Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Formal Meeting (Saṅghādisesa) 6

BD.1.246 Bu-Ss.6.1.1 … at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding place. At that time the monks of Āḷavī,[1] begging in company,[2] were having huts built with no benefactor,[3] for their own advantage, and not according to measure[4]; but these were not finished. They lived intent on begging, intent on hinting[5]: “Give a man, give a servant, give an ox, give a wagon, give a knife, give a hatchet, give an axe, give a spade, give a chisel, give a creeper, give bamboo, give muñja-grass, give coarse grass, give tiṇa-grass, give clay.” People were oppressed with the begging, oppressed with the hinting, and when they saw the monks they were perturbed, then alarmed, then they ran away, then they went by a different route,[6] turned in another direction[7] and closed the door; and when they saw cows they ran away, Vin.3.145 imagining them to be monks.

BD.1.247 Then the venerable Kassapa the Great[8] arose from spending the rains in Rājagaha, and set out for Āḷavī. In due course he arrived at Āḷavī. There the venerable Kassapa the Great stayed in the chief shrine at Āḷavī.[9] Then the venerable Kassapa the Great rising early, and taking his bowl and robes, entered Āḷavī for alms. People seeing the venerable Kassapa the Great were perturbed, then alarmed, then they ran away, then they went by a different route, turned in another direction and closed the door. Then the venerable Kassapa the Great, having walked Āḷavī for alms, after having eaten and finished his meal, addressed the monks saying:

“Formerly, your reverences, Āḷavī had good alms-food, alms were easily obtained, it was easy to keep oneself going by gleaning or by favour. But now this Āḷavī is short of alms-food, alms are difficult to obtain, nor is it easy to keep oneself going by gleaning or by favour. What is the reason, what the cause that now this Āḷavī is short of alms-food, that alms are difficult to obtain, that it is not easy to keep oneself going by gleaning or by favour?”

BD.1.248 Then these monks told this matter to the venerable Kassapa the Great.


Bu-Ss.6.1.2 Then the lord having dwelt at Rājagaha for as long as he thought fit, set out on a tour for Āḷavī. Making the tour, in due course he arrived at Āḷavī. There at Āḷavī the lord dwelt in the chief shrine at Āḷavī. Then the venerable Kassapa the Great approached the lord, and having approached him, he greeted the lord and sat down to one side. Sitting to one side the venerable Kassapa the Great told this matter to the lord. Then the lord on that occasion, for that reason, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks of Āḷavī, saying:

“Is it true, as is said, that you, monks, begging in company, were having huts built, with no benefactor, for your own advantage, not according to measure, and that these were not completed? They say that you dwelt intent on begging, intent on hinting: ‘Give a man …’… seeing cows they ran away, taking them for monks.”

“It is true, lord,” they said.

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying: “How can you, foolish men, begging in company, have huts built? … ‘Give a man … give clay.’ It is not foolish men, for the benefit of unbelievers,” … having rebuked them and given dhamma-talk, he addressed the monks:


Bu-Ss.6.1.3 “Formerly,[10] monks, two brothers (who were) holy men[11] lived close by the river Ganges. Then, monks, Maṇikaṇṭha,[12] Vin.3.146 the nāga-king,[13] emerging from the BD.1.249 river Ganges, came up to the younger holy man, and having come up and encircled the younger holy man seven times with his coils, he stood spreading his great hood above his head.[14] Then, monks, the younger holy man, through fear of this snake, became thin, wretched, of a bad colour, yellowish, his veins showing all over his body. Monks, the elder holy man saw that the younger holy man was thin, wretched, of bad colour, yellowish, the veins showing all over his body. Seeing this, he said to the younger holy man: ‘Why are you, good sir, thin … all over your body?’

“‘Now, the nāga-king, Maṇikaṇṭha, came out of the river Ganges for me, and came up to me, and having come up and having encircled me seven times with his coils, he stood spreading his great hood above my head. I, good sir, through fear of the snake, became thin … all over my body.’

“‘But, good sir, do you not want this snake to return?’

“‘Good sir, I do not want this snake to return.’

“‘Do you, good sir, see anything of this snake?’

“‘I see, good sir, the jewelled ornament on his throat.’

