Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

(2) [Here the entity which is the subject of description is said to have a distinct nature:]

अन्यैव सौन्दर्य-समृद्धिर् अस्या भङ्गी तथान्या वपुषो दृशोश् च ।
स्वान्तस्य चोल्लास-भरस् तथान्यो राधैव सान्या प्रिय-सङ्गमेन ॥

anyaiva saundarya-samṛddhir asyā bhaṅgī tathānyā vapuṣo dṛśoś ca |
svāntasya collāsa-bharas tathānyo rādhaiva sānyā priya-saṅgamena ||

anyā—is different; eva—only; saundarya—of beauty; samṛddhiḥ—the affluence; asyāḥ—Her; bhaṅgī—the curves; tathā—in that way; anyā—is different; vapuṣaḥ—of the body; dṛśoḥ—of both eyes; ca—and; sva-antasya—of Her mind; ca—and; ullāsa—of enthusiasm; bharaḥ—the profuseness; tathā—like that; anyaḥ—is different; rādhā eva—the same Rādhā; —She; anyā—is different; priya—with the lover; saṅgamena—due to union.

Because She met Her sweetheart, Rādhā’s affluence of beauty is different, the way Her body moves is different, and so is the curvature of Her eyes. The enthusiasm in Her heart has changed. Even She is different. (Govinda-līlāmṛta 11.140)

Commentary:

This is an example by Paṇḍita-rāja Jagannātha:

anyā jagad-dhita-mayī manasaḥ pravṛttir anyaiva kāpi racanā vacanāvalīnām |
lokottarā ca kṛtir ākṛtir ārta-hṛdyā vidyāvatāṃ sakalam eva caritram anyat ||

“Their mental inclination to benefit the world is something else. The particular construction of their series of words is simply of another nature. Their actions are out of this world, and their appearance is especially pleasing to those who are afflicted. In short, all the deeds of erudite persons are one-of-a-kind” (Rasa-gaṅgādhara, KM p. 311).

Furthermore, the atiśayokti propounded by Daṇḍī and Bhāmaha denotes someone’s excellence that surpasses worldly norms. Bhāmaha says atiśayokti is so called because it is a statement of the supereminence of a quality (atiśaya = guṇātiśaya).[1] This old-school atiśayokti, which often amounts to the svabhāvokti ornament (a description of the nature) when there is a description of Rādhā or Kṛṣṇa, matches the second variety of atiśayokti, because each one is characterized by being beyond worldly norms (lokottaratvam).[2]

For example:

adhara-dyutir asta-pallavā mukha-śobhā śaśi-kānti-laṅghinī |
tanur apratimā ca subhruvo na vidher asya kṛtiṃ vivakṣati ||

“The resplendence of her lips, which eclipses the tenderness of new leaves, the beauty of her face, which surpasses the radiance of the moon, and the incomparable body of that beautiful-browed woman are not expressive of the work of this creator.” (Bhāminī-vilāsa 2.68)

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

ity evam ādir uditā guṇātiśaya-yogataḥ |
sarvaivātiśayoktis tu tarkayet tāṃ yathāgamam || (Bhāmahālaṅkāra 2.84)

[2]:

Compare Daṇḍī’s definition of atiśayokti and Jagannātha’s definition of the second variety of atiśayokti: vivakṣā yā viśeṣasya loka-sīmātivartinī |
asāv atiśayoktiḥ syād alaṅkārottamā yathā || (Kāvyādarśa 2.214); atha prakārāntaram, yatrābhede’pi bhedo lokottaratva-pratipatty-arthaḥ, idam eva prastutasyānyatvam ity anenoktam (Rasa-gaṅgādhara, KM p. 311). However, Udbhaṭa’s first atiśayokti is defined along the lines of the old atiśayokti.

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