Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 2: Case rulings

Mnemonic list

MS.282 Five are told with dyers, and four with blankets,
Five indeed with darkness, and five with carrying, /
MS.283 Five with speech, another two with wind,
Fresh, the dropping of a kusa-grass ticket,[1]
in the sauna[2] is the tenth, /
MS.284 Five are told with animal kills, and five without grounds,
Shortage of food, and boiled rice and meat, pasteries, cakes, sweetmeats, /
MS.285 With requisites, bag, cushion, bolster, a bamboo robe-rack, on not coming out,
And taking food on trust, another two on perceiving as oneʼs own, /
MS.286 Seven on not regarding as taking, and seven where they did take,
Seven where they took from the Sangha, and another two with flowers, /
MS.287 Three on taking messages,[3] three on taking jewels past,
And pigs, deer, fish, and setting a vehicle in motion, /
MS.288 Two on a piece of flesh, two on wood, discarded, two on water,
Vin.3.56 Step by step, by arrangement, it did not amount (to five māsakas), /
MS.289 Four handfuls at Sāvatthī, two on scraps of meat, two about grass,
BD.1.94 Seven on dividing the belongings of the Sangha, and seven on non-owners, /
MS.290 Wood, water, clay, two on grass, seven on taking by theft the belongings of the Sangha,
One should not take away what has an owner,
one may borrow what has an owner, /
MS.291 Campā and in Rājagaha, and Ajjuka at Vesālī,
And Benares, and Kosambī, and Sāgalā with Dalhika.


Case details

Bu-Pj.2.7.1 MS.292 At one time the group of six monks went to the dyersʼ spread (of dyed cloth) and carried off the dyersʼ goods. They became anxious and thought, “The Master has laid down a training rule. Could it be that we have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion?”[4] … They informed the Master … “You, monks, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.2 MS.293 At one time a certain monk, having gone to the dyersʼ spread (of dyed cloth) and seeing a valuable garment, had the intention to steal it. On account of this he became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for the arising of a thought.”


MS.294 At one time a certain monk … saw a valuable garment and, intending to steal it, he touched it. On account of this he became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence of bad conduct.”


MS.295 At one time a certain monk … saw a valuable garment and, intending to steal it, he made it quiver. On this account he became anxious … “… but there is a serious offence.”


MS.296 At one time a certain monk … saw a valuable garment and, intending to steal it, he moved it from its base. On account of this he became anxious … “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.3 MS.297 At one time a certain monk who was an almsgoer BD.1.95 saw a valuable blanket[5] and had the intention to steal it … intending to steal it, he touched it … intending to steal it, he made it quiver … intending to steal it, he moved it from its base. On account of this he became anxious … “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.4 MS.298 At one time a certain monk, seeing some goods during the day, took note of them, thinking, “I will steal them at night,” and he stole them, thinking they were the ones he had seen. … but he stole something else, thinking they were the ones he had seen. … and he stole them, thinking they were something else.[6] … but he stole something else, thinking it was something else. On account of this he became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Vin.3.57 MS.299 At one time a certain monk, seeing some goods during the day, took note of them, thinking, “I will steal them at night,” but he stole his own goods, thinking they were something else. On account of this he became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.5 MS.300 At one time a certain monk carrying the goods of another on his head touched the burden intending to steal it … intending to steal it, he made it quiver … intending to steal it, he lowered it onto his shoulder … intending to steal it, he touched the burden on the shoulder … intending to steal it, he made it quiver … intending to steal it, he lowered it onto his hip … intending to steal it, he touched the burden on the hip … intending to steal it, he made it quiver … intending to steal it, he took hold of it with his hands … intending to steal the burden in his hands, he deposited it on the ground … intending to steal it, he took it from the ground. On account of this he became anxious … “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.6 MS.301 At one time a certain monk, having spread out his robe in the open air, entered his dwelling. A second BD.1.96 monk, thinking, “let not this robe be lost,” put it aside. Having come out of his dwelling, the first monk[7] asked the monks, “Friends, who has taken my robe?” The second monk[8] said, “I have taken it.” The first monk seized him and said, “You are no longer a recluse.” The second monk became anxious. He informed the Master. The Master said, “what was your intention?”

“Master, it was just a way of speaking.”

“There is no offence, monk, since it was just a way of speaking.”[9]


MS.302 At one time a certain monk, putting down his robe on a bench … putting down his sitting cloth on a bench … putting his bowl under a bench, entered his dwelling. A second monk, thinking, “let not this bowl be lost,” put it aside. Having come out, the first monk asked the monks, “Friends, who has taken my bowl?” The second monk said, “I have taken it.” The first monk seized him …“There is no offence, monk, since it was just a way of speaking.”


