Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 6.48.17

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

मा का॑क॒म्बीर॒मुद्वृ॑हो॒ वन॒स्पति॒मश॑स्ती॒र्वि हि नीन॑शः । मोत सूरो॒ अह॑ ए॒वा च॒न ग्री॒वा आ॒दध॑ते॒ वेः ॥
मा काकम्बीरमुद्वृहो वनस्पतिमशस्तीर्वि हि नीनशः । मोत सूरो अह एवा चन ग्रीवा आदधते वेः ॥
mā kākambīram ud vṛho vanaspatim aśastīr vi hi nīnaśaḥ | mota sūro aha evā cana grīvā ādadhate veḥ ||

English translation:

“Uproot not, Pūṣan, the forest lord with its progeny of crows; utterly destroy those who are my revilers; let not the adversary ensnare me, as (fowlers) set snares for birds.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Progeny of cows: kākambīram vanaspatim: implies metaphorically the author of the sūkta, with his children and dependants; as fowlers: evā cana grīvā ādadhate veḥ, even as sometimes they plural ce snares for a bird;

Grīvā = damam, jālarūpam, a snare of the nature of a net


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): śaṃyurbārhaspatyaḥ [śaṃyurbārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): pūṣā ;
Chandas (meter): bhurigbṛhatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

मा । का॒क॒म्बीर॑म् । उत् । वृ॒हः॒ । वन॒स्पति॑म् । अश॑स्तीः । वि । हि । नीन॑शः । मा । उ॒त । सूरः॑ । अह॒रिति॑ । ए॒व । च॒न । ग्री॒वा । आ॒ऽदध॑ते । वेः ॥
मा । काकम्बीरम् । उत् । वृहः । वनस्पतिम् । अशस्तीः । वि । हि । नीनशः । मा । उत । सूरः । अहरिति । एव । चन । ग्रीवा । आदधते । वेः ॥
mā | kākambīram | ut | vṛhaḥ | vanaspatim | aśastīḥ | vi | hi | nīnaśaḥ | mā | uta | sūraḥ | ahariti | eva | cana | grīvā | ādadhate | veḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.48.17 English analysis of grammar]



kākambīram < kākambīra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine




vṛho < vṛhaḥ < vṛh

[verb], singular, Present injunctive


vanaspatim < vanaspati

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“tree; banyan; vanaspati [word]; vanaspativarga; vaṭādi.”

aśastīr < aśastīḥ < aśasti

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine




“apart; away; away.”



“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

nīnaśaḥ < naś

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“disappear; vanish; gasify; fail; perish; lose; bhasmībhū.”

mota <



mota < uta


“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

sūro < sūraḥ < svar


“sun; sky; sunlight.”



“aha [word]; indeed.”

evā < eva


“indeed; merely; thus; even; surely; same; eva [word]; successively; immediately; in truth.”



“not even; cana [word].”

grīvā < grīvāḥ < grīvā

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“neck; grīvā [word].”

ādadhate < ādhā < √dhā

[verb noun], dative, singular

“put; conceive; ignite; keep; effect; fuel; lend; cover; direct.”

veḥ < vi

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“vi; bird; vi.”

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