understand (the difference between) virtues and sins, who are well grounded in (the knowledge of) the Āsravas, Saṃvara, the realisation and annihilation (of Karman), the subject of actions[89], bondage, and final liberation; who, without anybody to back them[90], cannot be seduced from the creed of the Nirgranthas by hosts of gods, Asuras, Nāgas, Suvarṇas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, Kinnaras, Kimpuruṣas, Garuḍas, and snake-gods; who have no doubts, scruples, or misgivings about this creed of the Nirgranthas, but have grasped its meaning, got hold of its meaning, got information about its meaning, ascertained its meaning, and understood its meaning; whose very marrow[91] of the bones has been penetrated by their love (for the Nirgrantha creed), avowing that it alone is true, and all others futile. They keep the bar[92] (of their gates) raised and their door open, having no desire to enter a stranger’s house or his seraglio. They strictly keep the Posaha-fast on the fourteenth and eighth days of the month, on certain festivals[93], and on full-moon days. They provide the Nirgrantha Śramaṇas with pure acceptable food, drink, dainties and spices, with clothes, alms-bowls, blankets and brooms, with drugs and medicines, with stools, planks, beds, and couches. They purify themselves by practising the Śilavratas and Guṇavratas[94], the Viramaṇa, the Pratyākhyāna, the Posaha-fasts, and austerities which they have vowed to perform[95]. (76)

Living in this way they are for many years followers of the Śramaṇas, and if then they fall sick, or even if they do not, they refuse food and omit many meals by abstaining from food. Having confessed their sins and expiated them, and having attained perfection[96], they die at their allotted time, to be born again as gods in one of the regions of the gods, (&c., all as in § 74, down to) it is thoroughly true, and good.

This is the explanation of the third subject, viz. the mixed state. (77)

_______________________

He who does not practise cessation[97] (from sin), is called a foolish man; he who practises cessation (from sin), is called a wise man; he who in one regard practises cessation (from sin) and in another does not, is said to be in a state partaking of that of a wise man and that of a foolish man.

The conduct of him who does not practise cessation from all (sins), is that of a man who kills living creatures; it is unworthy, (&c., all down to) thoroughly untrue, and bad.

The conduct of him who practises cessation from all (sins), is that of a man who does not kill living creatures; it is worthy, pure, (&c., all down to) thoroughly true, and good.

The conduct of a man who in one regard practises cessation from all (sins) and in another does not, is that of a man who kills some living creatures and does not kill others; it is worthy, pure, (&c., all down to) thoroughly true, and good. (78)

_______________________

Those whom we have been treating of, fall under the two heads: merit and demerit; (the former is when the Self is) at rest, (the latter, when it is) in disturbance.

Now the explanation of the first subject is as follows:

There are enumerated three hundred and sixty-three philosophical schools[98]: those of the Kriyāvāda, those of the Akriyāvāda, those of the Ajñānikavāda, and those of the Vainayikavāda. These (philosophers) teach final beatitude, they teach final deliverance, they speak as Śrāvakas, they speak as teachers of Śrāvakas[99]. (79)

All these philosophers, founders of systems of their own, differing in intellect, will, character, opinions, taste, undertakings, and plans, formed one large circle, and every one of them stood in his place.

