Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Four requisites

Kd.1.77.1 The shadow should be measured[1] at once, the length of the season[2] should be explained, the portion of the day[3] should BD.4.124 be explained, the formula[4] should be explained, Vin.1.96 the four resources should be explained (with the words): ‘Going forth is on account of meals of scraps … as at Kd.1.30.4 … These are extra acquisitions: ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey, molasses.’

Told are the Four Resources

Footnotes and references:


This must mean the shadow of the candidate, cast by the sun. Vin-a.1033 says the shadow should be measured with the words, It is the length of one man or of two men, ekaporisā dveporisā. Cf. porisa meaning “height of a man.” at MN.i.74, MN.i.187, MN.i.365.


Vin-a.1033 “the seasons are the rains, the cold weather, the hot weather. If whichever season it is is not ended, that season is incomplete by so many days”, thus the number of days remaining in that season, or “the exact season” (Pali-English Dictionary) should be explained.


Vin-a.1033, morning or afternoon.


sangīti, chanting together. According to Vin-a.1034, having done all this together he should be asked about his measure, the season and portion of the day in order that he might give the correct answers and so make it clear that he has properly understood his age as a member of the Order.

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