Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva (Study)

by Sajitha. A | 2018 | 50,171 words

This page relates ‘Karaka (i): Karmapravacaniya’ of the study on the Vasudevavijaya of Vasudeva from the 11th century A.D. The Vasudevavijayam is an educational poem belonging to the Shastra-Kavya category of technical Sanskrit literature. The Vasudevavijayam depicts in 657 verses the story of Lord Krishna while also elucidates the grammatical rules of the Ashtadhyayi of Panini (teaching the science of grammar). The subject-content of the poem was taken from the tenth Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.

Karmapravacanīyas are the particles which govern a substantive and qualify a verb and differ from other particles termed Upasarga and Gati. The word Karmapravacanīya is a big term compared with other technical terms such as ṭi, ghi, ghu etc. which generally do not exceed more than two syllables. The word Karmapravacanīya is not merely a technical term. It contains a definition of itself in it. It means that which qualifies or speaks about (proktvanta) an action (karma) is so called.

Pāṇini’s Adhikarasūtra karmapravacanīyāḥ (1/4/83) means, from this point as far as the aphorism adhirīśvare (1/4/97) the particles treated of, are to be understood as having the name of Karmapravacanīya. These are many particles in this contest. Vāsudeva employs all these in his poetry with a proper manner and respective order as seen in Pāṇinīya.

Vāsudeva starts the illustration of Karmapravacanīyas with the particle anu. For this he composes the verse,

grāmeyakairnāgarakaiścalokairnirīkṣyamāṇā saha rājakīyaiḥ |
karmandivandyā prakathayya saivaṃ tirodadhe'nu stanayitnupadyām ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 3.55)

Here stanayitnupadyām anu tirodadhe forms the example for anurlakṣaṇe (1/4/84) which means, the word anu when it denotes a sign, is called Karmapravacanīya. The word lakṣaṇa, means, an attendant circumstance, invariable concomitant or accident in its logical sense and note merely an occasional concurrence. The force of anu, in this case is that of after, in consequence of, because of, or being indicated by. Thus being associated with anu, the Karmapravacanīya, the word stanayitnupadyām is used in the second case, as per the rule karmapravacanīyayukte dvitīyā (2/3/8).

Another rule for the Karmapravacanīyatva of anu, is tṛtīyārthe (1/4/85); the word anu is Karmapravacanīya when it has the force of third case. The suggestive meaning of anu, in this case will be that of with or along with.

In the verse,

vyāmohamanvavasitena hṛdā nṛpo'pi prakṣīya so'kṣitadhiyau nigalādvimokṣam |
prāpayya śaurimatha tāṃ bhaginīṃ ca vākyairakṣīṇasauhṛdamapetaśucāvatānīt ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 3.56)

The portion vyāmoham anu avasitena is the example given for this rule. Here vyāmoham anu means vyāmohena or along with infatuation. Thus as it bears the sense of the third case, anu have got the name Karmapravacanīya; hence the word vyāmohaṃ employs the second case affix.

In the same way, the word anu is Karmapravacanīya, when it is used in the sense of inferior or subordinate to.

This is intimated in the rule hīne (1/4/86) and it is illustrated by Vāsudeva as:-

subhṛśamupadidīye mṛtyubhītya madīyaṃ hṛdayamanu ca yaḥ svaṃ vīryato'maṃsta viśvam |
svajanamaparimeyakrauryamojāyamānaṃ nṛpatiratha sa paśyanpraṇyagādītpraṇeyam ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.59)

In this verse viśvaṃ svamanu amaṃsta is the example, which means ‘considered the word inferior to one self’. Here the word anu gives the meaning of inferior. Hence it is Karmapravacanīya and the word svam which is associated with it, used in the second case.

Next, Vāsudeva together gives examples for four rules in a single verse. i.e.,

sarvo'pi yānupa guṇairjagatīha teṣāṃ na sthīyate nahi mayā jananādvaśe vaḥ |
tebhyaśca yuṣmadapa me suhṛto'nukāryaṃ naivāsti vartanamapi stha ca māṃ sahārdāḥ ||
(Vāsudevavijaya 5.60)

Here, in the portion yān upa bhavati, the word upa is a Karmapravacanīya as per the rule upo'dhike ca (1/4/87). According to this rule the word upa when it means superior or inferior to is Karmapravacanīya. In this context, Vāsudeva uses the term upa in the sense of inferior and hence it called Karmapravacanīya thus the word yān employs the second case affix.

Another part yuṣmad apa is given for the rule apaparī varjane (1/4/88). The words apa and pari are Karmapravacanīyas, when they have the meaning exclusion. The force of apa in this case is that of with the exception of. Thus apa is a Karmapravacanīya, and hence the word yuṣmad employs the fifth case affix by the rule pañcamyapāṅparibhiḥ(2/3/10).

Then the next rule āṅ maryādāvacane (1/4/89) is illustrated here itself as ājananād | The word āṅ as far as, is Karmapravacanīya, when it expresses the meaning limit. The word ājananād means as far as the birth. Here āṅ expresses a limit and also is a Karmapravacanīya. Thus the word janana associated with āṅ is used in the fifth case.

The rule abhirabhāge (1/4/91) is also exemplified here as māmabhi | The word abhi is Karmapravacanīya in the senses of lakṣaṇa (in the direction of), itthaṃbhūtākhyānam (as regards) and vīpsā (each severally) but not when it means division or share of. In this example the word abhi has its sense lakṣaṇa (direction of) and it is Karmapravacanīya as per this rule. Thus it is used in the second case.

In the same way, Vāsudeva gives examples for almost all the rules regarding Karmapravacanīya, with the exception of one or two. These are also maintained the respective order of Pāṇinīya.

Thus, Vāsudeva has gone through all the Kārakas and vibhaktis. He does justice with the order and principles of Pāṇini. In some cases, Vāsudeva has excluded some of the rules. This may be because of their lucidity or easiness to convey. At the same time, he is reluctant to illustrate the Vārttikās. But sometimes, some of them where included in certain contexts also. From this, it can be assume that Vāsudeva has no prime intension to illustrate the Vārttikas. He tried to explain or exemplify the Paninian rules only. This is not a case of Kārakas only, but all sections.

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