Lord Hayagriva in Sanskrit Literature

by Anindita Adhikari | 2019 | 56,368 words

This essay studies Lord Hayagriva as found in Sanskrit Literature such as the Vedas, Upanishads, Mahabharata, Puranas and Tantras. Hayagriva (lit. “the horse-headed one”) is worshipped as the supreme Lord of knowledge and wisdom and as an incarnation of Vishnu also symbolizes concepts such as power, intelligence and speed....

Chapter 1: Introduction

A study of the topic “Lord Hayagrīva in Sanskrit Literature” is a self explanatory title. Yet the concept of Hayagrīva[1] requires a bit introduction. ‘Haya’ meaning horse and ‘Grīva’ is the neck or head of horse. The two interrelated terms denotes some god whose origin can be clearly traced in the Upaniṣad as well as Mahābhārata. Hayagrīva is worshipped as the supreme Lord of knowledge and wisdom in the Hayagrīvopaniṣad, an Upaniṣad which is named after the Lord himself. The concept of Hayagrīva can, however, be traced back in the Vedic Saṃhitās though there is no clear mention of the name Hayagrīva. This type of mythological characteristics of a Hindu God is not rare in ancient Indian Sanskrit literature. There are various references in ancient Sanskrit texts in respect of the intermingling of the form of God with animal figure. This Sanskritic tradition offers us an idea for longing to commune with nature and the animal world around us in a symbolic manner. The philosophical sense lying behind this Hayagrīva concept might be for helping the humanity to define itself not in respect of actuality but in regard to potentiality.

Every society or a state has its own cultural, social, political and economic tradition. In Indian tradition human animal relationships encountered in myths, narratives, fables, legends and stories of Sanskrit literature are very close to the community and its experiences with other living beings.

Making use of symbol is an ancient way to express something and in arousing consciousness. Symbol is the soul of literature that communicates an important message in a hidden meaning or suggestive sense. It can be traced in all areas of life within a given culture and can be seen in the myths, fairy tales, folklores, songs and poems of that culture. Symbols are handed down from generation to generation and preserved in oral and written tradition. Throughout the literary history, compilers of oral traditions have used animals as a means to express sense. The mythological contents which generate the foundation of literature are vitally important because they can reveal interesting expressions of the consciousness of the earlier people and provide a basis for judgement of humanity.[2]

Thousands of years ago when first symbols were recorded by the cavemen they served as means of expression. This art of using symbol in literature and culture are quite old. The animal motifs were used as symbols of religious beliefs. The religious traditional beliefs of the people from ancient times centre around the concept of animal motifs. The philosophy of “collective consciousness” explains the use of animal images and symbols congruent with human culture in several regions of the world.[3] Thus symbols and myths as observed today, serve as a window into human nature, his desires and fears in the past and present and that might offer hint at his future. The idea of anthropomorphism got subdued due to the exceeding influence of the religion of the Vedic Aryans that had a huge impact on the rise and development of theistic cults.

Mythology is connected with the sacred, religious part, furnishing the entire body of myths about gods, sages, and heroes to portray their nature, origin, acts and environments. A myth actually arises when the imagination of man in a primitive and unscientific age interprets a natural event as the deed of a personified being, resembling the human envoy. The original myth then moves into the phase of poetical embellishment.

Several instances of animal human form are found in the myths recorded in different parts of the world. There are motifs of half human half animal, with human torso animal hindquarter, and animal headed human, such as the half goat half man god Pan (Plate:I.a) as an energetic god and giver of fertility whose cult spread throughout the Greek world.[4] Anubis (Plate:I.b) is one of the old gods represented as a dog or jackal in a human form with a jackal head or as the animal itself in Egypt.[5] Sekhamet (Plate:I.c) is also a significant deity in the Egyptian religion having a form of lion head.[6] Horse headed Demeter is a goddess of mystic worship in the Greek religion.[7] Centaur (Plate:I.d) is another mythical figure of Greek which came from the idealized concept of riding with a human torso on horse hindquarters.[8] Pegasus[9] a divine winged equine deity depicted in white colour and symbolising wisdom, fame and creator of poetry is another western figure. In Indian tradition we can also find this type of absurd animal human combined form like Elephant headed Ganeśa (Plate:II.(A).a), Goat-headed Dakṣa (Plate:II.(A).b), Boar headed goddess Vārāhī (Plate:II.(A).c) etc. Interestingly here we also find several incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu with halfhuman half-animal or full animal form (Plate:II.(A).d,e,f).