“‘Then, good sir, you beg this snake for the jewel, saying: “Good sir, give me the jewel; I want the jewel.”’

“Then, monks, Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king, emerging from the river Ganges, came up to the younger holy man and having come up he stood to one side. Monks, as he was standing to one side, the younger holy man said to Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king: ‘Good sir, give the jewel to me, I want the jewel.’ Then Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king, said: ‘A monk begs for the jewel, a monk wants the jewel,’ and he hurried away.

“A second time, monks, did Maṇikaṇṭha emerging … come up to the younger holy man. Then, monks, the younger holy man saw Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king, coming from afar, and seeing Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga BD.1.250 king, he said: ‘Good sir, give me the jewel, I want the jewel.’ Then, monks, Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king, said: ‘A monk begs for the jewel, a monk wants the jewel.’ And then he turned away again.

“A third time, monks, Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king, came up from the river Ganges. Then, monks, the younger holy man saw Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king, emerging from the river Ganges, and seeing him, he said to Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king: ‘Good sir, give me the jewel, I want the jewel.’ Then, monks, Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king, addressed these verses to the younger holy man: Vin.3.147

“‘My food and drink is produced abundantly,
Excellently, by reason of this jewel,
I do not give it to you, you are one who asks too much,
And not for you will I come to a hermitage.

“Like a lad, his hand on a tempered sword,[15]
You frighten[16] (me) begging for this stone,[17]
I do not give it to you, you are one who asks too much
And not for you will I come to a hermitage.’

“Then, monks, Maṇikaṇṭha, the nāga-king, said: ‘A monk begs for the jewel, a monk wants the jewel,’ and he went away; then he was gone, and did not come back BD.1.251 again. Then, monks, the younger holy man, not seeing that beautiful snake, became increasingly thin, wretched, of a bad colour, yellowish, the veins showing all over his body. The elder holy man, seeing that the younger holy man had become increasingly thin … the veins showing all over his body, said to the younger holy man:

“‘Why are you, good sir, increasingly thin … the veins showing all over your body?’

“‘It is because I, good sir, do not see the beautiful snake that I become increasingly thin … the veins showing all over my body.’

“Then, monks, the elder holy man addressed these verses to the younger holy man:

“‘Do not beg him who is dear for what you covet,
It is odious to ask for too much,
The snake, begged by a brahmin for a jewel,
Disappeared, and was not seen (again).’[18]

“Monks, begging from these animals and living creatures will become hated, begging by hinting (will become) hated, how much more then (will be begging) from men?


Bu-Ss.6.1.4 “Once upon a time, monks, a certain monk lived in a certain thicket on a slope of the Himālayas. Monks, not far from the thicket was an extensive, low-lying marshy ground. Then, monks, a great flock of birds, going daily to feed in this marshy ground, entered the thicket at night to roost. Then, monks, that monk, worried by the noise of the flocking birds, came up to me, and having come up and greeted me, he sat down to one side. Sitting to one side, I said, monks, to that monk: Vin.3.148 ‘I hope, monk, you are getting on well, I hope, monk, you are keeping going, having accomplished your journey with but little fatigue. But where do you come from, monk?’

“‘I am getting along fairly well, lord,[19] I am keeping going, lord,[20] and, lord,[21] have accomplished my journey BD.1.252 with but little fatigue. There is, lord,[22] on the slopes of the Himālayas a large thicket, and, lord, not far from this thicket there is an extensive, low-lying marshy ground. Now, lord, a great flock of birds going daily to feed at that marshy ground goes into that thicket at night to roost. That is why I come, lord,[23] for I am worried by the noise of that flock of birds.’

“I said: ‘Monk, do you want this flock of birds not to return?’

“‘I want, lord,[24] this flock of birds not to return.’

“I said: ‘Then you, monk, going there, and penetrating this thicket three times in the first watch of the night must utter this sound: ‘Listen to me, good sirs, whatever birds have come to roost in this thicket, I want a feather. Good sirs, give me one feather ‘at a time.’ Three times in the middle watch … three times in the last watch … at a time.’ Then, monks, this monk having gone there, and having penetrated the thicket, uttered this sound three times … in the middle watch of the night … in the last watch of the night … ‘at a time.’ Then, monks, that flock of birds said: ‘The monk begs for a feather, the monk wants a feather,’ and they departed from that thicket, and after they were gone, they did not come back again. Begging, monks, from these animals and living creatures will become hateful, hinting (will become) hateful, how much more then from men?