One man took hold of a vessel quite full of burning coals by an iron pair of tongs, and addressed those philosophers, founders of systems of their own, differing in intellect, (&c., all down to) undertakings and plans, in the following way: ‘Heighho! ye philosophers, (&c., all down to) undertakings and plans! take this vessel full of burning coals and hold it for a minute in your hands! But do not take hold of it by a pair of tongs, nor put out the fire, nor come to the help of one of your own creed or of an alien creed (by putting out the fire, &c.); but fair and honest[100], without using any trick, stretch out your hands.’ Having thus spoken, the man took hold of the vessel quite full of burning coals by an iron pair of tongs, and (offered to) put it in the hands of those philosophers. But the philosophers, (&c., all down to) undertakings and plans, held back their hands. On this the man addressed all the philosophers, (&c., all down to) undertakings and plans, in the following way: ‘Heighho, ye philosophers, (&c., all down to) undertakings and plans! why do you hold back your hands?’ ‘Our hand will be burned.’ ‘What then, if it is burned?’ ‘(We shall suffer) pain.’ ‘Because you are afraid of pain, you hold back your hands!’ (So are all creatures averse to pain). This is a maxim of general application[101], it is a true principle, a religious reflection[102]; this maxim, this principle, this religious reflection holds good with regard to every (living being). Therefore those Śramaṇas and Brāhmaṇas who say that all sorts of living beings may be beaten or treated with violence or abused or tormented or deprived of life, will in the time to come[103] suffer cutting or piercing, will experience birth, old age, death, conception in the womb, the Circle of Births, regeneration, existence as a foetus, the whole scale of mundane existences, and suffer a variety of pains[104], (80)

They will many times undergo punishment, pulling out of the hair, threatening, putting in irons, (&c., similar as in § 63, all down to) whirling round; (they will witness) the death of their mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, and daughters-in-law; (they will experience) poverty, bad luck, company of hated people, separation from those whom they love, misery, and despair; they will again and again wander about in the beginningless and endless, immense wilderness of the fourfold Saṃsāra. They will not reach perfection, (&c., all down to) not put an end to all misery.--This is a maxim of general application, (&c., all down to) holds good with regard to every (living being). (81)

But those Śramaṇas and Brāhmaṇas who say that all sorts of living beings should not be beaten, &c., will in the time to come not suffer cutting, &c. They will not undergo many punishments, (&c., all just the reverse of what has been said in §§ 80, 81, down to) put an end to all misery. (82)

_______________________

Thus those beings who practise the first twelve kinds of actions[105], have not attained perfection, (&c., all down to) have not, nor do, nor will put an end to all misery. (83) But those beings who practise the thirteenth kind of action, have attained perfection, (&c., all down to) have put, or put, or will put an end to all misery. (84)

Thus a monk who obtains his soul’s good and benefit, who guards himself, who (well directs the functions) of his soul, who well exerts himself, who protects himself (from evil), who is careful of himself, who saves himself (from the Saṃsāra), should withhold his soul (from the twelve kinds of committing sins). (85)

Thus I say.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Upaśānta and anupaśānta.

[2]:

Vibhaṅga, more literally, case.

[3]:

Daṇḍasamādāna, explained pāpopādāna.

[4]:

A difference is made between feeling (anubhavanti) and knowing (vidanti): (1) the sañgñins or rational beings feel and know impressions; (2) the Siddhas only know them; (3) the reasonless beings only feel them; (4) things without life neither know nor feel them. Sentient beings are those in Nos. 1 and 3.

[5]:

Compare Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 2, 3, 18, note 1. One MS. reads eraga for paraga. Eraka is the name of a reed.

[6]:

Mokṣa is the name of a tree = muṣkaka. The Ācārāṅga and one of our MSS. have moraga, peacocks' feathers. But that is out of place here.

[7]:

Kuccha is a white water-lily. The Ācārāṅga Sūtra has kuccaka = kūrcaka, brush.

[8]:

Paccaka in the Ācārāṅga Sūtra.

[9]:

Or a group of trees.

[10]:

A nearly identical enumeration of places occurs in Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 3, 3, 2. The words in brackets seem to be added later; for Śīlāṅka does not comment upon them, and expressly mentions ten places. They are generally omitted in the sequel when the same passage occurs again.

[11]:

Akasmāddaṇḍe. The commentators remark that the word akasmāt is in Magadha pronounced by the people as in Sanskrit. The fact is that we meet here and in the end of the next paragraph with the spelling akasmāt, while in the middle of the paragraphs it is spelled akamhā, which is the true Prākṛt form.

