Apaya, Apāya, Apayā, Āpayā: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Apaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Apāya (अपाय).—Point of departure, separation; cf. ध्रुवमपायेपादानम् (dhruvamapāyepādānam) P.I.4.24;

2) Apāya.—Disappearance; cf. संनियेगशिष्टानामन्यत-रापाये उभयोरप्यपायः । तद्यथा । देवदत्तयज्ञदत्ताभ्या-मिदं कर्म कर्तव्यम् । देवदत्तापाये यज्ञदत्तेपि न करोति (saṃniyegaśiṣṭānāmanyata-rāpāye ubhayorapyapāyaḥ | tadyathā | devadattayajñadattābhyā-midaṃ karma kartavyam | devadattāpāye yajñadattepi na karoti) M. Bh. on IV.1.36.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Red Zambala: On the Salvific Activities of God

Apāyas are detrimental criminal activities such as violence, aggression, theft etc.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

T (Devoid of happiness). Group of the inferior worlds. The apayas do comprise four worlds:

  1. The asuras.
  2. The animals.
  3. The petas.
  4. The evils.

The existence of these worlds is prevailingly dominated by some emotions such as aversion, hatred and anger

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

The 4 'lower worlds'. are:

  • the animal world,

  • ghost world,

  • demon-world,

  • hell.

See Vis.M. XIII, 92f.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Apāya (अपाय) refers to “difficulties” and represents one of the four divisions of Dharmadhyāna (“meditation on the destruction of karma”), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“The destruction of karma is from good meditation, and that meditation is four-fold: on ājñā, apāya, vipāka, and saṃsthāna. [...] There are difficulties (apāya) by the thousand of those by whom the path of the Jinas is untouched, to whom the Supreme Lord is unknown, and by whom the future is unconsidered. What impure acts have not been committed by the soul subjected to the intense darkness of deceit and delusion? Or what calamity has not been experienced? [...] That is regarded as ‘apāyavicaya-meditation’ in which one reflects thus on calamities arising from love, hate, and delusion”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

apāya : (m.) the hell; state of loss and woe; lapse; loss.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Apāya, (Sk. apāya, fr. apa + i, cp. apeti) “going away” viz. — 1. separation, loss Dh.211 (piya° = viyoga DhA.III, 276). — 2. loss (of property) D.III, 181, 182; A.II, 166; IV, 283; J.III, 387 (atth°). — 3. leakage, out flow (of water) D.I, 74; A.II, 166; IV, 287. — 4. lapse, falling away (in conduct) D.I, 100. — 5. a transient state of loss and woe after death. Four such states are specified purgatory (niraya), rebirth as an animal, or as a ghost, or as a Titan (Asura). Analogous expressions are vinipāta & duggati. All combined at D.I, 82; III, 111; A.I, 55; It.12, 73; Nd2 under kāya; & frequent elsewhere. — apāyaduggativinipāta as attr. of saṃsāra S.II, 92, 232; IV, 158, 313; V, 342; opp. to khīṇâpāya-duggati-vinipāta of an Arahant A.IV, 405; V, 182 sq. — See also foll. pass.: M.III, 25 (anapāya); Sn.231; Th.2, 63; J.IV, 299; Pug.51; VvA.118 (opp. sugati); PvA.103; Sdhp.43, 75 & cp. niraya, duggati, vinipāta.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

apāya (अपाय).—m (S) Evil, ill, mischief, calamity. 2 Loss, detriment, damage.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

apāya (अपाय).—m Harm, injury, loss, destruction. Evil, ill, mischief (opp. upāya).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Apayā (अपया).—2 P. To depart, go away, retire, withdraw, fall off or away, disappear; अपयातमेव हि विमानमण्डलैः (apayātameva hi vimānamaṇḍalaiḥ) U.6.4; शोको दिनेषु गच्छत्सु वर्धतामपयाति किम् (śoko dineṣu gacchatsu vardhatāmapayāti kim) H.4.82.

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Apāya (अपाय).—See under अपे (ape).

See also (synonyms): apāyin.

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Apāya (अपाय).—[i-ac]

1) Going away, departure.

2) Separation; ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् (dhruvamapāye'pādānam) P.I.4.24. (apāyo viśleṣaḥ Sk.); येन जातं प्रियापाये कद्वदं हंसकोकिलम् (yena jātaṃ priyāpāye kadvadaṃ haṃsakokilam) Bk.6.75.