These half animal half human forms are depicted as having some virtues of humans combined with the animal power. However, the eastern religious traditions describe more appropriately the relationship of human with nonhuman compared to the aboriginal or early western tradition, where human is custodian of all beings. The Sanskrit texts Pañcatantra, Hitopadeśa, Kathāsaritsāgar etc. are the most famous writings to focus on animal characters speaking in human voice.

Sanskrit literature is a vast literature of the world and in the study of history of Indian religions Vedic mythology occupies a very important position. Its oldest source occupies an earlier stage of beliefs based on the personification and worship of natural phenomena. Vedic deities are classified into three fold divisions.[10] Though Vedic mythology is transparent enough to show the connection of both the deity and his name with a physical basis, in several instances the anthropomorphism is only incipient. Their acts and stories are narrated symbolically. Vedic seers adopt the symbol while anthropomorphic symbolism is not foremost and Vedic gods have human aspects too. The god forms with human superimposition in the Vedas are often described as holding weapon in their hands, dressed and wearing certain ornaments. Moreover in the verse like “Sahasraśīrṣā puruṣa[11] and so on, the prevalence of symbol as human form is evident.

In the Indian tradition the duties of human being towards the other species were often expressed as explicit ethical assertion rather than as implied in the folks and legends. According to Indian tradition all beings, animate or inanimate, entire universe and everything in it is considered as an expression of the Supreme Being and human beings are the custodians.[12] It is to be understood that all beings are reflections of the divine Soul (Ātman) aiming at perfection and being one with the supreme Soul (Mokṣa) and the duty of a custodian would be to support this attainment.

This philosophical concept is well exemplified in the animal images and symbols very much common in the Ṛgveda such as cow, bull, horse, eagle, and so on. Gods being associated with respective animals were originated in the Vedic period and subsequently evolved as ‘vāhana’, the animal vehicles of the gods in later Hinduism. The Vedas refer to horse as a ‘vāhana’ of the sun god. However, Vedic animals mostly remain as symbols, sometimes represented in absurd or mythic forms like the bull with four horns, three legs, two heads and seven hands.[13] Can there be four horns of a bull? This can never happen in natural condition. Under these circumstances the odd shaped creatures that were imagined, were entirely mythical and totally absent in the real world. But it cannot be denied anyway that both human and animals are taken from the real world. Likewise, in the empirical world or real world, one cannot find a man with horse’s head. It is totally absent in the real world. So, are these absurd creatures and these words fandango or clowning or meaningless? Is it merely funereal or does it have any mystical significance? The Vedic seers were experts in this fabrication of symbols. Subsequently use of the horse as a symbol can be seen. What does the horse symbolize? The horse in general is a symbol of the Sun god, as is evident from his several descriptions in the Ṛgveda[14] and the later Vedic literature.[15] Horse symbolises energy, light;swiftness etc. Symbol of light is Saptāśva. The word aśva signifying a horse is used to depict prāṇa, the nervous energy, the paramount health, the half-mental, half-material dynamism, that connects mind and matter. It has its root in the senses / ideas of impulsion, force, possession and ecstasy; united in the figure of the steed of life, to indicate the imperative tendencies of the prāṇic energy.[16] The harmonious combination of all these attributes was imposed on it. In this manner when the Vedic god is manifested with human superimposition, it appears to be the symbolic literary expression, and thus the idea of the Hayagrīva was formed.

The animal is a symbol of energy to overpower evil and also to subdue nature while the power of human intelligence symbolises the motivating heroic force in bringing about the impetus. So , Viṣṇu as the chief associate of Indra is sometimes compared with a dread beast and wide pacing bull as found in the Ṛgveda.[17]

Later, in the post-vedic age, when Lord Viṣṇu gradually emerged as a prominent and independent deity, it is observed that the combination of some characteristics as an animal and a human being resulting in the combination of energy and heroic force became natural development in many incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu. In this way , Viṣṇu is viewed as a lion-headed deity when he is as ‘Nṛsiṃhāvatāra’, boar headed deity the as ‘Varāhāvatāra’ and as a horseheaded deity with the name of ‘Hayagrīvāvatāra’. It is to be noted that the ‘Nṛsiṃhāvatāra’ is one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu but not ‘Hayagrīvāvatara’. Thus the present work titled, ‘LORD HAYAGRĪVA IN SANSKRIT LITERATURE’ aims at studying the origin and development of the concept of Hayagrīva cult as reflected in Sanskrit Literature so as to realize the greatness of Lord Viṣṇu.