MS.303 At one time a certain nun, having spread out her robe on a fence, entered her dwelling. A second nun, thinking, “let not this robe be lost,” put it aside. Having come out, the first nun[10] asked the nuns, “Ladies,[11] who has taken my robe?” The second nun[12] said, “I have taken it.” The first nun seized her and said, “You are no longer a recluse.” On account of this the second nun became anxious. She informed the nuns. The nuns informed the monks. The monks informed the Master … “There is no offence, monks, since it was just a way of speaking.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.7 Vin.3.58 MS.304 At that time a certain monk, seeing a robe blown up during a whirlwind, took hold of it, thinking, “I will give it to the owners.” The owners reprimanded the monk, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” On account of this he became anxious … “What was your intention, monk?”

BD.1.97 “I did not intend to steal it, Master.”

“Monk, there is no offence for one who does not intend to steal.”


MS.305 At one time a certain monk, intending to steal it, took hold of a turban blown up during a whirlwind, thinking, “lest the owners see it.” The owners reprimanded the monk, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.8 MS.306 At one time a certain monk went to a charnel ground and took the rags from a fresh corpse.[13] But the ghost[14] was still dwelling in that body.[15] Then the ghost said to the monk, “Bhante, do not take my robe.” The monk took no notice and went away. Then the body got up[16] and followed closely behind that monk. The monk entered his dwelling and closed the door, and the body fell down at that very place.[17] He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion. But a monk should not take rags from a fresh corpse.[18] If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.9 MS.307 At one time, when robes belonging to the Sangha were being distributed, a certain monk, disregarding his kusa-grass ticket[19] and intending to steal, took a robe. He became anxious … “… entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.10 MS.308 At one time when Venerable Ānanda was in a sauna,[20] thinking that the inner robe of another monk was his own, he put it on. BD.1.98 That monk said, “Why, friend Ānanda, did you put on my inner robe?”

“Friend, I thought it was my own.”

They informed the Master. He said: “There is no offence, monks, for one who perceives it as his own.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.11 MS.309 At one time a number of monks, descending from Mount Vultureʼs Peak and seeing the remains of a lionʼs kill, had it cooked and ate it. They became anxious … “Monks, there is no offence when it is the remains of a lionʼs kill.”[21]


MS.310 At one time a number of monks, descending from Mount Vultureʼs Peak and seeing the remains of a tigerʼs kill … seeing the remains of a pantherʼs kill … seeing the remains of a hyenaʼs kill … seeing the remains of a wolfʼs kill, had it cooked … “Monks, there is no offence when it is the property of an animal.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.12 Vin.3.59 MS.311 At one time, when rice belonging to the Sangha was being distributed, a certain monk said without grounds,[22] “give me a portion for another,” and he took it away. He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence entailing confession[23] for deliberately lying.”[24]


MS.312 At one time, when food belonging to the Sangha was being distributed, a certain monk … when cakes belonging to the Sangha were being distributed, a certain monk … when sugar-cane belonging to the Sangha was being distributed, a certain monk … when certain fruits belonging to the Sangha were being distributed, a certain monk said without grounds, “give me a portion for another,” and he took it away. He BD.1.99 became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is offence entailing confession for deliberately lying.”[25]


Bu-Pj.2.7.13 MS.313 At one time a certain monk, entering a rice kitchen[26] during a shortage of food and intending to steal, stole a bowlful of rice. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.314 At one time a certain monk, entering a slaughterhouse during a shortage of food and intending to steal, stole a bowlful of meat. … “… expulsion.”[27]


MS.315 At one time a certain monk, entering a bakery during a shortage of food and intending to steal, stole a bowlful of baked cakes … intending to steal, stole a bowlful of cakes … intending to steal, stole a bowlful of sweet-meats. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.14 MS.316 At one time a certain monk, seeing a requisite during the day, took note of it, thinking, “I will steal it at night.” He took it, thinking it was the one he had seen … He took something else, thinking it was the one he had seen … He took it, thinking it was something else than what he had seen … He took something else, thinking it was something else than what he had seen. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.317 At one time a certain monk, seeing a requisite during the day, took note of it, thinking, “I will steal it at night.” He took his own requisite, thinking it was something else. He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.15 MS.318 At one time a certain monk, seeing a bag on a bench and thinking, “if I take it from here I shall be expelled,” took it by moving BD.1.100 the bench. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.16 MS.319 At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, stole a cushion belonging to the Sangha. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.17 MS.320 At one time a certain monk, Vin.3.60 intending to steal, stole a robe from a bamboo robe-rack.[28] He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.18 MS.321 At one time a certain monk stole a robe in a dwelling, thinking, “if I come out from here I shall be expelled,” and he did not come out from that dwelling. They informed the Master. He said, “Monks, whether that foolish man comes out or not, there is an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.19 MS.322 At one time two monks were friends. One of them went into the village for alms. The second monk, when food belonging to the Sangha was being distributed, took his friendʼs portion. Taking it on trust, he ate it. Finding this out, the first monk[29] reprimanded him, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious …

“Monk, what was your intention?”