Bu-Ss.6.1.5 “Once upon a time, monks, the father of Raṭṭhapāla, the noble youth, addressed these verses to Raṭṭhapāla, the noble youth:

“‘Tho’ I do not know them, Raṭṭhāpāla, the many-folk,
These, meeting me, beg—why do you not beg of me?’

‘The beggar is not liked, the not-giver to beggar is not liked,[25]
Therefore I do not beg of you, do not be angry with me.’[26]

BD.1.253 “Monks, if Raṭṭhapāla, the noble youth, can speak thus to his own father, how much more then ean (any) person to (any other) person?


Bu-Ss.6.1.6 “Monks, it is difficult for householders to collect possessions Vin.3.149 , and difficult to protect their stores; how can you, foolish men, dwell intent on begging, intent on asking by hinting (for something) from among these possessions which are difficult to collect, and from among these stores which are difficult to protect, saying: ‘Give a man, give a servant, give an ox, give a wagon, give a knife, give a hatchet, give an axe, give a spade, give a chisel, give a creeper, give bamboo, give muñja-grass, give coarse grass, give tiṇa-grass, give clay.’ This is not, foolish men, for the benefit of unbelievers … and, monks, thus this course of training should be set forth:

A monk begging in company[27] for having a hut built, which has no benefactor, for his own advantage, should make it according to measure. This is the measure: in length, twelve spans of a span of the accepted length[28]; in width seven spans inside. Monks should be brought for marking out the site. A site not involving destruction,[29] and with an open space round it,[30] should be marked out by these monks. If that monk should build a hut, begging himself for a site which involves destruction and which has not an open space round it, or if he should not bring the monks for marking out a site, or if he should exceed the measure, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.6.2.1 BD.1.254 Begging in company means: oneself begging for a man, for a servant, for an ox, for a wagon, for a knife, for a hatchet, for an axe, for a spade, for a chisel … for tiṇa-grass, for clay.

A hut means: it is smeared inside or it is smeared outside, or it is smeared inside and outside.[31]

For having … built means: building or causing to be built.

Without a benefactor means: there is not anyone who is the owner, either a woman or a man or a householder or one who has gone forth.

For his own advantage means: for the good of himself.[32]

Should make it according to measure. This is the measure: in length, twelve spans of a span of the accepted length means: for the outside measure. In width, seven inside means: for the inside measure.


Bu-Ss.6.2.2 Monks should be brought for marking out a site means: that a monk building a hut, having cleared a site for a hut, approaching the Order, arranging his robe over one shoulder, honouring the feet of the senior monks, squatting down on his heels, and saluting with his palms outstretched, should speak thus to them[33]: ‘Honoured sirs, I, begging in company, for my own advantage, am desirous of building a hut, it has no benefactor; honoured sirs, I beg the Order for inspection of the site for a hut.’ A second time it should be begged for, a third time Vin.3.150 it should be begged for. If the whole Order[34] is able to inspect a site for a hut, it should be inspected by the whole Order. But if the whole Order is not able to inspect a site for a hut, then those monks who are experienced and competent to know what involves destruction, what does not involve destruction, what has an open space round it, what does not have BD.1.255 an open space round it—begging these, they should depute (them).

And thus, monks, should they depute (them): the Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. Such and such a monk, begging in company, for his own advantage, desirous of building a hut which has no benefactor, begs the Order for inspection of the site for a hut. If it is the right time for the Order,[35] the Order should depute such and such monks to inspect a site for a hut for that monk. This is the motion. Let the Order listen to me, honoured sirs. Such and such a monk … site for a hut. The Order deputes such and such monks to inspect a site for a hut for such and such a monk. If it seems good to the venerable ones to depute the inspection of a site for a hut to such and such monks for that monk, be silent; if it does not seem good, then you should speak. Such and such monks are deputed by the Order to inspect a site for a hut for such and such a monk. It seems good to the Order, therefore they are silent; thus do I understand.’