[12]:

Paspalum Sobriculatum.

[13]:

They are specialised in the text as Śyāmakaṃ triṇaṃ, mukundaka vrīhiūsita, and kālesuka. Only the two first are mentioned in our dictionaries.

[14]:

In the Dipikā the following versus memorialis is quoted, in which the names of places mentioned in the text are defined: grāmo vṛtyā vṛtaḥ syān nagaram urucaturgopurodbhāsiśobham kheṭaṃ nadyadriveṣṭaṃ parivṛtam abhitaḥ kharvaṭam parvatena | grāmair yuktam maṭambam dalitadaśaśataiḥ (?) pattanaṃ ratnayonir droṇākhyaṃ sindhuvelāvalayitam atha sambādhanaṃ'drisriṅge || It will be seen that the meaning of these terms given in this verse differs from that given in notes 3-11, p. 176.

[15]:

The same passage occurs Kalpa Sūtra, Lives of the Jinas, § 92, part i, p. 249.

[16]:

These are the eight kinds of pride, madasthānāni.

[17]:

The original has kāyaṃ, the body.

[18]:

Netteṇa = netreṇa. The commentator says that it is a particular tree; but I think the usual meaning of netra, viz. rope, suits better.

[19]:

Piṭṭhimaṃsī, literally, who eats the flesh of the back.

[22]:

Paccāyāti, pratyāyāti. Dīpikā: aviśvāsyatayā pratyāyāti prakhyātiṃ yāti.

[23]:

Concerning the fourfold division of speech see above, p. 335, and part i, p. 150, note 2.

[24]:

The meaning is that Brahmans declare it a capital crime to kill a Brahman, but a venial one to kill a Sūdra.

[25]:

Tammūyattāe = tamomūkatvena, explained either, blind by birth, or absolutely stupid or ignorant.

[26]:

The Karman of the preceding twelve kinds of sins is called sāmparāyika (see p. 298, n. 3). It takes hold of the Atman till it is annihilated; it is a lasting Karman, while that described in the next paragraph is of a momentary existence.

[27]:

Iriyāvahiya = īryapathika or airyapathika. The term īryapatha literally means, way of walking, but technically it denotes the actions of which the life of a correct ascetic consists, and airyapathika, therefore, is the Karman inseparable from it.

[28]:

The text consists of a string of technical terms, many of which have been explained already. I here incorporate the explanation in the translation. For more particulars see Bhandarkar’s Report, p. 98.

[29]:

Īryāsamita.

[30]:

Bhāṣāsamita.

[31]:

Eṣaṇāsamita.

[32]:

Bhāṇḍamātrādānanikṣepaṇasamita.

[33]:

Uccāra-prasravaṇa-śleshma-jalla-śriṅghāṇa-pariṣṭhāpanikā-samita.

[34]:

Maṇaḥ-, vāk-, kāya-samita.

[35]:

Manaḥ-, yak-, kāya-gupta.

[36]:

An almost identical passage occurs in the Uttarādhyayana XXIX, § 71, above p. 372.

[37]:

This typical passage is repeated here though it is apparently out of place.

[38]:

Not only this paragraph but also all that follows up to the last paragraph seems to be a later addition. For in the last paragraph the subject treated of in §§ 1-27 is taken up again and brought to its conclusion. After the supplement §§ 25-27 a separate treatise on the main subject is inserted §§ 28-60 (28-57 on demerit, 58-59 on merit, § 60 on a mixed state); after this follows a similar treatise in §§ 61-77 (61-68 on demerit, 69-74 on merit, 75-77 on a mixed state). In § 78 we have again a supplement, and §§ 79-82 contain another supplement (or perhaps two). §§ 83-85 give the conclusion of the first treatise (§§ 1-24) and must originally have followed immediately after § 24. So we have here, besides some appendices, three distinct original treatises on the same subject, very awkwardly pieced together to form one continuous lecture.