“I took it on trust, Master.”

“There is no offence, monk, for one who takes on trust.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.20 MS.323 At one time a number of monks were making robes. When food belonging to the Sangha was being distributed, having taken their shares,[30] they put them down.[31] A certain monk, BD.1.101 thinking that it was his own, ate another monkʼs portion.[32] He, finding this out, reprimanded him, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “… Monk, what was your intention?”

“I thought it was my own, Master.”

“There is no offence, monk, for one who perceives it as his own.”


MS.324 At one time a number of monks were making robes. When food belonging to the Sangha was being distributed, having brought a certain monkʼs share with the bowl of another monk, it was put down. The monk who was the owner of the bowl ate the food, thinking it was his own. Finding this out, the owner of the food reprimanded him … “There is no offence, monk, for one who perceives it as his own.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.21 MS.325 At one time mango thieves cut down some mangoes, collected them in a bundle and left. The owners pursued them. The thieves, seeing the owners, dropped the bundle and ran away. Some monks, perceiving them as discarded, had them offered[33] and ate them. The owners reprimanded these monks, saying, “You are no longer recluses.” They became anxious and informed the Master.

“Monks, what was you intention?”

“Master, we perceived them as discarded.”

“Monks, there is no offence for one who perceives them as discarded.”


MS.326 At one time rose-apple thieves … bread-fruit thieves … jack-fruit thieves … palm-fruit thieves … sugar-cane thieves … thieves of timbarūka fruit Vin.3.61 cut some of them down, collected them in a bundle and left. The owners … “There is no offence, monks, for one who perceives them as discarded.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.22 MS.327 At one time mango thieves BD.1.102 cut down some mangoes … left. Some monks, intending to steal them and thinking, “lest the owners see them,” ate them. The owners reprimanded the monks, saying, “You are no longer recluses.” They became anxious … “You, monks, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.328 At one time rose-apple thieves … thieves of timbarūka fruit … left. Some monks, intending to steal them and thinking, “lest the owners see them,” ate them. The owners … “You, monks, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.23 MS.329 At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, took a mango belonging to the Sangha … a rose-apple … a bread-fruit … a jack-fruit … a palm-fruit … a sugar-cane … intending to steal, took a timbarūka fruit belonging to the Sangha. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.24 MS.330 At one time a certain monk went to a flower-garden and, intending to steal, took a flower worth five māsakas that had already been plucked. He became anxious. … “… expulsion.”


MS.331 At one time a certain monk went to a flower-garden and, intending to steal, picked a flower worth five māsakas and took it away. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.25 MS.332 At one time, as he was going to the village, a certain monk said to another monk, “Friend, I can take a message[34][35] to the family that supports you.” He went there and BD.1.103 brought back a robe that he used it himself. The other monk, finding out about this, reprimanded him, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion. But, monks, you should not say, ‘I can take a message.’ If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.


MS.333 At one time a certain monk was going to the village. Another monk said to him, “Friend, please take a message to the family that supports me.” He went there and brought back a pair of robes. He used one himself and gave the other to the other monk. The other monk, finding out about this, reprimanded him, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion. But, monks, you should not say, ‘please take a message.’ If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.”


MS.334 At one time, as he was going to the village, a certain monk Vin.3.62 said to another monk, “Friend, I can take a message to the family that supports you.” He replied, “please do so.” He went there and brought back an āḷhaka measure[36] of ghee, a BD.1.104 tulā measure[37] of sugar and a dona measure of husked rice, which he ate by himself. The other monk, finding out about this, reprimanded him, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion. But, monks, you should not say, ‘I can take a message;’ nor should you say, ʻplease take a message.’ If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.26 MS.335 At one time a certain man, carrying a valuable jewel, was going along a main road together with a certain monk. Then the man, seeing a customs station, put the jewel into the monkʼs bag without his knowing it. Having gone past the customs station, he retrieved it. The monk was remorseful …

“Monk, what was your intention?”

“I did not know, Master.”

“There is no offence, monk, for who does not know.”


MS.336 At one time a certain man, taking a valuable jewel … seeing a customs station, he pretended to be ill and gave his own bag to the monk. When the man had passed the customs station, he said to the monk, “Give me my bag, bhante, I am not ill.”