These monks (thus) deputed, going there, a site for a hut should be inspected, it should be known whether it involves destruction, whether it does not involve destruction, whether it has an open space round it, whether it does not have an open space round it. If it involves destruction and has not an open space round it, it should be said: Do not build here. If it does not involve destruction and has an open space round it, the Order should be told that it does not involve destruction and that it has an open space round it. The monk building the hut, going up to the Order, arranging his robe over one shoulder, honouring the feet of the senior monks, squatting down on his heels, and saluting with his palms outstretched, should speak thus: ‘I, honoured sirs, begging in company, am desirous of building a hut; it has no benefactor, it is for my own advantage. BD.1.256 Honoured sirs, I beg the Order to mark out the site for a hut.’ A second time it should be begged for, a third time it should be begged for. The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. Such and such a monk, begging in company, is desirous of building a hut, it has no benefactor, it is for his own advantage. He begs the Order to mark out a site for a hut. If it is the right time for the Order, the Order should mark out a site for a hut for such and such a monk. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. Such and such a monk … site for a hut. Vin.3.151 The Order marks out a site for a hut for such and such a monk. If the marking out of the site for a hut for such and such a monk seems good to the venerable ones, be silent; if it does not seem good, then speak. The site for a hut for such and such a monk is marked out by the Order. It seems good to the Order, therefore they are silent; thus do I understand.’


Bu-Ss.6.2.3 Involving destruction means: if it is the abode of ants or if it is the abode of termites or if it is the abode of rats or if it is the abode of snakes or if it is the abode of scorpions or if it is the abode of centipedes or if it is the abode of elephants or if it is the abode of horses or if it is the abode of lions or if it is the abode of tigers or if it is the abode of leopards or if it is the abode of bears or if it is the abode of hyenas[36] or if it is the abode of any other animals or living creatures, or if it is connected with[37] grain or if it is connected with vegetables, or if it is connected with the slaughtering-place[38] or if it is connected with the execution-block or if it is connected with a cemetery or if it is connected with a pleasure-grove or if it is connected with the king’s property or if it is connected with elephant-stables or if it is connected BD.1.257 with horses’ stables or if it is connected with a prison or if it is connected with a tavern[39] or if it is connected with a slaughter-house or if it is connected with a carriage road or if it is connected with a cross-road or if it is connected with a public rest-house or if it is connected with a meeting-place:[40] this means involving destruction.

Not with an open space round it means: It is not possible to go round it even with a yoked wagon, to go round it everywhere with a ladder.[41] This means not with an open space round it.

Not involving destruction means: if it is not the abode of ants nor is it the abode of termites … it is not connected with a meeting-place. This means not involving destruction.

With an open space round it means: it is possible to go round it even with a yoked wagon, to go round it everywhere with a ladder. This means with an open space round it.


Bu-Ss.6.2.4 Begging in company means: oneself begging saying: Give a man … give clay.

A hut means: it is smeared inside or it is smeared outside or it is smeared inside and outside.

Should build means: he builds or he causes to be built.

If he should not bring the monks for marking out a site, or if he should exceed the measure means: not having caused the site for a hut to be marked out by a vote following upon the motion, he builds or causes to be built, exceeding the length or width by as much as even a hair’s breadth, in each operation there is an offence of wrong-doing. If one lump[42] is (still) to come there is a grave offence, but when that lump has come BD.1.258 there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.[43]

Offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order means: … because of this it is called an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. Vin.3.152


Bu-Ss.6.3.1 If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been marked out, involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with two offences of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been marked out, involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been marked out, not involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been marked out, not involving destruction, having an open space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked out, involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked out, involving destruction, having an open space round it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked out, not involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked out, not involving destruction, having an open space round it, there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.2 BD.1.259 If a monk builds a hut, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with two offences of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, exceeding the measure, not involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the. Order together with an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, exceeding the measure, not involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If a monk builds a hut to (the right) measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut to (the right) measure, involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds, a hut to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.3 If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been marked out, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there are two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with two offences of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been marked out, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, with an open space round it, there are two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been BD.1.260 marked out, exceeding the measure not involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there are two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been marked out, exceeding the measure, not involving destruction, with an open space round it, there are two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order. Vin.3.153


