Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Allowance for a place for what is allowable

Kd.6.32.1 Now at that time Vesālī was well off for food, crops were good, almsfood was easy to obtain, and it was easy to keep oneself going by gleaning and by favour. Then as the Lord was meditating in seclusion a reasoning arose in his mind thus: “Those things which were allowed by me to monks when food was scarce, crops bad, and almsfood difficult to obtain: what was cured indoors, cooked indoors, cooked by oneself[1]; receiving (formally) what was picked up[2]; what BD.4.326 was taken back from there[3]; what was accepted before a meal[4]; what grows in a wood, what grows in a lotus-tank[5]—do the monks still make use of these things today?”

Then the Lord, arising from his meditation towards evening, addressed the venerable Ānanda, saying: “Those things which were allowed by me to monks when food was scarce … do the monks still make use of these things today?”

“They make use of them, Lord.”

Kd.6.32.2 Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “Those things, monks, allowed by me to monks when food was scarce, crops bad and almsfood difficult to obtain: what was cured indoors … what grows in a lotus-tank—these things I object to from this day forth. Monks you should not make use of what is cured indoors, cooked indoors, cooked by yourselves; of (formally) receiving what is picked up (by you). Whoever should make use of (any of these things), there is an offence of wrong-doing. Nor should you, monks, having eaten, being satisfied, make use of food that is not left over if it is brought back from there; if it is accepted before a meal; if it grows in a wood, grows in a lotus-tank. Whoever should make use of (any of these things) should be dealt with according to the rule.[6]


Kd.6.33.1 Now at that time country people, having loaded much salt and oil, and husked rice and solid food into wagons,[7] having made an enclosure for the wagons in a porch outside a monastery, waited, thinking: “When our turn comes, then we will make a meal,”[8] but a great Vin.1.239 cloud came up. Then these people approached the venerable Ānanda; having approached, they spoke thus to the venerable Ānanda:

“Now, honoured Ānanda, having loaded much salt … solid food into wagons, they are standing (there), but a great cloud has come up. What line of conduct, honoured Ānanda, should be followed by us?” Then the venerable Ānanda told this matter to the Lord.

Kd.6.33.2 BD.4.327 “Well then, Ānanda, the Order having agreed upon a place for what is allowable[9] near[10] a dwelling-place: a dwelling-place or a curved house or a long house or a mansion or a cave,[11] let there be kept[12] there whatever the Order desires. And thus, monks, should it be agreed upon: The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may agree upon such and such a dwelling-place as a place for what is allowable. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The Order is agreeing upon such and such a dwelling-place as a place for what is allowable. If the agreement on such and such a dwelling-place as a place for what is allowable is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. Such and such a dwelling-place is agreed upon by the Order as a place for what is allowable. Therefore they are silent. Thus do I understand this’.”


Kd.6.33.3 Now at that time the people boiled conjeys, boiled rice, prepared soups, cut up meats, chopped wood, just there at a place for what was allowable and which had been agreed upon. As the Lord was getting up at the end of the night towards dawn he heard a loud noise, a great noise, a noise (like) the cawing of crows,[13] and hearing it, he addressed the venerable Ānanda, saying: “What, Ānanda, is this loud noise, this great noise, this noise (like) the cawing of crows?”

Kd.6.33.4 “At present, Lord, people boil conjeys … chop sticks just there at a place for what is allowable and which has been BD.4.328 agreed upon. It is this loud noise, great noise, noise (like) the cawing of crows that the Lord (hears).”[14] Then the Lord, on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, one should not make use of a place for what is allowable that has been agreed upon.[15] Whoever should make use of it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, three places for what is allowable: that depending upon a proclamation,[16] that connected with what is fortuitous,[17] that (given by) a householder.[18]


Kd.6.33.5 Now at that time the venerable Yasoja[19] came to be ill. BD.4.329 Medicines were conveyed for him. Monks put these outside, but vermin ate them and also thieves carried them off.[20] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to make use of a place for what is allowable[21] and which has been agreed upon. Vin.1.240 I allow four places for what is allowable: that depending upon a proclamation, that connected with what is fortuitous, that given by a householder, that which is agreed upon.

Told is the Twenty-fourth Portion for Repeating.