“Why then, friend, did you say so?”

Then the man informed the monk. He became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for who does not know.”


MS.337 At one time a certain monk was going along a main BD.1.105 road together with a caravan. A certain man won that monk over with a gift.[38] Seeing a customs station, he gave the monk a valuable jewel, saying, “Bhante, please take this jewel past the customs.” So the monk took the jewel past the customs station. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.27 MS.338 At one time a certain monk out of compassion released a pig trapped in a snare. He became anxious …

“What was your intention, monk?”

“I was motivated by compassion, Master.”[39]

“There is no offence for one who is motivated by compassion.”


MS.339 At one time a certain monk released a pig trapped in a snare, intending to steal it, thinking, “lest the owners see it.” He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.340 At one time a certain monk out of compassion released a deer trapped in a snare … released a deer trapped in a snare, intending to steal it, thinking, “lest the owners see it.” Vin.3.63 … out of compassion released fish trapped in a fish-net … released fish trapped in a fish-net, intending to steal them, thinking, “lest the owners see them.” He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.28 MS.341 At one time a certain monk, seeing some goods in a vehicle, thought, “If I take these from here I will be expelled.” So he took them by setting the vehicle in motion. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.29 MS.342 At one time a certain monk, thinking, “I will give it to the owners,” seized a piece of flesh taken up by a hawk. The owners reprimanded that monk, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for one who does not intend to steal.”


BD.1.106 MS.343 At one time a certain monk, intending to steal and thinking, “lest the owners see it,” seized a piece of flesh taken up by a hawk. The owners reprimanded the monk, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.30 MS.344 At one time some men who had put a raft together placed it on the river Aciravatī.[40] When the bindings were destroyed, they went away, the sticks being spread all over. Some monks, perceiving them as discarded, got them out of the water. The owners reprimanded those monks, saying, “You are no longer recluses.” They became anxious … “Monks, there is no offence for one who perceives them as discarded.”


MS.345 At one time some men who had put a raft together placed it on the river Aciravatī. When the bindings were destroyed, they went away, the sticks being spread all over. Some monks, intending to steal and thinking, “lest the owners see it,” got them out of the water. The owners reprimanded the monks, saying, “You are no longer recluses.” They became anxious … “You, monks, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.31 MS.346 At one time a certain cowherd, hanging his robe on a tree, went to relieve himself. A certain monk, thinking it was discarded, took it. Then the cowherd reprimanded that monk, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for one who thinks it is discarded.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.32 MS.347 At one time, as a certain monk was crossing a river, a robe that had escaped from the hands of dyers, stuck to his foot. The monk took hold of it, thinking, “I will give it to the owners.” The owners BD.1.107 reprimanded that monk, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “There is no offence, monk, for one who does not intend to steal.”


MS.348 At one time, as a certain monk was crossing a river, a robe that had escaped from the hands of dyers stuck to his foot Vin.3.64 . The monk took hold of it, intending to steal and thinking, “lest the owners see it.” The owners reprimanded the monk, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.33 MS.349 At one time a certain monk, seeing a pot of ghee, ate it little by little. He became anxious … “Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.34 MS.350 At one time a number of monks, having made an arrangement,[41] went away, thinking, “we will steal these goods.” One of them stole the goods. The others said, “We are not expelled; the one who took it is expelled.” They informed the Master. He said, “You, monks, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.351 At one time a number of monks, having made an arrangement and having stolen some goods, shared them out. When it was being shared out, none of them received a share that amounted to five māsakas. They said, “We are not expelled.” They informed the Master. He said, “You, monks, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.35 MS.352 At one time, when Sāvatthī was short of food, a certain monk, intending to steal, took a handful of rice belonging to a shopkeeper. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.353 At one time, when Sāvatthī was short of food, a certain monk, intending to steal, took a handful of kidney-beans … a handful of beans … a handful of sesamum belonging to a shopkeeper. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.36 BD.1.108 MS.354 At one time thieves in the Dark Wood near Sāvatthī, having killed a cow, eaten some flesh and put the remainder aside, went away. Some monks, perceiving it as discarded, had it offered and ate it. The thieves reprimanded those monks, saying, “You are no longer recluses.” They became anxious … “There is no offence, monks, for one who perceives it as discarded.”


MS.355 At one time thieves in the Dark Wood near Sāvatthī, having killed a pig … “… for one who perceives it as discarded.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.37 MS.356 At one time a certain monk went to a meadow and, intending to steal, took some cut grass worth five māsakas. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.357 At one time a certain monk went to a meadow and, intending to steal, cut grass worth five māsakas and took it away. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.38 Vin.3.65 MS.358 At one time some visiting monks divided up the mangoes belonging to the Sangha and ate them. The resident[42] monks reprimanded those monks, saying, “You are no longer recluses.” They became anxious. They informed the Master.