Lord Hayagrīva is actually a symbol, a purely symbolic theriomorphic incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu that symbolises energy, speed, power, intelligence and knowledge. Going forward in search of Lord Hayagrīva in Sanskrit Literature, at first we approach the ancient Vedic texts to investigate the underlying concept of Hayagrīva. Then we move on to the mythological description of Hayagrīva in the great epic Mahābhārata and several sectarian Purāṇas, where we also come across some iconographical forms. A peep into the Tāntrik literature to have an idea about the mode of the god’s worship is needed. The Vedic, Purāṇic and Tāntrik traditions of worship appear to be continuing in several temples which are dedicated to Lord Hayagrīva. This reflects the extent of glorification of Hayagrīva and its mark on humanism, universalism and transcendentalism resulting in the Hayagrīva cult. In the Classical Sanskrit literature, we find an epic titled, ‘Hayagrīvavadham [Hayagrīvavadha]’[18] composed by the poet Bhartṛmeṇṭha[19] who is also known by the name Meṇṭha or Hastipaka. Mahādeva is the hero and the demon Hayagrīva is the villain in this epic.

As our subject of research is Lord Hayagrīva in Sanskrit literature it behoves us to give an account of the texts and references on the subject which we have gone through in preparing the thesis. The primary sources consist of the original texts of the Vedic literature–Saṃhitās, prominent Brāhmaṇas and the related Upaniṣad. The original text of the great Indian epic, the Mahābhārata, prominent purāṇa texts like Viṣṇupurāṇa, Bhāgavatpurāṇa, Agnipurāṇa, Devībhāgabata etc were gone through. To have an idea about the worship of Lord Hayagrīva Tāntrik literature named Yoginī Tantra originated in Assam, was considered.

Several ancillary sources such as “Hayagrīva: Horse-Headed Deity in Indian Culture”, a research work by Sridhara Babu is an useful sourcework of references to Hayagrīva in Indian literature and culture, has helped in my study. The first analytical discussion on Hayagrīva in English language is “Hayagrīva: The Mantrayanic Aspect of Horse Cult in China and Japan” written by R.H.van Gulik. It is primarily a textual survey of the Buddhist references to Hayagrīva in Tibet, China, and Japan in the light of the status of Horse-cult, apart from a very brief preliminary sketch of the Hayagrīva deity in India. He says that before the introduction of Mantrayāna Buddhism in Tibet and Japan, the horse-cult dominantly existed there and the Hayagrīva became prominent because of the local traditions of appropriation and unity of Hayagrīva with local deities. Another work titled, “Hayagrīva: The Many History of an Indian Deity” written by Kamala E. Nayar, has also been gone through. This study traces the complex development of a relatively “minor pan-Indian deity” Hayagrīva, revered as a full form of the supreme Lord Viṣṇu in the Vaiṣṇava tradition of South India during fourteenth century C.E. From the perspectives of mythology, iconography and ritual, the analysis examines the deity corresponding to the three-fold division of Hindu texts like a) pan-Indian ‘mainstream’ i.e Vedas, Epics and Purāṇas. b) pan-Indian sectarian Āgamas and c) regional sectarian hymns of the Aḷvārs and Vaiṣṇava Ācāryas.

However, in the tradition of China the indigenous horse cult reveals that the status of Hayagrīva has receded to a little. In the article “The Demon and Deity: Conflict Syndrome in the Hayagrīva Legend” written by Suvira Jaiswal, the conflict about the Hayagrīva myth in several texts is analysed and arguments presented for the necessity of its anthromorpological and historical importance. The author of the article is of the belief that one cannot simply assume direct textual linking of the development of Hayagrīva . Another article “Hayagrīva or the Making of an Avatāra”, written by Adalbert J. Gail, deals with the origin of the Hayagrīvāvatāra on the basis of the idea of the Submarine fire and also adds important hydrological observation and declares the avatāra Viṣṇu-Hayagrīva as the creator of the Vedas. In India the worship of Hayagrīva is mostly observed in Karnataka. Other works related to the Hayagrīva worship at Hājo Mādhava Temple, Assam, one of the living traditions of this deity, include “Hayagrīva worship in Assam” by J.C. Ghosh and “Worship of Hayagrīva” by Maheswara Neog. Observing the Hayagrīva worship in Maṇikūṭa Hill in Hājo, Assam, Suvira Jaiswal concludes that the figure found till today originated in the beliefs and traditions of the indigenous tribes of Assam and was then incorporated into the Mantrayāna Buddhism.