[39]:

E. g. the laughing of monkeys.

[40]:

Lakṣaṇa. The mystical signs meant are the svastika, &c.

[41]:

Vyañjana. The seeds are sesamum, beans, &c.

[42]:

Kākiṇī, rendered ratna in the commentary.

[43]:

Ātharvaṇī.

[44]:

Pākaśāsanī = indrajāla.

[45]:

Mṛgacakra.

[46]:

According to the commentary the Vaitālī art teaches to raise a stick (? daṇḍam utthāpayati, perhaps to lay a punishment on somebody) by spells; and the Ardhavaitālika, to remove it. In Pāli vetalaṃ means the magic art of bringing dead bodies to life by spells, see Childers' Dictionary of the Pāli Language, sub voce.

[47]:

Āyamaṇiṃ, it is omitted in some MSS. and in the commentaries.

[48]:

Vipratipanna.

[49]:

Sovariya, translated saukarika.

[50]:

I.e. he will be born in one of the low courses of existence.

[51]:

Khaladāṇeṇa vā surāthālaeṇa vā. My translation is conjectural.

[52]:

Guṇa; omitted in the printed text.

[53]:

Accharāe apphālettā bhavai = apsarāyāskapuṭikāyās āsphālayitā bhavati. I am not sure that I have hit the meaning; apsarā is perhaps derived from apasārayati, the word is wanting in our dictionaries.

[54]:

Compare Kalpa Sūtra. Lives of the Jinas, § 66, notes. Our commentator explains the prāyaskitta (expiatory acts) as ceremonies counteracting bad dreams.

[55]:

Compare Kalpa Sūtra, Lives of the Jinas, § 14, part i, p. 223.

[56]:

For according to the commentaries the worst of all regions is the south, the worst state of being that of denizens of hell, and the dark fortnight is the worse half of the month.

[57]:

Ṭhāṇe = sthānam.

[58]:

These words are in the 2nd person sing. of the imperative, which, according to Pāṇini III, 4, 2, may be used to express a repeated or habitual action.

[59]:

Utkuñcana.

[60]:

Gilli, puruṣadvayotkṣiptā jhollikā.

[61]:

Thilli, explained: a vehicle drawn by a pair of mules; but, according to Leumann sv., saddle.

[62]:

Sīyasandimāṇiyā, explained śibikāviśeṣa.

[63]:

Māṣa is a weight of gold.

[64]:

A sort of rice.

[65]:

A sort of pulse or lentil.

[66]:

A sort of kidney-bean.

[67]:

Probably Dolichos Sinensis.

[68]:

A sort of pulse, Dolichos Uniflorus.

[69]:

I cannot identify this plant, our dictionaries do not contain this or a similar word.

[70]:

This word ought perhaps to be divided in two; elā are cardamoms, but what miccha is I cannot say.

[71]:

Bhāgilla = bhāgika, one who gets the sixth part of the products (e.g. of agriculture) of the work for which he is hired.

[72]:

The following two words, vegacchahiya and aṅgacchahiya, I cannot translate.

[73]:

Compare § 55.

[74]:

Compare § 21.

[75]:

These words from the end of the paragraph are to be supplied here, or rather the following passage has been inserted in the p. 376 middle of the sentence so that it is apparently cut in two, of which the first lacks the verb.

[76]:

There is, apparently, a pun in the three words vajja, paṅka, ayasa, for they mean also steel, mud, iron.

[77]:

Muiṃ or sāyaṃ or suiṃ. The Dīpikā has śruti. The following words are rati, dhṛti, mati.

[78]:

Compare § 56 and note 1 on p. 372.

[79]:

The same passage occurs, mutatis mutandis, in the Kalpa Sūtra, Lives of the Jinas, § 118; see part i, p. 261, and notes 1 and 2.

[80]:

The author of the Dīpikā offers diverse interpretations of this division of obstacles, which are apparently guesses and not based on a solid tradition. In the parallel passage of the Kalpa Sūtra, § 119, the division is according to: matter, space, time, and affects.

