Mesha, Mesa, Meṣa, Meṣā: 29 definitions

Introduction:

Mesha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Meṣa and Meṣā can be transliterated into English as Mesa or Mesha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Mesh.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Meṣa (मेष) falls under the category of domesticated animals (grāmya-paśu) according to the Vāyu Purāṇa.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Meṣa (मेष).—A synonym for Indra. Once Indra taking the shape of a goat went and drank the Soma of the sage Medhātithi. Then that sage called Indra 'goat' (meṣa) and that name of Meṣa stuck to him. (Sūkta 51, Anuvāka 10, Maṇḍala 11, Ṛgveda).

2) Meṣa (मेष).—A soldier of Subrahmaṇya. (Śloka 64, Chapter 45, Śalya Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Meṣa (मेष).—Sheep born of Sugrīvī;1 Indra took the guise of, to disturb the tapas of Vajrānga's wife.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 6. 33.
  • 2) Ib. 146. 64.

1b) Sūrya in, the month of Citra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 105. 46.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Meṣa (मेष) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.59) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Meṣa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Meṣa (मेष) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Meṣa) various roles suitable to them.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Meṣa (मेष) corresponds with the Aries zodiac sign and refers to the first of twelve rāśi (zodiacal sign), according to the Mānasāra. Rāśi is one of the three alternative principles, besides the six āyādiṣaḍvarga, used to constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular rāśi (e.g., meṣa) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). All twelve rāśis, except the eighth (vṛścika) are auspicious.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Meṣa (मेष) refers to the “fixed hindu zodiac” (i.e., the sign of Aries), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If the sun and moon should be eclipsed when in the sign of Aries (Meṣa), the Pāñcālas, the Kaliṅgas, the Sūrasenas, the people of Kāmboja, of Odra, of Kirāta, soldiers and persons who live by fire will be afflicted with miseries. If the sun or moon should be eclipsed when in the sign of Taurus (Vṛṣabha), shepherds, cows, their owners and eminent men will suffer miseries”.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Meṣa (मेष).—Sign Aries. Note: Meṣa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Meṣa (मेष) corresponds to “aries” (mid April to mid May) and refers to one of the zodiac signs (rāśī) in the Vedic calendar.—Rāśī refers to the different signs of the zodiac through which the sun travels. For precise dates, please refer to a Vedic calendar. In accordance with the zodiac sign the sun is situated in, one would utter [for example, meṣa-rāśī sthite bhāskare]

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Meṣa (मेष) refers to a type of goat breed (Hemitragus hylocrius).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Meṣa] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Meṣa (मेष) refers to the Nilgiri tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Meṣa (मेष) is the name of the Yuganātha (lord of the ages) of the dvāparayuga, which is associated with Pūrṇagiri, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—On the basis of hardly more than a hint in the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, it outlines a scheme of sixteen parts for each seat, conscious, no doubt, that this is an ideal number. The commentary normally limits itself to do no more than explain what is presented in the text. This is one of the few instances it adds substantially to its contents [i.e., the Lords of the Ages—Meṣa]. Presumably this is because when it was written the presentation of the features of the seats on this model was the accepted norm.

2) Meṣa (मेष) also refers to one of the disciples of Piṅgala, who is associated with Pūrṇagiri, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Meṣa (मेष) denotes ‘ram’ in the Rigveda and later, while Meṣī means ‘ sheep’. Both words are also used to denote the ‘wool’ of the sheep, especially as employed for the Soma filter. A wild (āraṇya) ram is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Meṣa (मेष) is the name of a Rāśi (zodiac sign) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Meṣa).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

mesa : (m.) a ram.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mēśā (मेशा) [or मेशी, mēśī].—a (mēṣa) Sheep-faced, mealy-mouthed, imbecile, mean and sneaking.

--- OR ---

mēṣa (मेष).—m (S) A ram. 2 The sign Aries.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mēśā (मेशा) [-śī, -शी].—a Sheep-faced.

--- OR ---

mēṣa (मेष).—m A ram. The sign Aries. mēṣī f An ewe.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Meṣa (मेष).—

1) A ram, sheep.

2) The sign Aries of the zodiac.

Derivable forms: meṣaḥ (मेषः).

--- OR ---

Meṣā (मेषा).—Small cardamoms.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Meṣa (मेष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) 1. A ram. 2. The sign Aries. 3. A kind of drug. f.

(-ṣā) A sort of small cardamom, brought from Guzerat. f. (-ṣī) An ewe. E. miṣ to contend with, aff. ac .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Meṣa (मेष).— (vb. mih, probably for mekṣa), I. m. 1. A ram. [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 40. 2. The sign Aries. Ii. f. ṣī, An ewe.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Meṣa (मेष).—[masculine] ram, sheep, in Veda also a fleece or anything woollen; [feminine] ī ewe.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Meṣa (मेष):—m. (√2. miṣ) a ram, sheep (in the older language applied also to a fleece or anything woollen), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) the sign of the zodiac Aries or the first arc of 30 degrees in a circle, [Sūryasiddhānta; Varāha-mihira; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) a species of plant, [Suśruta]

4) Name of a [particular] demon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. nejam)

5) Meṣā (मेषा):—[from meṣa] f. small cardamoms, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Meṣa (मेष):—(ṣaḥ) 1. m. A ram; Aries; a drug. f. (ṣā) Cardamoms. (ṣī) Ewe.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Meṣa (मेष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Aṇimisa, Aṇimesa, Mesa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mesha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Meṣa (मेष) [Also spelled mesh]:—(nm) Aries—the first sign of the zodiac; a ram; —[saṃkrāṃti] the day when the sun crosses into the mansion of Aries.

2) Mesa (मेस) [Also spelled ves]:—(nm) a mess.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Mesa (मेस) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Meṣa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mēṣa (ಮೇಷ):—

1) [noun] a male sheep; a ram.

2) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.

3) [noun] (astron.) a northern constellation between Pisces and Taurus; the Aries.

4) [noun] (astrol.) the first sign of the zodiac; Aries.

5) [noun] the plant Nardostachys jatamansi of Valerianaceae family; spikenard.

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Mēsa (ಮೇಸ):—[noun] = ಮೇಷ [mesha].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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