Dasarupaka (critical study)

by Anuru Ranjan Mishra | 2015 | 106,293 words

This page relates ‘Sentiments (rasa) used in a Ihamriga’ of the English study of the Dasarupaka of Dhananjaya: an important work on Hindu dramaturgy (Natya-shastra) from the tenth century dealing with the ten divisions of Sanskrit drama (nata), describing their technical aspects and essential dramaturgical principals. These ten types of drama are categorised based on the plot (vastu), hero (neta) and sentiment (rasa)

Part 9 - Sentiments (rasa) used in a Īhāmṛga

In the Rukmiṇīharaṇa, Vatsarāja has employed the sentiments like:

  1. heroic (vīra),
  2. laughter (hāsya),
  3. furious (raudra),
  4. erotic (śṛṅgāra),
  5. terrible (bhayānaka) and
  6. marvelous (adbhuta).

Heroic (vīra) –

The heroic sentiment is employed in all the parts of the drama. In the first act, the declaration of the war with Śiśupāla indicates the heroic sentiment. In the second act, it is applied when Kṛṣṇa says that he is encouraged to fight Śiśupāla and Rukmi, to get Rukmiṇī back with pride. In the fourth act, it is applied when Sātyaki and Balarāma challenged Śiśupāla to fight with them. Again, in the same act, heroic sentiment is applied when Śiśupāla runs behind Balarāma’s chariot and Kṛṣṇa challenges him.

Furious (raudra) –

The furious sentiment is also observed in many places of the Rukmiṇīharaṇa. In the first act, it is employed when Balarāma got angry listening to the letter written against him and Kṛṣṇa, exchanged words with Śiśupāla and Rukmī. He promised to kill Śiśupāla immediately. In the second act, it is employed when Uddhava and Kṛṣṇa were trying to search for the auspicious day for the war through astrologerand Balarāma got angry and said that it was useless to get astrological calculation for the moment, because they give false knowledge. Then in the fourth act, it is employed again when Sātyaki and Balarāma did not see Kṛṣṇaand they thought that Śiśupāla and Rukmī might have killed Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, Balarāma got angry and asked Rukmī to inform whereabouts of his brother and warned that otherwise he would forget their relation.Again, in the same act, it is employed in the conversations of Śiśupāla, Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma.

Comic (hāsya) –

The comic sentiment is used rarely. It is applied in the second act, when the conversation occurs between Dīpaka and Priyamvadaka and then also between Uddhava and Sātyaki.

Erotic (śṛṅgāra) –

The erotic sentiment is observed in the third and fourth acts. Since the erotic is not the main sentiment, the author has given the reflection of the sentiment.In the third act, when Rukmiṇī saw the portrait of Kṛṣṇa, she fell in love with him and started dreaming. Then in the fourth act, it manifests when Kṛṣṇa told Rukmiṇī that she would be his dear one, but, he would like first to finish off the undesired evil.

Terrible (bhayānaka) –

The terrible sentiment is applied first in the third act, when Subuddhi informs Rukmiṇī that Śiśupāla had been born with four hands, three eyes like descriptionsand she was horrified with the prospect of marrying such a dangerous person. Then in the fourth act, the magical war in the sky by Śiśupāla, was fearful. Further, in the same act, dreaded war between Kṛṣṇa and Śiśupāla was also terrible, as any relatives of Rukmiṇī were killed.

Marvellous (adbhuta) –

The marvellous sentiment is applied in the fourth act, when Kṛṣṇa and Śiśupāla started magical war in the sky. Then again, the coming of Tārkṣya, surprised everyone. Further, Kṛṣṇa’s fight in the sky with Śiśupāla, sitting on Tārkṣya, was marvellous.

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