After a thorough consideration of the above mentioned books and articles it could be surmised that Sridhara Babu gave an overall view of Hayagrīva nevertheless there is a lack of conceptualization of the subject and critical analysis, R.H.van Gulik dealt with Hayagrīva in Buddhism mentioning a brief idea in the Indian aspect and Kamala E Nayer presented a historical background of the Hayagrīva in the temples of South India. The present study conceptually differs from the above mentioned references as it has attempted a thorough study of the original Sanskrit texts, for the first time to unveil the mystery lying with Hayagrīva as reflected in the Sanskrit literature. Moreover, necessity was felt to throw light on the complete picture of the origin and development of the Hayagrīva cult in the Indian context.

A visit to a temple dedicated to the Hayagrīva in Assam reveals that there is truly a lacking of comprehensive and critical approach in the abovementioned studies. So, a holistic study of the concept of the Hayagrīva avatāra and cult is necessary to fill in the gap of the query focussing on the following points.

> The origin of this absurd form of Viṣṇu, the symbolic implication behind the weird expression and concept of the Hayagrīva, its expansion into later Vedic literature that leads to the place of Hayagrīva in the Hayagrīvopaniṣad.

> The part played by the Hayagrīva in the great Epic Mahābhārata. V iṣṇu as a retriever of the Vedas and the ultimate redeemer.

> A comparative study of the concept of Hayagrīva in the Mahābhārata and in the Hayagrīvopaniṣad.

> Treatment of Hayagrīva in different sectarian purāṇas and a comparative study amongst Vaiṣṇava, Śākta and Śaiva purāṇa to present a comprehensive picture.

> Significance of the most elaborate narrative of the Devībhāgavata where Devī is explicit as the cause behind every cosmic activity.

> The iconography and worship of Hayagrīva and the emergence of the Hayagrīva cult as a means to unify different religious sects.

Our method in the present dissertation is both critical and comparative. To complete the present dissertation, consultation has been made with the relevant original texts of the Vedic literature Saṃhitās, m ajor Brāhmaṇical texts and Hayagrīvopaniṣad to find out the origin of the Hayagrīva concept. Lord Hayagrīva is a purely symbolic manifestation of Viṣṇu having human form with horse’s head in the Vedic mythology. Therefore the concept has to be investigated in the Vedic literature to know how the original human head was cut down and transplanted with the horse’s head.

The relevant portions of the original text of the great epic, Mahābhārata with the available commentaries and notes, have been gone through to reveal the mythical nature of Lord Hayagrīva therein. We have also included detailed consideration of the texts of the major purāṇas like–Viṣṇupurāṇa, Bhāgavatapurāṇa, Agnipurāṇa, Devībhāgabata, Skandapurāṇa etc. wherein a clear picture of the myths related to Lord Hayagrīva is available. A comparative study of the episodes of Lord Hayagrīva available in different purāṇas and the great epic has also been made.

Moreover, to give our dissertation a comprehensive form we also had to peep into the Tāntrik literature to bring out the method of worshiping the Lord Hayagrīva. There are many temples having the images of Lord Hayagrīva scattered all over India. The Hayagrīva Mādhava Temple in Hājo, Assam was visited by us to have a practical idea about the worship and other related matters. We have also tried to be acquainted with the works of great scholars in this subject and weigh their views.

We sincerely feel that a critical study of the origin and development of the concept of Lord Hayagrīva in Sanskrit Literature is a long felt desideratum and our present research work will surely fulfil this gap. Our realistic and practical assessment will surely make the study an interesting and useful in the academic field and also add to the requirement of religious and cultural advancement.

The thesis titled ‘LORD HAYAGRĪVA IN SANSKRIT LITERATURE’ comprises of seven chapters as mentioned below.

Chapter One: Introduction

Chapter Two: Hayagrīva in the Hayagrīvopaniṣad. O rigin and development of Hayagrīva in the Vedic literature through Saṃhitās, major Brāhmaṇs, Āraṇyakas and Hayagrīvopaniṣad.

Chapter Three: Hayagrīva in the Mahābhārata.