“What was your intention, monks?”

“We thought they was meant for eating, Master.”

“There is no offence, monks, for one who thinks it is meant for eating.”


MS.359 At one time some visiting monks divided up the rose-apples belonging to the Sangha … the bread-fruit belonging to the Sangha … the jack-fruit … the palm fruits … the sugar-cane … the timbarūsaka fruits belonging to the Sangha and ate them. The resident monks … “There is no offence, monks, for one who thinks it is meant for eating.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.39 MS.360 At one time the keepers of a mango-grove gave a mango BD.1.109 to some monks. The monks, thinking, “They[43] have the authority to guard, but not to give,” had scruples and did not accept it. They informed the Master. He said, “There is no offence, monks, when it is a gift from a guardian.”


MS.361 At one time keepers of a rose-apple grove … a timbarūsaka grove gave timbarūsaka fruit to some monks. The monks, thinking, “they have the authority to guard …” … “There is no offence, monks, when it is a gift from a guardian.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.40 MS.362 At one time a certain monk, having borrowed a piece of wood belonging to the Sangha, used it to shore up the wall of his own dwelling. The monks reprimanded that monk, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” He became anxious and informed the Master. He said, “monk, what was your intention?”

“I was borrowing it, Master.”

“There is no offence, monk, when one is borrowing.”[44]


Bu-Pj.2.7.41 MS.363 At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, took water belonging to the Sangha … clay belonging to the Sangha … intending to steal, took a pile of tiṇa-grass belonging to the Sangha. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.364 At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, set fire to a pile of tiṇa-grass belonging to the Sangha. He became anxious … “There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence of bad conduct.”[45]


Bu-Pj.2.7.42 MS.365 At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, took a bed belonging to the Sangha. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


MS.366 At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, took a bench belonging to the Sangha … took a cushion … a pillow … a door … a window[46] BD.1.110 … intending to steal, took a rafter[47] belonging to the Sangha. He became anxious … “… expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.43 MS.367 At one time Vin.3.66 the furnishings and requisites for a dwelling[48] belonging to a certain lay follower[49] were used elsewhere by some monks. That lay-follower became vexed, annoyed and angry, and said, “how can those venerables use elsewhere requisites belonging somewhere else?” They informed the Master. “Monks, one should not use elsewhere requisites belonging somewhere else. If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.44 MS.368 At one time some monks, having scruples about taking requisites[50] to the uposatha hall or to a meeting place, sat down on the ground. Their limbs and robes were covered with dust. They informed the Master.[51] “Monks, I allow you to borrow.”[52]


Bu-Pj.2.7.45 MS.369 At one time at Campā[53] a nun who was a pupil of the nun Thullanandā went to the family who supported the nun Thullanandā and said, “The lady[54] wants to drink[55] rice-gruel containing the three pungent BD.1.111 MS.369 ingredients.”[56] When it was ready, she took it away and enjoyed it herself. When the nun Thullananadā found out about this, she reprimanded her, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.” She became anxious. She then informed the nuns, who in turn informed the monks, who then informed the Master. “Monks, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but in a deliberate lie there is an offence entailing confession.”


MS.370 At one time in Rājagaha a nun who was a pupil of the nun Thullanandā went to the family who supported the nun Thullanandā and said, “The lady[57] wants to eat a honey-ball.”[58] When it was ready, she took it away and enjoyed it herself. When the nun Thullanandā found out about this, she … “Monks, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but in a deliberate lie there is an offence entailing confession.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.46 MS.371 At one time in Vesāli the householder who was the supporter of Venerable Ajjuka had two children living with him, a son and a nephew. That householder said to Venerable Ajjuka, “Bhante, please point out this location[59] to the one of these two boys who has faith and confidence.”

At that time the householderʼs nephew had faith and confidence, and so Venerable Ajjuka pointed out that location to him. He then established a household with that wealth and BD.1.112 made a gift. Then the householderʼs son said to Venerable Ānanda:

“Bhante Ānanda, who is the fatherʼs heir, the son or the nephew?”

“The son, friend, is the fatherʼs heir.”

“Bhante, this master Ajjuka has pointed out our wealth to our cohabitant.”

“Friend, Venerable Ajjuka is no longer a recluse.” Then Venerable Ajjuka said to Venerable Ānanda:

“Friend Ānanda, please investigate.” At that Vin.3.67 time Venerable Upāli[60] was siding with Venerable Ajjuka. Then Venerable Upāli said to Venerable Ānanda:

“Friend Ānanda, when one is asked by the owner to point out a location to so-and-so, and one does so, what offence has one committed?”

