Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 3: Case rulings

Mnemonic list

Vin.3.79 MS.451 Praising, sitting down, with pestle, and with mortar; gone forth when old,[1] a falling out,[2] first,[3] experimental poison, /
BD.1.137 MS.452 and three with making sites, another three with bricks,
An adze, and a rafter, a platform, descent, fell off,/
MS.453 Sweating, and nose treatment,
massage, and by bathing, and by smearing,
Making get up, making lie down,[4] death through food and drink,/
MS.454 Child by a lover, and co-wives, he killed the mother, the child, both,
He killed neither,[5] crushing, heating, barren, fertile,/
MS.455 Tickling, in restraining, a spirit, and sent to a predatory spirit,
Thinking it was him he gave a blow,[6] talk on heaven, and on hell,/
MS.456 Three trees at Āḷavī, three others with forest about fires,
Do not keep in misery, not as you, buttermilk, and salty medicine./

Case details

Bu-Pj.3.5.1 MS.457 At one time time a certain monk was ill. Out of compassion the monks praised the beauty of death to him. He died. They became anxious and said, “Could it be that we have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion?” They informed the Master. He said: “You, monks, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.2 MS.458 At one time a certain monk who was an almsgoer sat down on a bench,[7] crushing a boy who was concealed by a rag. The boy died, and the monk became BD.1.138 anxious. … “Monks, there is no offence entailing expulsion. But a monk should not sit down on a seat without checking it. If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.


Bu-Pj.3.5.3 MS.459 At one time a certain monk was preparing a seat in a refectory among the houses. When he took hold of a pestle high up, a second pestle fell down hitting[8] a certain boy who then died. He became anxious … “What was your intention?”

“I did not intend it, Master.”

“There is no offence, monk, when it is unintentional.


MS.460 At one time a certain monk was preparing a seat in a refectory among the houses. He stepped[9] on the requisites belonging to a mortar,[10] which fell and hit[11] a certain boy, who then died. He became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, when it is unintentional.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.4 MS.461 At one time a father and son had gone forth among the monks. When the time was announced[12] the son said to his father, “Go, bhante, the Sangha BD.1.139 is waiting for you,” and seizing him by the back, he pushed him away. Falling down, he died. He became anxious. … Vin.3.80 “What was your intention?”

“I did not mean to cause his death, Master.”

“There is no offence, monk, for one who is not aiming at death.


MS.462 At one time a father and son had gone forth among the monks. When the time was announced[13] the son said to his father, “Go, bhante, the Sangha is waiting for you,” and meaning to cause his death he seized him by the back and pushed him away. Falling down, he died. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.463 At one time a father and son had gone forth among the monks. When the time was announced the son said to his father, “Go, bhante, the Sangha is waiting for you,” and meaning to cause his death he seized him by the back and pushed him away. Falling down, he did not die. He became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.5

MS.464 At one time while a certain monk was eating some meat[14] got stuck in his throat. A certain monk hit him on the neck. The meat came out together with blood, and the monk died. He became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for one who does not mean to cause death.”


MS.465 At one time while a certain monk was eating some meat got stuck in his throat. A certain monk, meaning to cause his death, hit him on the neck. The meat came out together with blood, and the monk died. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.466 At one time while a certain monk was eating some meat got stuck in his throat. A certain monk, meaning to cause his death, hit him on the neck. BD.1.140 The meat came out together with blood, but the monk did not die. He became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.6 MS.467 At one time a certain monk who was an almsgoer received poisoned almsfood. He brought it back and gave the first portion to the monks. They died. He became anxious … “What was your intention, monk?”

“I did not know, Master.”

“There is no offence for one who does not know.


MS.468 At one time a certain monk gave poison to a certain monk, with the purpose of investigating it. That monk died. He became anxious … “What was your intention, monk?”

“My purpose was to investigate it, Master.”

“There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.7 MS.469 At one time the monks of Āḷavī were preparing a site for a dwelling. Vin.3.81 A certain monk who was below lifted up a stone. The stone, being badly held by a second monk who was above, fell on[15] the head of the monk who was below, and he died. The second monk became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, when it is unintentional.”