Footnotes and references:

9.

kappiyabhūmi. The commentary does not explain this word, but in commenting on the three kinds of places allowed at the end of Kd.6.33.4. Buddhaghosa at Vin-a.1098f., uses the word kappiyakuṭī, hut for what is allowable. It seems probable that the kappiyabhūmi was a place for doing certain operations some of which were allowable only in times of scarcity: cooking for oneself, cooking indoors and curing indoors. Buddhaghosa at Vin-a.1099 appears to connect these with a kappiyabhūmi. It should however be noticed that at Kd.3.5.9 the “kitchen” which a lay follower may build for himself replaces the kappiyakuṭī which he may build for an Order or a member of it at Kd.3.5.6. For in normal times monks did not cook, and hence a place for doing allowable operations (of this nature) would be superfluous. A.K. Coomaraswamy, Indian Architectural Terms, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol.48, No.3, p.260 calls kappiyabhūmi an “outhouse site”.

10.

paccantima. Vin-a.1098 says this is only an expression.

11.

For these five “abodes” cf. above, Kd.1.30.4 and notes.

12.

vāsetu.

14.

so eso bhagavā uccāsaddo … kākoravasaddo. One would have expected bhante here instead of bhagavā, and the sentence then to be translated: it is this, Lord, that is the loud noise …

15.

Presumably there is the risk of being in the lay-people’s way and also of being disturbed by the noise they make.

16.

ussāvanantika. Ussāvana is not a proclamation in a technical sense and has nothing to do with proceedings at formal acts of the Order. But Buddhaghosa explains, Vin-a.1098, that having made all preparations with pillars, walls and stones, the people utter the phrase (vācaṃ nicchārenti) “We are making a kappiyakuṭī”. The two Commentaries which he quotes also mention a kappiyakuṭī as being spoken about or resolved upon. Antika is used in the same sense as above at Kd.7.1.7.

17.

gonisādika. Cf. gonisādi at Vin.3.46, where a village arranged “fortuitously” comes into the definition of village. Gonisādi is not an ox-stall (Vinaya Texts ii.121). Vin-a.298 explains that as two or three cows sit down here and there, so, having built two or three houses, they are arranged here and there. The idea is that something is left to a haphazard element. Vin-a.1099 explains that there are two kinds of gonisādika: one of the monastery (type), one of the dwelling-place. Wherever neither the monastery itself is fenced in nor the lodgings, this is the monastery-type of what is “fortuitous”. Wherever all or some of the lodgings are fenced in but not the monastery, this is the dwelling-place type. So in both kinds the non-fencing in of the monastery is a criterion. The commentary does not say which kind is intended here; perhaps both are.

18.

gahapati. Vin-a.1099 says, “people having built a residence say, ‘we are giving a kappiyakutl, make use of it’—this is called gahapati. It means this too if they say, ‘We are giving (something) to build a kappiyakuṭī’ ”. Vin-a on this whole passage uses kappiyakuṭī and never kappiya-bhūmi. Cf. kappiyakuṭiyo which, among other things, Anāthapiṇḍika caused to be built in the Jeta Grove, at Vin.2.159, and the kappiyakuṭī which a lay disciple might cause to be built for an Order, at Vin.1.139 (above, BD.4.186).

19.

Verses at Thag.243–Thag.245. There is a story about five hundred monks with Yasoja at their head at Ud.24–Ud.27. The lord dismissed them for making a great noise; they spent the rains in earnest endeavour and realised the three knowledges; they were then able to spend a whole night in as concentrated meditation as the Lord himself. Vin-a.1098 says “At the conclusion of the Kapilasutta he (Yasoja) was the chief person of the five hundred who had gone forth”. Snp-a.i.312, Dhp-a.iv.45 call these five hundred “fishermen’s sons”. See Dhp-a.iv.37ff. (Kapilamacchavatthu), Snp-a.i.305ff. (both of which tell about the golden fish, Kapila), Ud-a.179. Psalms of the Bretheren, p.166 for the circumstances in which the Kapilasutta was spoken to Yasoja. This Sutta is referred to at Dhp-a.iv.42 as being in the Suttanipāta. Kapilasutta is there (Snp.p.49) a variant reading for Dhammacariyasutta, but the Commentary (Snp-a.i.312) refers to it as Kapilasutta.

20.

As at Kd.6.17.7.

21.

This paragraph probably refers to allowable medicines. See too Vin-a.1101 which refers to sappi, ghee, which was a medicine.