3) Disappearance, vanishing, absence; सूर्यापाये (sūryāpāye) Me.82 at the time of sunset; क्षणदापायशशाङ्कदर्शनः (kṣaṇadāpāyaśaśāṅkadarśanaḥ) R.8.74 close of night; जलापाय- विपाण्डुराणि (jalāpāya- vipāṇḍurāṇi) Śi.4.5;4.54;18.1.

4) Destruction, loss, death, annihilation; करणापायविभिन्नवर्णया (karaṇāpāyavibhinnavarṇayā) R.8.42 loss, 83; मालत्यपायमधिगम्य (mālatyapāyamadhigamya) Māl.1.9 death or disappearance of M.

5) An evil, ill, misfortune, risk, calamity, danger (oft. opp. upāya); तदपि मरणापायचकितः (tadapi maraṇāpāyacakitaḥ) Bh.3.9; तदनेन पापबुद्धिनोपायश्चिन्तितो नापायः (tadanena pāpabuddhinopāyaścintito nāpāyaḥ) Pt.1 not the danger (resulting from the plan); उपायं चिन्तयेत्प्राज्ञस्तथापायं च चिन्तयेत् (upāyaṃ cintayetprājñastathāpāyaṃ ca cintayet) Pt.1.46; अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिप् (apāyasaṃdarśanajāṃ vipattimupāyasaṃdarśanajāṃ ca siddhip) 1.61; बह्वपाये वने (bahvapāye vane) Pt.1 exposed to many dangers, dangerous; कायः संनिहितापायः (kāyaḥ saṃnihitāpāyaḥ) H.4.65 exposed to dangers or calamities; सत्येऽप्यपायमपेक्षते (satye'pyapāyamapekṣate) H.4.12; Ki.14.19.

6) Loss, detriment, injury.

7) The end (of a word).

Derivable forms: apāyaḥ (अपायः).

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Āpayā (आपया).—[āpena jalapūreṇa yāti yā-ka] Name of a river near the Sarasvatī; दृषद्वत्या मानुष आपयायां सरस्वत्यां रेवदग्ने दिदीहि (dṛṣadvatyā mānuṣa āpayāyāṃ sarasvatyāṃ revadagne didīhi) Rv.3.23.4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Apāya (अपाय).—(= Pali id., also Sanskrit but not in this technical application), evil state, = durgati, q.v. There are three such (see s.v. gati): in hells, as animals, as ghosts. In Pali this group of three is rare; usually there are four, life as asuras being added: Lalitavistara 32.12 try-apāya; 89.14 muktāś ca te tribhyo 'pāyebhyo; 92.15 (verse) triṣu apāyi (= °ye!); 196.8 trīṇy apy apāyāḥ; 300.21 (verse) apāya trayo (acc. pl.); 357.4 (verse) trīṇi śāntā apāyāḥ; Mahāvastu i.61.4 apāya-pratipūraka, filling (= crowding into) the (3) evil states of existence; ii.215.10 apāyeṣu apāyaṃ gamiṣyati, he will go to an evil existence in the (3) evil states; apāya- patha, ibid., Lalitavistara 46.7; 117.9; °bhūmi, virtually = hell, more specifically (so also apāya in Pali), Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 23.11 (verse) ye sattva tiṣṭhanti apāyabhūmau, ādīptasaṃprajvalitāg- nigātrāḥ; Lalitavistara 178.7 (and 9, read with Tibetan ṅan soṅ gsum, tri-apāya-, or tri-r-a°, for nirayāya).

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Āpāya (आपाय).—(?) , adj. = āpāyika (apāya with suffix -a), in Śikṣāsamuccaya 46.6 paścaināṃś codayiṣyāmo bhūtam āpāya-gocarān, and afterwards we will incite them who are veritably in a sphere-of-existence characterized by evil fate. So if text be kept; note states that Tibetan (sdig med) points to apāpa-, and Bendall and Rouse p. 47 translate with this, so that they may…be beyond the sphere of sin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apāya (अपाय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Destruction, annihilation. 2. Separation, disnnion. 3. Loss, injury. 4. Departure, going away. 5. Retreat, flight. E. apa away, aya going.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apāya (अपाय).—i. e. apa-i + a, m. 1. Going away. 2. Disappearance. 3. Diminution, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 70. 4. End, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 98. 5. Trespass, injury. 6. Loss. 7. Danger. 8. Calamity.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apāya (अपाय).—[masculine] departure ([adjective] yin); going astray or missing the aim, i.e. disadvantage, danger, diminution, loss; end, death.