MS.470 At one time the monks of Āḷavī were preparing a site for a dwelling. A certain monk who was below lifted up a stone. A second monk who was above, aiming to kill the one who was below, dropped the stone on his head. He died … he did not die. The second monk became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.8 MS.471 At one time the monks of Āḷavī were erecting a wall[16] for a dwelling. A certain monk who was below lifted BD.1.141 up a burnt brick. The brick, being badly held by a second monk who was above, fell on the head of the monk who was below. He died. The second monk became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, when it is unintentional.”


MS.472 At one time the monks of Āḷavī were erecting a wall for a dwelling. A certain monk who was below lifted up a burnt brick. A second monk who was above, intending to cause the death of the monk who was below, dropped the burnt brick on his head. He died … he did not die. The second monk became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.9 MS.473 At one time the monks of Āḷavī were doing building work. A certain monk who was below lifted up an adze. The adze, being badly held by a second monk who was above, fell on the head of the monk who was below. He died. The second monk became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, when it is unintentional.”


MS.474 At one time the monks of Āḷavī were doing building work … lifted up an adze. A second monk who was above, meaning to cause the death of the monk who was below, dropped the adze on his head. He died … he did not die … The second monk became anxious … ”… serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.10 MS.475 At one time the monks of Āḷavī were doing building work. A certain monk who was below lifted up a rafter. The rafter, being badly held by a monk who was above … MS.476 three cases as above … “… serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.11 MS.477 At one time the monks of Āḷavī, doing building work, were putting together a platform.[17] A certain monk said to a second monk, “Friend, put it together by standing here.” Putting it together by standing there, he fell down and died. BD.1.142 Vin.3.82 The first monk became anxious … “What was your intention, monk?”

“I did not mean to cause his death, Master.”

“There is no offence for one who is not aiming at death.”


MS.478 At one time the monks of Āḷavī, doing building work, were putting together a platform. A certain monk, meaning to cause his death, said to second monk, “Friend, put it together by standing here.” Putting it together by standing there, he fell down and died … fell down and did not die. The first monk became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.12 MS.479 At one time a certain monk, having made a roof for a dwelling, was coming down. A second monk said to that monk, “Friend, come down here.” Coming down at that place, he fell down and died. The second monk became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for one who is not aiming at death.”


MS.480 At one time a certain monk, having made a roof for a dwelling, was coming down. A second monk, meaning to cause his death, said to him, “Friend, come down here.” Coming down at that place, he fell down and died … fell down and did not die … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.13 MS.481 At one time a certain monk who was tormented by discontent climbed Mount Vulture’s Peak, fell down the cliff and hit a certain basket-maker. He died, and the monk became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion. But, monks, one should not jump off. If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.”


MS.482 At one time the group of six monks, having climbed Mount Vultureʼs Peak, threw down a stone for fun. Hitting a certain cowherd, it killed him.[18] They became BD.1.143 anxious. … “There is no offence entailing expulsion. But, monks, you should not throw down stones for fun. If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.14 MS.483 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks made him sweat by heating him. He died. They became anxious. … “There is no offence, monks, for one who is not aiming at death.”


MS.484 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks, meaning to cause his death, made him sweat by heating him. He died … he did not die. They became anxious. … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.15 MS.485 At one Vin.3.83 time a certain monk had a headache.[19] The monks gave him medical treatment through the nose.[20] He died. They became anxious. … “There is no offence, monks, for one who is not aiming at death.”


MS.486 At one time a certain monk had a headache. The monks, meaning to cause his death, gave him medical treatment through the nose. He died … did not die. They became anxious. … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.16 MS.487 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks massaged him. He died … three cases as aboveMS.488 “… but there is a serious offence.”


MS.489 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks bathed him. He died … MS.490 “… but there is a serious offence.”


BD.1.144 MS.491 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks anointed him with oil. He died … MS.492 “… but there is a serious offence.”


MS.493 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks made him get up.[21] He died … MS.494 “ … but there is a serious offence.”


MS.495 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks made him lie down. He died … MS.496 “ … but there is a serious offence.”


MS.497 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks gave him food … MS.499 they gave him drink. He died … “… but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.17 MS.501 At one time a certain woman whose husband was living away from home became pregnant by a lover. She said to a monk who was supported by her family, “Master, please find a method of abortion.” “All right, sister,” he said, and he gave her a method of abortion. The child died. He became anxious. … “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.18 MS.502 At one time a certain man had two wives, one who was barren and one who was fertile. The barren one said to a monk who was supported by her family, “If she should bring forth a child, bhante, she will become mistress of the whole household. Master, please find a method of abortion for her.” “All right, sister,” he said, and he gave her a method of abortion. The child died, but the mother did not die. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.503 At one time a certain man had two wives … he gave her a method of abortion. The mother died, but the child did not die. He became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, Vin.3.84 but there is a serious offence.”


