Saudharma: 3 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Saudharma means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Saudharma in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Saudharma (सौधर्म) refers to a heavenly abode (kalpa) inhabited by Kalpopapanna gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The Kalpopapannas (‘those born in the heavens’) represent a sub-species of the Vaimānika gods, which in turn represents the fourth main classification of devas (gods). This kalpa is also known as Saudharmakalpa. In this specific kalpa, bodily coition is still performed and the associated leśyā is fiery. There are ten such kalpas being ruled over by sixty-four Indras (heavenly kings).

In Jain iconography, the associated animal symbol of the Saudharma-kalpa is an antelope (prakrit: miya, sanskrit: mṛga). These animals are depicted in a cosmological text of the Śvetāmbara tradition known as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna (“jewel of the compilation”), also known as the Trailokyadīpikā (“illumination of the triple world”), written by Śrīcandra in the 12th century.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Saudharma (सौधर्म) refers to one of the sixteen classes of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

Why the first lord of this heaven is called Saudharma Indra? Because of his association with Saudharma kalpa, he is called Indra. What is the number of layers in Saudharma and Aiśāna heavens? There are thirty one layers there. Which thought-colourations are there in Saudharma and Aiśāna gods? They have yellow thought-colouration. What is the minimum lifespan of deities in Saudharma and Aiśāna kalpas? It is slightly more than one pit-measured-period (kalya) in both.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Saudharma in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saudharma (सौधर्म):—m. ([from] su-dharma) ‘having rectitude’, a [particular] abode of the gods (with Jainas), [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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