Bu-Ss.6.3.4 If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked out, to (the right) measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked out, to (the right) measure, involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked out, to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked out, to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.5 A monk commands: “Build a hut for me.” If they build a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, involving destruction, not with an open space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with two offences of wrong-doing … If they build a hut for him, the site having been marked out, to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.6 A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. But he did not command: “Let the site be marked out, and let it not involve destruction, and let it have an open space round it.” They built a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, involving BD.1.261 destruction, not with an open space round it: there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with two offences of wrong-doing … the site having been marked out, not involving destruction, with an open space round it: there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.7 A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. But he did not command: “Let it be to (the right) measure, and not involving destruction, and with an open space round it.” They built a hut for him, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it: there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with two offences of wrong-doing … to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, with an open space round it: there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.8 A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. But he did not command: “Let the site be marked out, and let it be to (the right) measure, and not involving destruction, and with an open space round it.” They built a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it: there are two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with two offences of wrong-doing … the site having been marked out, to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, with an open space round it: there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.9 A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. And he commanded: “Let the site be marked out, and let it not involve destruction, and let it have an open space round it.” They built a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, involving destruction, not with an open space round it. He heard and said: “They say that a hut was built for me, the site not having been marked out, involving destruction, not with an open space round it.” This monk should go himself or a messenger should be sent, saying:

BD.1.262 “Let the site be marked out, Vin.3.154 and let it not involve destruction, and let it have an open space round it.” If he should not go himself or send a messenger, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” … they built a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, involving destruction, with an open space round it. He heard … or a messenger should be sent saying: “Let the site be marked out, and let it not involve destruction.” If he should not go himself nor send a messenger, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

A monk having commanded: …“Let the site be marked out, and with an open space round it … Let the site be marked out … Let it not involve destruction, and let there be an open space round it … Let it not involve destruction … Let there be an open space round it” … there is an offence of wrong-doing … They built a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, not involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.10 A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. And he commanded: “Let it be to (the right) measure, and not involving destruction, and with an open space round it.” They built a hut for him, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it. He heard and said: “They say that a hut was built for me, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with an open space round it.” This monk should go himself or a messenger should be sent, saying: “Let it be to (the right) measure, and, not involving destruction, and with an open space round it … Let it be to (the right) measure, and not involving destruction … Let it be to (the right) measure, and with an open space round it … Let it be to (the right) measure … Let it not involve destruction, and let it have an open space round it … Let it not involve destruction … Let it have an open space round it” … there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.11 BD.1.263 A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. He commanded: “Let the site be marked out, and let it be to (the right) measure, and let it not involve destruction, and let it have an open space round it.” They built a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, exceeding the (right) measure involving destruction, not with an open space round it. He heard … no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.12 A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. He commanded: “Let the site be marked out, and let it not involve destruction, and let there be an open space round it.” They built the hut for him, the site not having been marked out, involving destruction, not with an open space round it: there are three offences of wrong-doing for the builders … involving destruction, with an open space round it: there are two offences of wrong-doing for the builders … not involving destruction, not with an open space round it: there are two offences of wrong-doing for the builders … not involving destruction, with an open space round it, there is an offence of wrong-doing for the builders … the site having been marked out, involving destruction, not with an open space round it: there are two offences of wrong-doing for the builders … involving destruction, with an open space round it: there is an offence of wrong-doing for the builders … Vin.3.155 not involving destruction, not with an open space round it: there is an offence of wrong-doing for the builders … not involving destruction, with an open space round it: there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.13 A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me” went away. He commanded: “Let it be to (the right) measure, and not involving destruction, and with an open space round it” … A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. He commanded: “Let the site be marked out, and let it be to (the right) measure, and not involving destruction, and with an open space round it” … there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.14 BD.1.264 A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. They built a hut for him, the site not having been marked out, involving destruction, not with an open space round it. If he comes back (and finds that it is) imperfectly executed, the hut should be given by this monk to another, or being destroyed should be rebuilt. If he does not give it to another, or destroying it have it rebuilt, there are two offences of wrong-doing together with an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order … A monk having commanded: “Build a hut for me,” went away. They built a hut for him, the site having been marked out, to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, with an open space round it: there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.6.3.15 If he finishes[44] by himself what was imperfectly executed by himself, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. If others finish what was imperfectly executed by himself, there is an offence … of the Order. If he finishes by himself what was imperfectly executed by others, there is an offence … of the Order. If others finish what was imperfectly executed by others, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.6.3.16 There is no offence if it is (built) in a mountain-cave[45] as a hut,[46] as a hut of tiṇa-grass,[47] for the good BD.1.265 of another[48] except it be as a house, there is no offence in any of these circumstances,[49] nor if he is out of his mind or a beginner.[50]

Told is the Sixth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order: that of building a hut[51]

Footnotes and references:

1.