BD.1.145 MS.504 At one time a certain man had two wives … he gave her a method of abortion. Both died … neither died. He became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.19 MS.505 At one time a certain woman who was pregnant said to a monk who was supported by her family, “Master, please find me a method of abortion.” “Well then crush[22] it, sister,” he said. She crushed it and caused an abortion. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.506 At one time a certain woman who was pregnant … “Well then heat yourself, sister,” he said. She heated herself and caused an abortion. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.20 MS.507 At one time a certain barren woman said to a monk who was supported by her family, “Master, please find me some medicine to help me become pregnant.” “All right, sister,” he said, and gave her some medicine. She died. He became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.21 MS.508 At one time a certain fertile woman said to a monk who was supported by her family, “Master, please find me some medicine to help me not get pregnant.” “All right, sister,” he said …“… but there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.22 MS.509 At one time the group of six monks made one of the group of seventeen monks[23] laugh by tickling him with BD.1.146 their fingers. Being unable to breathe, he died. They became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.23 MS.510 At one time the group of seventeen monks, while doing some work,[24] covered[25] one of the monks of the group of six. He died. They became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.24 MS.511 At one time a certain monk who was an exorcist[26] killed a spirit. He became anxious. …“There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”[27]


Bu-Pj.3.5.25 MS.512 At one time a certain monk sent a certain monk to a dwelling inhabited by predatory spirits.[28] The spirits killed him. He became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for one who is not aiming at death.”


MS.513 At one time a certain monk, meaning to cause his death, sent a certain monk to a dwelling inhabited by predatory spirits. The spirits killed him BD.1.147 … the spirits did not kill him. “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.26 Vin.3.85 MS.514 At one time a certain monk sent a certain monk to a wilderness inhabited by beasts of prey[29] … to a wilderness inhabited by robbers. The beasts of prey … MS.516 the robbers … killed him. He became anxious … three cases each time as above … “… but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.27 MS.518 At one time a certain monk, thinking he was that person, killed that person … thinking he was that person, killed someone else … thinking he was someone else, killed that person … thinking he was someone else, killed someone else. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.28 MS.519 At one time a certain monk was possessed by a spirit.[30] Another monk gave him a blow.[31] He died. The other monk became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for one who is not aiming at death.”


MS.520 At one time a certain monk was possessed by a spirit. Another monk, meaning to cause his death, gave him a blow. He died … he did not die. The other monk became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.29 BD.1.148 MS.521 At one time a certain monk gave a talk about heaven to a man of good behaviour. He became keen on it[32] and died. The monk became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for one who is not aiming at death.”


MS.522 At one time a certain monk, meaning to cause his death, gave a talk about heaven to a man of good behaviour. He became keen on it and died … he became keen on it, but did not die … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


MS.523 At one time a certain monk gave a talk about hell to a man destined to go to hell. Being terrified, he died … MS.524 the same three cases … “… but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.30 MS.525 At one time the monks of Āḷavī, while doing building work, felled a tree. A certain monk said to another monk, “Friend, fell it standing here.” While he was felling it standing there, the tree fell on him and killed him … MS.526 three cases … “… but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.3.5.31 MS.527 At one time the group of six monks set fire to a forest. Some people were burnt and died … MS.528 three cases … “… but there is a serious offence.” Vin.3.86


Bu-Pj.3.5.32 MS.529 At one time a certain monk went to the place of execution and said to the executioner: “Friend, do not keep him in misery.[33] Kill him with a single blow.” “All right, bhante,” he said, and he killed him with a single blow. He became anxious. “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.530 At one time a certain monk went to the place of execution and said to the executioner: “Friend, do not keep him in misery. Kill him with a single blow.” BD.1.149 “I will not do as you ask,” he said, and deprived him of life. He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence of bad conduct.”[34]


Bu-Pj.3.5.33 MS.531 At one time a certain man whose hands and feet had been cut off was in his relativesʼ house surrounded by his relations. A certain monk said to those people, “Friends, do you desire his death?”

“Indeed, bhante, we do desire it.”