Chapter Four: This chapter deals with Lord Hayagrīva in different purāṇas namely Viṣṇupurāṇa, Agnipurāṇa, Bhagavatpurāṇa etc. Differences and similarities in the approaches of the purāṇas are also discussed. The role played by Hayagrīva in the religious aspect is also noted.

Chapter Five: Hayagrīva in the Devībhāgavata.

Chapter Six: Hayagrīva in the Yoginī Tantra. Hayagrīva Mādhava Temple in Hājo, Assam. The legend of Hayagrīva Mādhava–His worship.

Chapter Seven: Conclusion.

However, each chapter has been divided into sections and sub-sections. It is hoped that the result of our investigation will surely add significant contribution to the concerned field of studies and will incite for further investigation on the incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu.

Footnotes and references:


“Hayasya grīvā iva grīvā yasya= Hayagrīva”, as explained by Sri Mahādevānanda in his article meaning thereby ‘A Horse headed one’ or ‘Horse necked one’. Haya literally means Horse. Amarkoṣakāra gives etymologic utterance of the word ‘Haya’ as “Ghoṭakepīti-turaga-turaṅgā’śva-turaṅgamāḥ/ vājīvāhārvvahayasaindhavasaptayaḥ//” means ‘Haya’ refers as ‘Aśva’, ‘Turaga’, ‘Turaṅga’, Vājī etc. and the word Grīva means neck—“Śiro dhīyate’nayādhākarmraṇyadhikaraṇe ca” that which bears the head. The head or śira is vital part of body. As the neck or grīva contains the śira, it’s known as śirodhī. It is one of the parts of the human body with which gestures or āṅgika are performed, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures form a part of the abhinaya. Not only a part of human body it is also identical with animal body evident in a famous work of Kālidāsa’s Abhijñānaśakuntalaṃ (1.6). In the transformation of Indian Temple Architecture, Grīva refers to the “neck” of a temple. It is the recess below the Śikhara. The Grīva of the temple or prāsāda is a very important recessed part (Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation). According to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 14), Grīvā refers to that part of the human body from which Lord Buddha emitted numerous rays when he smiled after contemplating the entire universe. It may be said therefore, that the meaning of Grīva is identical with the neck and the meaning of the word Hayagrīva stands for horse necked or horse headed form.


Signmund Freud: “Totem and Taboo.” The Basic Writtings of Signmund Freud, p.807.


C. G. Jung: “Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious.” The Basic Writings of C.G. Jung, pp.299-300.


Cisco Wheeler: Behold a White Horse, p.208.


Robart A Armour: Gods and Myths of Ancient Egypt, p.140.


Massimiliano Pinarello, Justin Yoo, Jason Lundock, Carl Walsh: Current Research in Egyptology 2014 Proceedings of the fifteenth Annual Symposium, p.100.


Lewis Richard Farnell: The Cult of the Greek States, p.56.


A.W. van den Hoek, D.H.A. Kolff, and M.S. Oort: Ritual, State, and History in South Asia: Essays in Honour of J.C. Heesterman, p.79.


Steven Olderr: Symbolism: A Comprehensive Dictionary, p.113.


“A threefold divisions are implied when the gods are connected with heaven, earth and waters. Following the triple classification of Ṛgveda, Yāska divides the different deities or forms of the same deity enumerated in the fifth chapter of the Naighaṇṭuka, into the three orders of pṛthivīsthāna, terrestrial (Nir. 7.14-9.43), antarikṣasthāna, madhyamasthāna, aerial or intermediate (10, 1-11.50), dyusthāna, celestial (12, 1-46).” A.A. Macdonell: Vedic Mythology, p.19.


“Sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākśaḥ sahasrapāt/
Sa bhūmiṃ viśvato vṛtvā'tyatiṣṭaddaśāgulam//
Puruṣaṃ evedaṃ sarvaṃ yadbhūtaṃ yacca bhavya/
Utāmṛtatvasyeśāno yadannenātirohati//
Etāvānasya mahimāto jyāyāṃśca puruṣaḥ/
Pādo’sya viśvā bhūtāni tripādasyāmṛtaṃ divi//
Tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo’syehābhavat punaḥ/
Tato visvaṅvyakrāmat sāśanānaśne abhi//
Tasmādvirāḍajāyata virājo adhi puruṣaḥ/
Sa jāto atyaricyata paścābhūmimatho puraḥ//” Ṛgveda, 10.90.1-5.