[81]:

The author of the Dīpikā states that such monks beg in the morning.

[82]:

Lagaṇḍasāiṇo. They lie in such a position that only their heels and head, or the back touch the ground.

[83]:

I leave out agattayā or agamayā, which is not explained in the Dīpikā.

[84]:

Grāmakaṇṭaka, either the abuse met with in villages, or the objects of the senses (indriyagrāma).

[85]:

Bhayantāro bhavanti. Bhayantāro is explained: who go (gantāraḥ) from bhava to Mokṣa.

[86]:

The following description contains passages recurring in the Kalpa Sūtra, §§ 14, 15.

[87]:

Karṇapīṭha.

[88]:

Śīlāṅka says with regard to § 76: 'The MSS. of the text generally differ from one another in this passage; the text commented upon in the Ṭīkā does not agree with that of any MS. I therefore comment upon the text exhibited in one MS. If, therefore, my text does not agree with that (of the reader) he should not be alarmed.' All the MSS. I use have the same text, that of the commentator. It is characteristic of the way in which Harshakula, the author of the Dīpikā, worked, that he copies Śīlāṅka’s above remark with some verbal alterations.

[89]:

Kriyādhikaraṇa.

[90]:

Asahāyā.

[91]:

Here the commentator inserts the following story: In Rājagṛha lived a friar versed in magic arts; he carried off every woman he saw. On the citizens complaining about the rape, the king resolved to find out and punish the man. Catching sight of him at last on the fifth day, the king went after him till the friar disappeared in a hollow tree of the park, which led to an underground room. There the king followed and killed him. He released all the women whom the friar had captured. But one of them would not return to her husband, being desperately smitten with love for her seducer. On the advice of some wise men she was made to drink the friar’s (pounded) bones mixed up with milk. This took the spell off her and cured her of her strange passion.

[92]:

Ūsiyaphaliha = ucchritaparigha. The commentator mistakes phaliha for spaṭika, and vainly labours to make out a sound meaning.

[93]:

Uddiṣṭa.

[94]:

Concerning the Guṇavratas see Bhandarkar’s Report, 1883, 1884, p. 114. The Śīlavratas are apparently identical with the Aṇuvratas, ibidem. Hoernle translates this passage: by exercises in the moral restraints (imposed) by the religious vows as well as in the (general) renunciations and (special) Posaha-abstinences. Uvāsaga Dasāo, translation, p. 41.

[95]:

The same passage occurs below, 7, 4, and Aupapātika Sūtra, § 124. Upāsakadaśā, § 66.

[96]:

Samādhi, which is elsewhere explained by mokṣa, but in our case it cannot be final liberation, but a state of purity of the soul.

[97]:

Virati.

[98]:

According to the commentators there are 180 schools of Kriyāvādins, 84 of Akriyāvādins, 67 of Ajñānikavādins, and 32 of Vainayikavādins. These numbers are arrived at by calculation, not by actual observation. E.g. the 180 possible schools of the Kriyāvādins are calculated in the following way. The nine categories of the Jainas are: jīva, ajīva, āsrava, saṃvara, nirjarā, puṇya, pāpa, bandha, and mokṣa. Each of them may be regarded as svataḥ and parataḥ, as nitya and anitya with regard to kāla, īśvara, ātma, niyati, and svabhāva. By multiplying 9 successively in 2, 2, 5, we find 180 to be the number of possible schools of Kriyāvādins.

[99]:

I.e. they learn these heresies from their teachers, and teach them to their pupils.

[100]:

Niyāgapaḍivanna.

[102]:

Samosaraṇa = samavasaraṇa, explained: dharmavicāra, viz. of the true adage: ātmavat sarvabhūtāni yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati.

[103]:

Āgantu.

[104]:

Kalaṅkalībhāva.

[105]:

Described in §§ 5-21. See p. 365, note 3.

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