“Then you should make him drink buttermilk.”[35]

They made him drink buttermilk and he died. The monk became anxious … “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.532 At one time a certain man whose hands and feet had been cut off was in his familyʼs house, surrounded by his relations. A certain nun said to those people, “Friends, do you desire his death?”

“Indeed, honoured lady, we do desire it.”

“Then you should make him drink salty medicine.”[36]

They made him drink salty medicine and he died. She became anxious. She then BD.1.150 informed the nuns, who in turn informed the monks, who then informed the Master. He said, “Monks, that nun has fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


The third offence entailing expulsion is finished.

Footnotes and references:

1.

vuḍḍhapabbajitā usually “those long gone forth, old monks.”

2.

Oldenberg, Vin.3.271f. gives variant readings vuḍḍhapabbajitā ca bhisanno, °jitā sinno, and “°jjitassa nocorrected to °jjitābhisanno and he says, “I do not know how to correct bhisanno or sinno.” The final ā of °jjitā may possibly belong to bhissanno, then = abhisanno, meaning “full of, overflowing with” (old monks, Bu-Pj.3.5.4), or a “falling out” (of meat, Bu-Pj.3.5.5). Sinna as past participle of sijjati usually means “wet with perspiration, boiled,” but it cannot mean that here. The word does not appear again in the stories below. Possibly one group has been omitted.

3.

Text reads aggaṃ. Oldenberg proposed an emendation to laggaṃ, doubtless thinking of vilagga in Bu-Pj.3.5.5, but aggaṃ refers to agga (-kārika) of Bu-Pj.3.5.6.

4.

Text, maraṇaṃ.

5.

ubho na miyyare. Cf. na miyyare at Snp.575.

6.

pahari.

7.

Ottharitvā; this word occurs again below in the next paragraph and also at BD.1.146 below. Vin-a.475 on this latter passage explains by akkamitvā, and goes on to say that a monk having fallen down was dragged along by some others, and one having got on to his stomach sat there. But cf. BD.1.59, n.1, above for akkamitvā, meaning “kicking, making a kick at.” At Mil.121 ottharati is used in connection with the waves of the sea: they “flow” (so translated Sacred Books of the East xxxi.182), meaning they flow again over the spot whence they had rolled back. It there has the sense of covering over or covering up. Pali-English Dictionary under ottharati says, “see also avattharati “for both of which it gives much the same meanings. I think it possible that ottharati (as here and in next paragraph below, and again below at BD.1.146) and avattharati as at next note below, have the sense of dealing roughly with someone, even by mistake. Avatthāsi occurs, again, BD.1.140, where it also seems as if it means “hit” (with locative). Both words certainly seem to include the sense of hard, sitting hard enough or hitting hard enough to cause death.

8.

avatthāsi.

9.

akkamitvā pavaṭṭesi. Akkamitvā here seems to be in its meaning of “to tread on.” We get the same expression in Vin.3.38, above, BD.1.59, where it seems to mean “rising, he knocked her over,” and I should like to add hard, rising hard or suddenly. See above, BD.1.137, n.4.

10.

bhaṇḍikā. This is a comprehensive word meaning a heap of goods, a collection. At Ja.iii.41 it is variant reading for gaṇḍikā, which as “executioner’s block” could not make sense here. “Mortar-requisites” would include the pestle.

11.

ottharitvā see above, BD.1.137, n.4.

12.

kāle ārocite.

13.

kāle ārocite.

14.

maṃsa; again showing that the monks were not vegetarians. Cf. above, BD.1.98.

15.

avatthāsi, cf. above, BD.1.137, n.4.

16.

Kuḍḍa. At Vin.4.266 three kinds of walls are mentioned: iṭṭhakā° (of tiles or bricks, as here), silā° (of stones), dāru° (of wood).

17.

Aṭṭaka. Vin-a.466 calls it vehāsamañca, literally a bed above the ground, probably a platform or scaffold up a tree, such as hunters use. It is the diminutive of aṭṭa, a watch-tower, Vin.3.200.

18.

māresuṃ. We should say “it” (the stone), but the Pali regards the men as the agents of the cowherd’s death.

19.

sīsābhitāpa, literally “heat in the head,” cf. Vin.1.204, where Pilindavaccha is mentioned as suffering this ailment.

