Shishya, Śiṣya: 26 definitions

Introduction:

Shishya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śiṣya can be transliterated into English as Sisya or Shishya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Shishy.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to a “disciple”, as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.18. Accordingly, “[...] a disciple (śiṣya) with a pure soul shall of necessity carry out the order of the preceptor (Guru) risking his life and staking his possessions even if the task is not within his power. The word Śiṣya (disciple) means a person who is worthy of being ordered about. Dedicating all he has, even his body, to the preceptor, the disciple shall offer his food first to the preceptor and then take his food with his permission. Verily a disciple in virtue of his being subjected to discipline is a son unto the preceptor”.

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: The Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to a “disciple” (i.e. one possessed of good qualities like decent habits and spotless character), according to the Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa 4.43 (“types of Initiation and True Service of the Preceptor”). Accordingly, “[...] an ideal disciple will be saying thus: ‘I have a series of preceptors beginning with Brahmā and ending with a blade of grass. I have everyone worthy of my honour and worship. Who then is not honourable and respectable on the surface of the Earth unto me?’ Such a disciple who is favourably disposed towards all is glorified as an ideal disciple. One sanctified by and equipped with many good qualities free from impurities, good qualities like decent habits and spotless character, is called Śiṣya (disciple) because he abides by the Śāsana (behest) of the preceptor”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to “disciple. It is derived from the verbal root śās (to command) indicating that a disciple must accept śrī guru’s order as his very life”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to “pupil” (one who has to be taught), according to the Manusmṛti chapter 4.164. Accordingly:—“He shall not, when angry, raise the rod against another person, nor shall he let it fall; except in the case of the son or the pupil; these two he may beat with a view to correction”.

Note: Śiṣya here means ‘one who has to be taught—the ‘son’ is mentioned separately with a view to emphasis;—and in support of this it quotes the rule of Viṣṇu, which is in the general form ‘śāsyam śāset tāḍayet’.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to the “disciple”, according to Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam 12.7 (“On the Dīkṣā vidhi or on the rules of Initiation”).—Accordingly, “O Nārada! Listen. I am now telling you about the rules of initiation (Dīkṣā) of the disciples, pure in heart. When they are initiated, they become entitled then and not before that, to worship the Devas, the Fire and the Guru. [...] Both the Guru and the Śiṣya (disciple) ought to be very pure and true. (This is the first essential requisite. Then the results are instantaneous). [...] O Nārada! Thus the disciple would consider himself blessed and he would daily remain engaged in repeating the Mahā Mantra. [...]”

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to “disciple” (e.g, guruśiṣya—master and disciple), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as the Goddess (i.e., Kumārī) said to the God (i.e., Bhairava), “[...] Accomplishment is achieved in a special way by the transmission that takes place from master to disciple [i.e., guru-śiṣya-krama]. You are my Lord, so how can you relate (to me as my) disciple? O Mahādeva, you are omniscient; how can you (assume the role of a) disciple? Bearing this in mind, tell me what would be best, and free of fear”.

Source: archive.org: Shakti and Shakta

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to the “disciple” while Guru refers to the “spiritual teacher”.—Accordingly, “[...] It is the Guru who initiates and helps, and the relationship between him and the disciple (Śiṣya) continues until the attainment of spiritual Siddhi. [...] A man is Śiṣya so long as he is Sādhaka. When, however, Siddhi is attained, Guru and Śiṣya, as also all other dualisms, and relations, disappear”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to “students” (of astronomy), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] How can one, who is incapable of entrapping others with a hard question or of answering any that is put to himself or of explaining his views to his students [i.e., śiṣya], expect to become an astronomer? The fool whose exposition is at variance with the text and whose illustration is opposed to such exposition is not unlike one who addressing Brahmā as Pārvatī (Goddess) begins his praise by recounting the vices of a prostitute”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (artha)

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to a “pupil”, according to the Arthaśāstra verse 1.9.9-10.—Accordingly, “He should appoint as chaplain a man who comes from a very distinguished family and has an equally distinguished character, who is thoroughly trained in the Veda together with the limbs, in divine omens, and in government, and who could counteract divine and human adversities through Atharvan means. He should follow him as a pupil (śiṣya) his teacher, a son his father, and a servant his master”.