“Bhante, one has not committed any offence, not even one of bad conduct.”

“Friend, Venerable Ajjuka was asked by the owner to point out a loaction to so-and-so, and he did so. Friend, there is no offence for Venerable Ajjuka.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.47 MS.372 Now at that time in Benares the family that supported Venerable Pilindavaccha[61] was oppressed by thieves, and two children were kidnapped. Venerable Pilindavaccha having bought these children back by his psychic power placed them in a large house. People saw those children and said:

BD.1.113 “This is the majesty of the psychic power of master Pilindavaccha,” and they placed confidence in Venerable Pilindavaccha. The monks became vexed, annoyed and angry, and said, “How can this Venerable Pilindavaccha bring back children who have been kidnapped by thieves?” They informed the Master. He said: “Monks, there is no offence in the area of psychic powers for one who possesses them.”

Bu-Pj.2.7.48 MS.373 At one time the two monks Paṇḍaka and Kapila[62] were friends. One lived in a village and one at Kosambī. Then, while the first monk was going from the village to Kosambī, as he was crossing a river, a lump of fat that had escaped from the hands of pork-butchers stuck to his foot. He took hold of it, thinking, “I will give it to the owners.” The owners reprimanded him, saying, “You are no longer a recluse.”

Then a woman cowherd who had seen him crossing said, “Come, bhante, have sexual intercourse.” Thinking, “I am no longer a recluse,” he had sexual intercourse with her.

When he arrived in Kosambī, he informed the monks and they informed the Master. He said, “Monks, there is no offence entailing expulsion for stealing,[63] but there is an offence entailing expulsion for having sexual intercourse.”


Bu-Pj.2.7.49 MS.374 Now at that time at Sāgalā,[64] a monk who was the disciple of Venerable Daḷhika, being tormented by BD.1.114 discontent,[65] took a turban[66] from a shopkeeper. He then said to Venerable Daḷhika, “Bhante, I am no longer a recluse, I will leave the Sangha.”[67]

“But what have you done, friend?” He told him. Having had the turban brought, Venerable Daḷhika valued it, and it was not worth five māsakas. “Friend, there is no offence entailing expulsion,” and he gave a talk on the Dhamma. That monk was delighted.[68]

MS.375 The second offence entailing expulsion is finished.

Footnotes and references:

1.

A blade (or blades) of the kusa grass cast to give the proper distribution of robes. Vin-a.378.

2.

Text here reads jantagghena, but at Vin.3.58, where the story is given we get jantāghare.

3.

vuttavādino.

5.

uttarattharaṇa.

6.

Which he had originally thought of stealing.

7.

The first monk.

8.

The second monk.

9.

āpatti here followed by locative instead of genitive.

10.

The first nun.

11.

ayye.

12.

The second nun.

13.

Brahmali: Defined by commentary as still warm; see Vin-a.2.374,29.

14.

peta. See above, BD.1.92, n.

15.

“On account of its longing for a cloak,” Vin-a.374—i.e probably naked and needing a cloak.

16.

Through the peta’s own power, Vin-a.374.

17.

At the closed door the peta, being devoid of desire for the cloak, left the body, and went according to its deed, Vin-a.374.

18.

Still warm. Vin-a.374,29.

19.

Brahmali: Kusa-grass was apparently used as robe tickets.

20.

jantāghara.

21.

This shows that vegetarianism was not (at this time) enjoined; cf. below, BD.1.297, BD.1.298.

22.

amūlaka.

23.

Pācittiya, discussed in forthcoming volume.

24.

He must therefore have eaten it himself, the “for another” being only an excuse.

25.

He must therefore have eaten it himself, the “for another” being only an excuse.

26.

odaniyaghara.

27.

Again the fault is not in eating meat, it is in stealing.

28.

Here cīvaravaṃsa is not in conjunction with cīvararajju, the cord or rope for hanging the robes on.

29.

The first monk.

30.

paṭivisa.

31.

Upanikkhittā honti. Upanikkhitta is the participle of the perfect passive of upanikkhipati.

32.

paṭivisa.

33.

Brahmali: Offered in the sense that a non-monk gave them the fruit, not in the sense that the owners actually gave it away. This was presumably to avoid falling into pācittiya 40 for eating food that has not been properly given.

34.

Brahmali: Vutto vajjemi, literally “I, spoken to (by you), could say.” It is not clear exactly what this means and it is possible that it simply refers to the conveying of greetings.

35.

