Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

अनुभावेषु सात्त्विका यथा,

anubhāveṣu sāttvikā yathā,

This illustrates the sāttvika-bhāvas, which are among the anubhāvas,

svinnā gadgada-bhāṣiṇī pulakitā stabdhā sphurad-vepathuḥ sāśrur mlāna-rucir yad adya jaladāloke’bhavad bhāvinī |
tan manye sphuṭam indranīla-mahasaḥ kasyāpi līlā-nidher vṛndāraṇya-vilāsino dyuti-bharair eṣā parābhūyata ||

svinnā—perspiring; gadgada-bhāṣiṇī—She whose speech is faltering; pulakitā—She has developped horripilation; stabdhā—stunned; sphurat-vepathuḥ—She whose trembling is manifesting; sa-aśruḥweeping; mlāna-ruciḥ—She whose radiance has faded; yat—since; adya—today; jalada-āloke—upon seeing a cloud; abhavat—became; bhāvinī—the emotional woman; tat—therefore; manye—I think; sphuṭam—obviously; indranīla-mahasaḥ—of He whose effulgence resembles the effulgence of a sapphire; kasya api—of some particular person (or some indescribable); līlā-nidheḥ—who is a reservoir of pastimes; vṛndā-araṇya-vilāsinaḥ—who sports in Vṛndā’s forest; dyuti-bharaiḥ—by multitudes of splendor; eṣā—She; parābhūyata—was overcome.

Upon seeing a cloud today, this emotional young lady perspired; Her speech faltered; She experienced horripilation; She became stunned; She manifestly trembled; She wept; and Her glow faded. Therefore I think that obviously She was overcome by the mass of splendor of some particular person who is effulgent like a sapphire, who is a reservoir of pastimes, and who sports in Vṛndā’s forest. (Alaṅkāra-kaustubha 5.260)


In his elaboration on text 4.8, Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa gave the list of the eight sāttvika-bhāvas. He inserts an explanatory verse about the sāttvika-bhāvas here, but Mammaṭa does not do so because his sequence follows kārikā 4.26 (text 4.6), where bhāva is stated after rasa. Mammaṭa defines the term bhāva as a sthāyi-bhāva and as a vyabhicāri-bhāva (4.43). A sāttvika-bhāva, as well as an anubhāva, is rarely implied.

In the above verse, Kavikarṇapūra illustrates all the sāttvika-bhāvas, (1) “She perspired” is sveda (perspiration), (2) “Her speech faltered” is svara-bheda (faltering voice), (3) “She experienced horripilation” is romāñca (horripilation), (4) “She became stunned” is stambha (being stunned), (5) “She trembled” is vepathu (trembling), (6) “She wept” is aśru (tears), (7) “Her glow faded” is vaivarṇya (a change in the complexion), and (8) “She was overcome by the mass of splendor of some particular person” is pralaya in the sense of a diminution of awareness owing to happiness.

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