Vin-a.561, “boys born in the kingdom of Āḷavī were called Āḷavakā, and at the time of their going forth they were known as Āḷavakā.” These monks often gave trouble over new buildings, cf. above, BD.1.148, and Vin.2.172.

2.

Oldenberg says, Vin.3.274, “probably we ought to read constantly saṃyācikāya kuṭiyo.” Vin-a.566 takes saṃyācikāya to mean begging themselves. See below, BD.1.254.

3.

Assāmikāyo ti anissariyo, Vin-a.561, which goes on to say, “having them built without a donor,” or benefactor, dāyaka.

4.

Appamāṇikāyo. Vin-a.561, “with this amount they will be completed,” they said. So they were not limited in size, their measure increased, their measure was great.

6.

Vin-a.565, “having come to a road, then leaving it and turning back, they went taking the left side or the right.”

7.

Aññena mukhaṃ karoti: to direct the face towards another (quarter).

8.

Mahā. The rendering “Great” is perhaps a little misleading, for one would not think him eminent enough to be so called. The epithet was clearly given so as to distinguish him from other Kassapas. Conceivably it means that he had been in the Order longer than they had. We cannot say the “Elder” as thera is an elder; but Kassapa Senior might be possible. Further, I think it doubtful whether it is right to render Mahā as “Great” in any of the cases where it occurs as an epithet of disciples. For example, Sāriputta was never called Mahā-Sāriputta, as Moggallāna was referred to, very frequently, as Mahā-Moggallāna; and yet as far as “greatness” goes, there is little or nothing to choose between them.

9.

Aggāḷave cetiye, mentioned at Vin.2.172; SN.i.185; Snp.p.59; Dhp-a.3.170. Snp-a.344 = SN-a.i.268 explains aggāḷave cetiye as Āḷaviyaṃ aggacetiye, and says that it was transformed into a vihāra. At KS.i.234, it is taken to be “the chief temple” at Āḷavī; in Buddhist Suttas, p.56 (second edition), it is called “the temple at Aggālava”; while translator at Vinaya Texts iii.212 appears to regard it as a proper name. Mr. E.M. Hare in GS.4.147 translates, “at Aggāḷava, near the shrine there,” and gives no notes. It was probably a pre-Buddhist shrine. See above, BD.1.243, n.4, and below, BD.1.266, n.5. Also see B.C. Law, Geography of Early Buddhism, Appendix, p.74ff.

10.

Cf. Ja.2.283, Maṇikaṇṭhajātaka, for this story.

11.

Isi, holy man or anchorite. Isi has not the great force of ṛṣi of the brahminical tradition, meaning a seer or inspired singer to whom the Vedas were spoken or revealed. There are interesting variations in the details of this story as described in Vinaya and Jātaka.

12.

Vin-a.565, “the nāga-king went with a very valuable jewel able to grant all desires, adorning his throat, therefore he is called ‘jewel-throated.’” Cf. Hindu mythology, where the cow granting all desires and the jewel granting all desires were brought out from the sea at the Churning of the Ocean.

13.

Or serpent-king

14.

I.e., according to Vin-a.565, above the younger holy man’s head. He was practising mettā-vihāra, and the nāga-king shaded him with his hood.

15.

sakkharadhotipāṇi. Ja.2.285 explained “your hand is on a sword polished on the oil-(whetting) stone.” Vin-a.566 says: sakkharā vuccati kāḷasilā (a dark stone) … sakkharadhotapāṇi, pāsāṇe dhotanisita-khaggahattho ti attho, which seems to mean “in the hand the sword whetted and cleaned on a stone.” “As a man with a hand on a sword frightens, do you frighten begging me for the stone.” Ibid., Rouse translates this line at Ja.2.198: “Like lads who wait with tempered sword in hand” (lads, susū being there in the plural).