Vutto vajjemī ti. Vin-a.382 says that this means, “being spoken to by you, I speak on your behalf.” Hence the one who takes the message of greeting will be treated at the house in the same way as is the regular diner there. Thus vutto vadeti means: to greet somebody on the part of somebody. The offence would seem to lie in the substitution of one monk for another. Vin-a.382 implies that it is allowed for one monk to take greetings from another if he is going to ask for something definite.

36.

See Rhys Davids, Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, p.18–p.20. Vin-a.702 gives a discussion on the āḷhaka, from which it appears that it was a very variable measure: “‘takes half an āḷhaka of grue’ means: takes the gruel made from two nāḷis of uncooked rice according to the Magadha nāḷi. In the Andha Commentary a Magadha nāḷi is said to be thirteen and a half palas (a weight). The nāḷi in use in the Island of Ceylon is larger than the Tamil nāḷi. The small Magadha nāḷi is the right measure. In the Great Commentary it is said that one Sinhalese nāḷi is equal to one and a half of this Magadha nāḷi.” At Snp-a.476 it is said that four patthas make an āḷhaka, reckoning by the Kosala patthas, and that four āḷhaka make a dona. See Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, p.18, and cf. above, BD.1.12, on pattha.This word āḷhaka is the same as that which occurs in the name of one of the games, pattāḷhaka, Vin.3.180, DN.i.6, MN.i.166. The various Commentaries always explain as paṇṇanāḷika, a nāḷika measure of leaves. Nāḷika = nāḷi. At AN.ii.55 = AN.ii.337 āḷhaka is used in connection with the “ocean.” It is therefore a liquid as well as a dry measure. It is translated as “gallon” at GS.ii.64, and as “pailful” at GS.iii.237. At Vin.1.240 it occurs in the compound āḷhakathālikā, translated at Vinaya Texts ii.122, “pint pots.” At AN.iii.369 it occurs again in this same compound; translated at GS.iii.262, “as big as pipkins,” with commentarial exegesis, n.6, taṇḍuḷāḷhakassa bhattapacana-thāḷikā, which seems to mean “a small bowl for cooking food to the extent of an āḷhaka of unboiled rice.” Same compound āḷhakathālikā occurs at Dhp-a.iii.370, with variant reading bhattathālikā, as though the bowl of an āḷhaka’s capacity were being identified with a bowl of food.

37.

Tulā is some kind of measure. At SN.ii.236 = AN.i.88 Khemā and Uppalavaṇṇā are called the tulā pamāṇa (measure) of the disciples who are nuns. Tulā at AN-a.ii.157 simply seems to mean standard or weight. The Abhidhānappadīpikā § 481 (a late work), says that a tulā is a hundred palas.

38.

āmisena upalāpetvā, literally cajoling with a reward.

39.

Literally, “I am one who has a sense of compassion.”

40.

B.C. Law, Geography of Early Buddhism, p.36: “Aciravatī is the river Rapti in Oudh, on which the town of Sāvatthī was situated.”

41.

saṃvidahitvā, also above, Bu-Pj.2.4.29, where the rule is laid down.

42.

Āvāsika.

43.

Issara.

44.

Cf. below, BD.1.110.

45.

Brahmali: Because it was not moved from its base, says the Commentary; see Vin-a.2.389,25.

46.

ālokasandhi, cf. Vin.1.48; Vin.2.209 = Vin.2.218.

47.

gopanāsi, cf. AN.i.261; MN.i.80.

48.

Vihāraparibhoga. See Vin.2.174.

49.

Thus he could not give them to senior monks coming in, Vin-a.391.

50.

Vin-a.390, a couch or chair.

51.

Part of the story seems to be omitted.

52.

= Vin.2.174. See also above, BD.1.109. Tāvalālika, translated at Vinaya Texts iii.217 as “for a certain time only”; and at Dialogues of the Buddha ii.195 = Buddhist Suttas, second edition, p.241 (translation of Ja.i.393), as “only for a time … as temporary” (word occurring twice). At Vinaya Texts ii.154, n.7, editor says tāvakālika means “only for a time, temporary, on loan,” and translates it by “on loan” at Vinaya Texts ii.347 (= Vin.2.174). At Ja.i.121 the word is used of a cart taken on hire. Cf. Vin.4.286, when it is not considered an offence to give recluses robes temporarily.

53.

The ancient capital of Aṅga.

54.

Ayyā.

55.

Pātuṃ, infinitive of pivati, balanced by khādituṃ in the next story.

56.