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Apayā (अपया).—go away, depart, retreat, flee, cease, desist.

Apayā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms apa and (या).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Apayā (अपया):—[=apa-√yā] to go away, depart, retire from ([ablative]).;

—to fall off:—[Causal] -yāpayati, to carry away by violence, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

2) Apāya (अपाय):—a See ape.

3) [from ape] b m. going away, departure

4) [v.s. ...] destruction, death, annihilation

5) [v.s. ...] injury, loss

6) [v.s. ...] misfortune, evil, calamity.

7) Āpayā (आपया):—f. ([from] 3. āpa and √; cf. āpagā), a river, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Name of a river, [Ṛg-veda iii, 23, 4.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apāya (अपाय):—[tatpurusha compound] m.

(-yaḥ) 1) Going away, passing away; e. g. in the Mīm. Sūtra: anapāyaśca kālasya lakṣaṇaṃ hi puroḍāśe; or in the Sāṅkhya S. pūrvāpāya uttarāyogāt (comm. pūrvasya kāraṇasyāpāyakāla uttarasya kāryasyotpattyanaucityāt); comp. also the instance which follows meaning 3.

2) Separation, disunion; e. g. in the Bhaṭṭik. sarvatra dayitādhīnaṃ suvyaktaṃ rāmaṇīyakam . yena jātaṃ priyāpāye kadvadaṃ haṃsakokilam; comp. also the following instance.

3) Absence, disappearance; e. g. in the Nalodaya: tadvāsaḥ svāpāyāṃ nītiriyaṃ ceti vipadi sasvāpāyām . nijavāsaḥsvāpāyānnikṛtya tāmamuñcadiha sasvāpāyām ‘(Nalus) thinking he acted rightly in his misery, abandoned her there (in the forest) when she was asleep, deprived of her own [instance to meaning 2.], her (good luck) having departed from her [instance to meaning 1.], after having torn (her garment) in the absence of garment or property of his own (comm.: nijaṃ svakīyaṃ yadvāsaḥ svaṃ ca dhanaṃ tadapāyāt tadapagamāt); or saṃniyogaśiṣṭānāmanyatarāpāya ubhayorapyapāyaḥ (in which Paribh. to Pāṇ. Vi. 4. 153. the E. I. H. Ms. No. 326. of the Mahābhāṣya reads however both times abhāva instead of apāya); or Mahābhāṣya (introd.): apāyo lopaḥ . ghnanti ghnantu aghnan . varṇāpāyo nārthāpāyaḥ.

4) Loss; e. g. in the Hitop. yatrāpāyaḥ saṃbhavati tatropāyopyasti.

5) Destruction, cessation; e. g. in the Nyāya S. duḥkhajanmapravṛttidoṣamithyājñānānāmuttarottarāpāye tadanantarāpāyādapavargaḥ.

6) Death; e. g. in the Bhaṭṭik. bandhūnaśaṅkiṣṭa samākulatvādāseduṣaḥ snehavaśādapāyam.

7) Misfortune, calamity, evil; e. g. in the Nalod. atha tuṅgopāyasya śravaṇena nalasya sānugopāyasya…svamano bhīmaściraṃ jugopa; (comm. nalasya apāyasyāpakramaṇasya duḥkhasya vā śravaṇena). E. i (iṇ) with apa, kṛt aff. ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apāya (अपाय):—[apā+ya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Destruction; separation; loss; retreat, flight.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Apāya (अपाय):—m.

1) Weggang , das Sichentfernen.

2) das Entzogenwerden von (Abl.) [Jaiminiyanyāyamālāvistara 3,5,29.] —

3) Ausgang , Ende.

4) Verfall.

5) Vergehen [Lassen's Anthologie 25,17.] —

6) Nachtheil , Schaden , Gefahr [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 11,34.]

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Āpayā (आपया):—f. Nomen proprium eines Flusses.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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