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to the “candidate”, according to the Svacchandatantra verse 4.79b-81b.—Accordingly, “Next there is the initiation for the purpose of the purification of the cosmic path for those who seek the fruit of [either] enjoyment or liberation. The subtle method that causes the cutting of the bonds is explained. The Guru asks the candidate (śiṣya) seeking benefits [about] the two-fold [option]. Whatever fruit he desires, accordingly he should start the propitiation of Mantras”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to the “pupil”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.1-2, while describing the interpretation of dreams]—“In the bright morning, at daybreak, after purification, etc., one by one as [explained in the previous chapter, the Ācārya] should enter the house. The pupil (śiṣya), who has sipped pure water, holds a flower in his hand. After bowing to the guru, delighted, he should tell his dreams to the guru”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to a “disciple”, according to the 12th-century Vajrāvalī of Abhayākaragupta.—Accordingly, “[...] and [the Ācārya] carries out also the installation of an image, etc., like the installation of a disciple (śiṣya-pratiṣṭhā)”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Śiṣya (शिष्य) refers to a “disciple”, according to the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita, while enumerating the 10 sāmācarī (practices of Sādhus).—Accordingly, the tenth practice, called Uvasampayā (upasampat) or ‘receiving initiation’ means:—“if any one goes to an Ācārya to receive from him initiation or further instruction in matters of knowledge, faith, and conduct, he is to acknowledge himself as his disciple (śiṣya)”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śiṣya.—(SII 1), a pupil. Note: śiṣya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śiṣya (शिष्य).—m (S) corruptly śiṣyā m A pupil, a disciple, an elève or follower. 2 A person attached to another to serve him, and to receive instruction from him in some science, accomplishment, or art, an apprentice.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śiṣya (शिष्य).—m A pupil, a disciple; an apprentice.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śiṣya (शिष्य).—[śās-kyap]

1) A pupil, disciple, scholar; दिष्यस्तेऽहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नम् (diṣyaste'haṃ śādhi māṃ tvāṃ prapannam) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.7.

2) Anger, passion.

3) Violence, force.

Derivable forms: śiṣyaḥ (शिष्यः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śiṣyā (शिष्या).—(see s.v. śiṣyate) = śikṣā: (1) phonetics: vyākaraṇe nirukte śiṣyāyāṃ (all mss.; Weller 41 line 1 would read śikṣ°) Lalitavistara 156.19 (prose); (2) śiṣyāpada = śikṣāpada: pañca-°pada-samādattā, devoted to the five commandments, said of Māyā, Lalitavistara 71.14 (prose; all mss.; not noted by Weller).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śiṣya (शिष्य).—m.

(-ṣyaḥ) 1. A pupil, a scholar. 2. Passion, anger. 3. Violence. E. śās to order, aff. kyap; the vowel changed to i .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śiṣya (शिष्य).—[adjective] to be taught or instructed; [masculine] scholar, pupil ([feminine] ā); [abstract] [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śiṣya (शिष्य):—[from śiṣṭa > śās] a etc. See 1. śiṣṭa p. 1076, col. 3, and p. 1077, col. 1.

2) [from śiṣ] b mfn. to be taught (See a-ś; a-niṣpanne niṣpanna-śabdaḥ śiṣyaḥ, ‘it must be taught that the word niṣpanna has the meaning of a-niṣpanna’ [vArttika] on [Pāṇini 3-2, 132])

3) [v.s. ...] to be instructed (See a-ś)

4) [v.s. ...] m. a pupil, scholar, disciple (f(ā). a female pupil), [ṢaḍvBr.; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] m. passion, anger, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] violence, [ib.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śiṣya (शिष्य):—(ṣyaḥ) 1. m. A pupil, scholar,; passion, violence.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śiṣya (शिष्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sissa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shishya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Shishya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śiṣya (शिष्य) [Also spelled shishy]:—(nm) a pupil, disciple; student; ~[tā/tva] pupilage, discipleship; studentship; ~[paraṃparā] discipular lineage/tradition; hence [śiṣyā] (nf).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śiṣya (ಶಿಷ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] a boy or man who is studying or undergoing any course for acquiring knowledge (either formally in a school or informally); a student.

2) [noun] a boy or man who is acquiring a trade, craft, skill or knowledge under specified conditions and for a specific period; an apprentice.

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Sisya (ಸಿಸ್ಯ):—[noun] (correctly, ಶಿಷ್ಯ [shishya]) a boy or man who is studying or undergoing any course for acquiring knowledge (either formally in a school or informally); a student.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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