20.

natthuṃ adaṃsu = natthukamma as at Vin.1.204. DN-a.i.98, explained telaṃ yojetvā n° karaṇaṃ. At DN.i.12 this treatment is included among the low arts by which some samaṇas and brahmins earn a wrong livelihood, but at Vin.1.204 it is allowed by Gotama, with details of how best to apply the drug to be taken through the nose. Cf. Dhp-a.i.12.

21.

Or, “raised him” (to a sitting position).

22.

maddassu, crush, bruise. Cf. Ja.iii.121.

23.

Cf. Vin.4.110, where this story also appears; tickling with the fingers is there said to be a pācittiya offence. The seventeen monks are also mentioned at Vin.4.41. At Vin.1.77 = Vin.4.128, the boy Upāli is said to have seventeen friends. See Introduction, p.xxxvi, n.2.

24.

kammaṃ karissāma, possibly idiomatic, “we will do (for him)”, “we will have some fun.”

25.

ottharitvā = akkamitvā, Vin-a.475. See above, BD.1.137.

26.

bhūtavejjaka; bhūtavijjā mentioned at DN.i.9 as a “low art.” Bhūtavidyā (translated by R.E. Hume as “Demonology”) also occurs at Chāndogya Upaniṣad 7.2.1 = Chāndogya Upaniṣad 7.7.1.

27.

The monk learned in exorcism, in freeing a person possessed by a yakkha may cut off a clay doll’s head; then the yakkha dies, killed by him. But he may kill not only the yakkha but Sakka, king of the Devas; therefore it is a grave offence. Vin-a.475. At SN.i.206 some Sakka is called a yakkha. KS.i.263, n.3 says, “there is no tradition, revealed in the Commentary that Sakka, ruler of the Thirty[-three] Gods, is meant.” He was a (eko) yakkha belonging to Māra’s faction, SN-a.i.302.

28.

vāḷayakkha. Vin-a.475, “In this vihāra a predatory (vāla), fierce yakkha dwelt; it was his vihāra.” At AN.iii.256 vāḷayakkhas are said to be one of the five dangers of Madhurā. See GS.iii.188, n.3. Mr. E.M. Hare translates vāḷayakkhā as “bestial yakkhas.” Cf. yakkha eating men and cattle at DN.ii.346. Term may mean “yakkha in form of a beast of prey.”

29.

Vin-a.476: “In all of these wilds there are beasts of prey and snakes … in all of those there are robbers.” Five kinds of wilds (kantāra) mentioned at Ja.i.99, SN-a.i.324; four kinds at Cnd.630.

30.

amanussena: amanussa is a yakkha, a spirit, a ghost. At Vin.1.277 it is said that Kāka, a slave, was born amanussena. Word occurs at DN.i.116, SN.i.91, and also above, BD.1.74. Vin-a.298 says, they are either yakkhas or men who, having departed, desire to return.

31.

Vin-a.476 “saying, ‘I will drive the yakkha away,’ he gives him (i.e., the monk) a blow. One should not give a person possessed by a yakkha a blow, but should bind a palm-leaf or protecting thread on his arm or leg.”

32.

adhimutto. Critical Pali Dictionary, referring to this passage says, “impressed with the idea.” Cf. above, BD.1.135.

33.

mā yimaṃ kilamesi.

34.

Apparently not a grave offence because the executioner was not influenced by the monk’s words. The monk only transgressed in uttering the words, attempting to hasten the man’s death.

35.

takka. Vin-a.478, “buttermilk of a cow, a buffalo, a goat, hot, cold, flavoured or unflavoured.” At Vin.1.244 it is included in the five products of the cow (pañca gorasā).

36.

loṇasuvīraka. Vin-a.478, “a medicine made of all tastes.” Buddhaghosa gives a long description of the things mixed together to form it: various kinds of myrobalan (astringent and intoxicant), all the seven grains and pulses, gruel, the fruit of the plantain, and all fruits, the jungle creeper, sprouts of various trees, fish and meat, honey and molasses, rock-salt, alkaline and bitter medicines. Then, letting it mature for two or three years, it is the colour of the juice of the rose-apple and is good for various diseases (mentioned here, cf. also AN.v.110), but further than that (ca uttaraṃ) if decaying, it is no longer a medicine. At Vin.1.210 it is called sovīraka: here the lord allows the use of it to one who is sick, and to one who is not sick the use of it mixed with water as a medicine.