The Puruṣa sūkta explain the supreme spirit Puruṣa as thousand headed thousand eyed with thousand feet to encompass the universe and transcended it by ten aṅgulas. The parts of body here mentioned as metaphorically and by implication to individual being Puruṣa are meant. The entire world whatever has been and whatever will come to be is only Puruṣa. In this entire description ‘Virāt Puruṣa’ is purely symbolic.


Iśopaniṣad, 1-3.


The animal symbol plays a significant part in the grammatical philosophy also. Hence, Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya refers a Vedic passage: “Catvāri sṛṅgā trayo asya pādā/ Dve śīrṣe sapta hastāso asya//”etc. According to Patañjali, the bull is śabda-bahman. It has four horns in the form of four distinct classes of words viz nāma, ākhyāta, upasarga and nipāta. It is with these four horns symbolical bull operates in this world. It means that śabda is reduced to meaningful sentence by using these four classes of words. The bull (śabda) has seven hands in the form of seven affixes and also have two heads implies that it has an eternal and transformal form. The eternal meaning of śabda is sphota, which in its ‘kārya’ form refers to momentary “vaikhari vāk” that we hear after utterance. The expression “tridhā baddhaḥ” in the third line refers to the three sense in which śabda is used. Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya,Vol.I, p.40.


Ṛgveda, I.163.2; VII.77.3; I.50.1, 8. 9;V.45.9.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, VI.3.1.29;VII.3.2.10; AB, VI.35; TS, VI. 6.1 1.6.


Aurobindo: The Symbolism in Rgveda, p.32.


Ṛgveda, I.154.2.3.


Unfortunately Hayagrīavadham has been lost, but some passages from this epic had been quoted in the Mammaṭa’s Kāvyaprakāśa, in the Viśvanātha Kavirāja’s Sāhityadarpaṇaḥ [Sāhityadarpaṇa], in the Bhojarāja’s Śṛṅgāraprakāśa, one in the Kṣemendra’s Suvṛttatilaka and two more in Kalhaṇa’s Rājataraṅginī. Other stanzas are quoted in various anthologies. Some of the references are given bellow:

“Āsīd daityo hayagrīvaḥ/ Suhṛdveśmasu yasya tāḥ/
Prathayanti balaṃ bāhvoḥ/ Sitacchatrāsmitāḥ śriyaḥ//
Yaṃ prekṣya cirarūḍhāpi/ Nivāsaprītirujjhitāḥ/
Madenairāvaṇamukhe/ Mānena hṛdaye hareḥ//
Vinirgataṃ mānadamātmandirāt/ Bhavatyupaśrutya yaddṛcchayāpi yaṃ/
Sasambhramendradrutapāitārgalā/ Nimīlitākṣīva bhiyā’marāvatī//” Kāvya prakāśa, 1.

“Spṛṣṭāntā nandane śacyāḥ/ Keśasambhogalālitā/
Sāvajñaṃ pārijātasya/ Mañjaryo yasya sainikaiḥ//” Sāhityadarpaṇaḥ, 10.

“Dānavādhipate bhūyo/ bhujo’yaṃ kinna nīyate/
Sahāyatāṃ kṛtāntasya/ Kṣayābhiprāyasiddhiṣu//
Mahāsurasamāje’smin/ Na caiko’pyasti so’suraḥ/
Yasya nāśaniniṣpeṣaṇīrājitamuraḥsthalaṃ//” Śṛṅgāraprakāśa, 2.472.

Vipadi dhairyamathābhyudaye kṣamā/ Sadasi vākpaṭutā yudhi vikramaḥ/
Yaśasi cābhiratirvyasanaṃ śrute/ Prakritisiddhamidaṃ hi mahātmanāṃ//” Subhā, 267.

“Tākto vindhyagiriḥ pitā bhagavatī māteva revā nadī/
Te te snehanibandhabandhuradhiyastulyodayā dantinaḥ//
Tvallobhānnanu hastini swayamidaṃ vandhāya dattaṃ vapus/
Tvaṃ dūre dhriyase luṇṭhanti ca śiraḥpīṭhe kathorāṅkuśāḥ//” Saduktikarṇāmṛta, 1853.


His importance as a poet as equal to Kālidāsa, Bhāravi, Subandhu or Bāṇa is shown in his praises by Maṅka, Śivasvāmin, Rājaśekhara and others. According to Kalhaṇa, Meṇṭha was a Kāśmirī, who worked at the court of king Mātṛgupta of Kāśmīra.

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