16.

tāsesi, causitive of tasati, to tremble, shake, to have fears.

17.

Reading with Jātaka, tāses’ imaṃ selaṃ yācamāno, and not with Vinaya, tāsesi maṃ … Jātaka Commentary says (Ja.2.285): “asking for this jewel, you frighten me like a young man who would unsheathe his goid-hilted sword and say: ‘I cut off your head.’” Vin-a.566 reads, evaṃ tāsesi maṃ selaṃ yācamāno, maṇiṃ yācanto ti attho.

18.

= Ja.2.285.

19.

Bhagavā.

20.

Bhagavā.

21.

Bhante.

22.

Bhante.

23.

Bhagavā.

24.

Bhante.

25.

For not giving is not liked, Vin-a.566.

26.

= Ja.3.352, Ja.3.353, except first line.

27.

Vin-a.566, “saññācikā means, having themselves inaugurated is called ‘begging,’ therefore saññācikāya is called begging themselves,” cf. Vin-a.561 and below, Old Commentary, sayaṃ yācitvā.

28.

Sugata-vidatthiyā, see Vinaya Texts i.8, n.2, for a discussion of this phrase. Vin-a.567, “a man of medium height is three spans, a builder’s cubit (hattha, the hand used as a measure) is one and a half cubits.”

29.

Anārambha—i.e., to living creatures, see below, Old Commentary, BD.1.257.

30.

Saparikkamana—i.e., accessible, good for rambling in. See below, Old Commentary, “possible for a cart drawn by a yoke of oxen to go round it.” I follow translation as at Vinaya Texts i.8.

31.

= below, BD.1.267, in definition of vihāra.

32.

Cf. below, BD.1.268

33.

Vin-a.569, “the Order should be spoken to thus by him.”

34.

I.e., all the community of a district or of a vihāra.

35.

Vin-a.569, “for this inspection.”

36.

Cf. above, BD.1.98; AN.iii.101; Ja.5.416. At Vin.1.219–220 it is a dukkaṭa to eat the flesh of some of these animals.

37.

Nissita throughout.

38.

For thieves, Vin-a.570.

39.

At Vin.4.267 nuns are forbidden to keep both such places.

40.

Text reads, saṃsaraṇa; Vin-a.570 reads sañcaraṇa.

41.

Vin-a.570, “a ladder having been put up by those approving of the hut, it is not possible to go round it with a ladder (to lean a ladder on every point of it).

42.

Of plaster, Vin-a.571.

43.

Cf. below, BD.1.268.

45.

leṇa. Vin.1.206 = Vin.3.248, translated at Vinaya Texts ii.61, “cave dwelling-place.” At Vin.2.146 it is given as the generic term for five kinds of abode.

46.

guhā Vin-a.573, “a hut of bricks or in a rock or of wood or of earth.” Guhā is mentioned at Vin.1.58 = Vin.1.96, with the four other abodes of Vin.2.146, as an allowance extra to that of dwelling at the foot of a tree. At Vin.1.107 the Order is allowed to fix upon an Uposatha Hall in any one of these five dwelling-places, and at Vin.1.239 the Order is allowed to keep the stores in any one of them. Cf. Vin.1.284.

47.

“ = a seven-storied palace if (only) the covering is of leaves or of tiṇa-grass”, Vin-a.573. A seven-storied (sattabhūmaka) hut is, I suppose, conceivable, but seems hardly possible.

48.

“If it is built for the benefit of a preceptor or teacher or for the Order,” Vin-a.574.

49.

Vin-a.574, “except it be as a house (dwelling or home, agāra) for himself, he has it built, saying: ‘It will become another half for the recitation of the Pātimokkha, or a hot room for bathing purposes, or a dining-room, or a warmed refectory’; in all these circumstances there is no offence. But if he says that it will become these things and that ‘I will dwell in it’ there is an offence.”

50.

For these exemptions cf. Vin.4.48; Vin-a.574 indicates that the monks of Āḷavī were beginners.

51.

Probably niṭṭhitaṃ is omitted here by mistake.