Svabhavokti, Svabhāvokti, Sva-bhavokti: 8 definitions


Svabhavokti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Svabhāvokti (स्वभावोक्ति, “natural description”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—Svabhāvokti or natural description is the description of such peculiar action or appearance of an object, as is not easily perceived by all. It may be mentioned here that a matter of fact description of a thing does not construe Svabhāvokti, it must be charming. The description must be in reference to the action and true nature of the thing, such as a child, lower animals etc. The actions and characteristics described must be peculiar to the object described and must not be such as to be common to it and others. Again, the description must be faithful and not hyperbolical.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Svabhāvokti (स्वभावोक्ति) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The historical development of svabhāvokti is interesting. Bhāmaha (K. A. II/93) is reluctant to offer the position of a figure to svabhāvokti. Danḍiṇ (K.P. II/13) has admitted svabhāvokti as a separate figure. He has given another name that is jāti to it. In his opinion when the nature of genus, action, quality and substance are described it is called svabhāvokti. It has a wider scope in scriptures and its application is also desired in poetry. Modern Ālaṃkārikas like Mammaṭa, Viśvanātha, and others have admitted svabhāvokti as a figure of speech.

Cirañjīva is not an exception to this common run. He defines svabhāvokti as follows—“svabhāvoktiḥ svabhāvasya svajātyādiṣu varṇane”.—“When the nature of one’s genus, quality, action and substance is described it is the figure svabhāvokti”.

Example of the svabhāvokti-alaṃkāra:—

ārūḍhakṣitipālabhālavigalatsvedāmbusekoddhatā bherībhāṅkṛticāpaṭaṅkṛticamatkārollasanmānasāḥ |
kṣubhyatkṣoṇitalaṃ sphuratkṣurapuṭaṃ cañcaccalatkeśaraṃ mandabhrāntavilocanaṃ pratidiśaṃ nṛtyanti vājibrajāḥ ||

“The multitudes of horses which are impatient by wetting with perspiration oozing out of the foreheads of mounted kings; whose minds are filled up with great joy by the charming twang of bows and the sounds of Kettle drums, are dancing on every quarter by strucking the surface of the earth with the shining hooves, with moving and fleeting manes and with eyes slightly illusioned”.

Notes: In this verse the impatience of the horses by sprinkling of water is their nature and it has been described in this verse. Similarly the quivering of manes etc. at the time of dance (action) is natural and it has been described in this verse. So it is an example of svabhāvokti.

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Svabhāvokti (स्वभावोक्ति) refers to “natural description” and represents one of the various Alaṅkāras (‘figures of speech’) classified as Artha (‘sense’), as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—In addition, many other alaṅkāras such as ‘sahokti’, ‘svabhāvokti’, ‘lokokti’, ‘atiśayokti’, etc., are also employed by our poet in Bhīṣmacarita. [...] There is an example of ‘svabhāvokti’ also in Bhīṣmacarita. With the help of this figure of speech, the poet gives a true picture of persons and places. In VI.50 the poet describes the welcome garland, prepared to welcome Devavrata, looks naturally beautiful because of Vedic chanting, musical sounds, flowers, attractive garlands made up of pearls and flowers hanged on it and more by the presence of King Śāntanu.

Kavyashastra book cover
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Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Svabhavokti in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svabhāvokti (स्वभावोक्ति).—f.

(-ktiḥ) 1. Spontaneous declaration. 2. Description of living objects by circumstances or acts suited to their character, (in rhetoric.) E. svabhāva, and ukti saying.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Svabhāvokti (स्वभावोक्ति):—[=sva-bhāvokti] [from sva-bhāva > sva] f. statement of the exact nature (of anything), accurate description of the properties (of things), [Kāvyādarśa; Pratāparudrīya] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] spontaneous declaration, [Apte’s The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svabhāvokti (स्वभावोक्ति):—[svabhāvo+kti] (ktiḥ) 2. f. Free declaration; delineation of character.

[Sanskrit to German]

Svabhavokti in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Svabhavokti in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Svabhāvōkti (ಸ್ವಭಾವೋಕ್ತಿ):—[noun] = ಸ್ವಭಾವ - [svabhava -] 5.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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