Tekaṭulayāgu. Vin-a.391 says “made with either tila (sesamum), taṇḍula (rice-grain), mugga (kidney-beans), or tila, taṇḍula, and māsa (a bean), or tila, taṇḍula and kulattha (a kind of vetch), or any one prepared grain with tila and taṇḍula, making three (ingredients).” Cf. above, BD.1.83, n.4. The word tekaṭulayāgu also occurs at Vin.1.210, where Gotama is said to make this gruel of tila, taṇḍula and mugga. Editor at Vinaya Texts ii.68, n.2, says kaṭu means pungent, and that these three substances are explained to be ginger and two kinds of pepper. Apparently the gruel could be made of three kinds of grain and flavoured with three spices. But Vin-a.391 says: “It is said that they make this (gruel) mixing these three (prepared grains) in milk and four parts of water and adding ghee, honey and molasses.”

57.

Ayyā.

58.

Madhugoḷaka. Pali-English Dictionary gives only one reference to goḷaka at Thig-a.255; and under kīlā-goḷaka to Vism.256 (cf. Khp-a.53). Vin-a.391 defines madhugoḷaka as atirasapūva, which seems to mean a “very tasty cake.”

59.

Okāsa.

60.

See above, BD.1.60, n.4.

61.

Vin.1.206ff. = Vin.3.248ff. recounts the feats he did by his mystic potency in Rājagaha when Bimbisāra was King of Magadha. At AN.i.24 he is called “chief among the disciples who are dear and delightful to the devas.” At Ud.28 objections are raised to his “foul talk.” I think he is probably the same as the Pilinda-Vaccha of Theragāthā; see Psalms of the Bretheren ix and Psalms of the Bretheren p.14, n.4; Psalms of the Bretheren p.15, n.2. We learn from Commentary on Theragāthā that Pilinda was his name, Vaccha the name of his clan (cf. Vana-Vaccha, Psalms of the Bretheren xiii), and that he was waited on by a deva and acquired the Gandhāra charm. For this, see DN.i.213; Ja.iv.498.

62.

Mentioned, I think, nowhere but here. Naturally not the Kapila to whom MN-a.i.91 refers as the depraved monk (cf. Vin.3.107), reborn with his saṅghāṭi-robe flaming.

63.

For he did not intend to steal it.

64.

See Mil.p.1, for description of a city of this name. A Sāgalā, capital of the kingdom of the Maddas, is mentioned at Ja.iv.230; Ja.v.283, Ja.v.285, Ja.v.289f.; Ja.vi.471.

65.

Anabhiratiyā pīḷito. Vinaya Texts iii.77, n.3, says, “this anabhirati is constantly referred to, and always as the result of falling in love, or in connection with sexual desire.” I think it is then not so much the “distaste (for meditation),” as stated at Vinaya Texts iii.77, as the actual disease of unsatisfied sexual needs. We have, however, now had the words abhirata and anabhirata several times, and not always in such a connection. Thus at BD.1.24, BD.1.25, the verb clearly means no more than to enjoy the ordinary and varied delights of the household life, such as music and nautch girls dancing; as at BD.1.32 it simply means to be delighted with the Brahma-life. But at BD.1.34 it might be thought that, by implication, anabhirata means dissatisfied, longing for sexual intercourse. At BD.1.43 it might only mean a vague fretting, or it might have a more definite and specialised sense.

66.

Veṭhana, possibly a wrap or a cloak, as at Ja.vi.12, taken as a disguise. A wrap to put over the “yellow robes” would have been a better disguise than a turban, but could a wrap possibly have been worth less than five māsakas? A turban, on the other hand, would have hidden the shaven head, but that is all. Perhaps it was meant symbolically.

67.

Vibbhamissāmi. On those occasions when anabhirati is in connection with sexual desire, it would look as if vibbhamissāmi should then be translated, “I will co-habit,” and not as “I will leave the Order.” But except for the occurrence anabhirati in the above story, I see doubtful justification for such a rendering of vibbhamissāmi here. For the point of the story is that the monk has taken something worth less than five māsakas, which does not rank as a theft. However, we must remember that in the preceding story the offence is shown to be that of sexual intercourse, and not that of taking what was not given. Something of the same sort may have been here originally, but left out by a redactor.

68.

abhirami, aorist of abhiramati. I cannot help thinking that this word in this rather curious ending of the second Pārājika is meant to balance the an-abhirati with which this story began. Abhiramati and abhirati both derive from abhi + ram. It is most rare to find it said that a monk, when told that there is for him no offence, “was delighted,” and I more than ever believe that there are omissions in the text as we have it. I do not believe that the monk “was delighted” that he had committed no offence. I believe that in his appropriated veṭhana, he enjoyed himself (a meaning of abhiramati), or even fell in love (another meaning, cf. Snp.718, Snp.1085), which would balance the anabhirati of the opening sentence. I think, in fact, that this story was meant to end up in exactly the same way as the preceding one. But as the material for this is wanting, I have left the phrase as “was delighted.”