Sanskrit quote nr. 23 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अकर्णधाराशुगसंभृताङ्गतां गतैररित्रेण विनास्य वैरिभिः ।
विधाय यावत्तरणेर्भिदामहो निमज्ज्य तीर्णः समरे भवार्णवः ॥

akarṇadhārāśugasaṃbhṛtāṅgatāṃ gatairaritreṇa vināsya vairibhiḥ |
vidhāya yāvattaraṇerbhidāmaho nimajjya tīrṇaḥ samare bhavārṇavaḥ ||

⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼⏑¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⏑⎼¦¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼⏑¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⏑⎼¦¦
⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼⏑¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⏑⎼¦¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼⏑¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⏑⎼¦¦

Meter name: Upajāti (Vaṃśastha and Indravaṃśa); Type: Akṣaracchanda (sama); 12 syllables per quarter (pāda).

Primary English translation:

“Lo, without any armour, his enemies pierced by unbarbed arrows, crossed the ocean of existence, sinking low in battle and piercing their way through the entire solar orb (i.e., went to the highest heaven as a reward for being killed in battle).”

(translation by K. K. Handiqui)

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Ashuga (asuga, āśuga, आशुग): defined in 1 categories.
Ta (tā, ता): defined in 4 categories.
Gata (गत): defined in 6 categories.
Aritra (अरित्र): defined in 1 categories.
Vi (वि, vī, वी): defined in 3 categories.
Idam (इदम्): defined in 2 categories.
Vairi (वैरि): defined in 1 categories.
Vairin (वैरिन्): defined in 1 categories.
Vidha (विध): defined in 5 categories.
Yavat (yāvat, यावत्): defined in 2 categories.
Tarani (taraṇi, तरणि): defined in 3 categories.
Bhid (भिद्): defined in 1 categories.
Bhida (bhidā, भिदा): defined in 2 categories.
Ahan (अहन्): defined in 1 categories.
Ni (नि, nī, नी): defined in 4 categories.
Tirna (tīrṇa, तीर्ण): defined in 2 categories.
Samara (समर): defined in 5 categories.
Bhavarnava (bhavārṇava, भवार्णव): defined in 1 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Sanskrit, Pali, Marathi, Buddhism, Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology), Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Theravada (major branch of Buddhism), Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres), Jainism, Purana

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “akarṇadhārāśugasaṃbhṛtāṅgatāṃ gatairaritreṇa vināsya vairibhiḥ”
  • akarṇadhārā -
  • akarṇadhāra (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    akarṇadhāra (vocative single)
    akarṇadhāra (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    akarṇadhāra (vocative single)
    akarṇadhārā (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    akarṇadhārā (nominative single)
    akarṇadhārā (nominative single)
  • āśuga -
  • āśuga (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    āśuga (vocative single)
    āśuga (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    āśuga (vocative single)
  • sambhṛtāṅga -
  • sambhṛtāṅga (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    sambhṛtāṅga (vocative single)
    sambhṛtāṅga (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    sambhṛtāṅga (vocative single)
  • tām -
  • (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    tām (accusative single)
    (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    tām (accusative single)
    tām (accusative single)
  • gatair -
  • gata (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    gataiḥ (instrumental plural)
    gata (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    gataiḥ (instrumental plural)
  • aritreṇa -
  • aritra (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    aritreṇa (instrumental single)
    aritra (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    aritreṇa (instrumental single)
  • vinā -
  • vinā (indeclinable postposition); (2 der.)
    (indeclinable postposition)
    (indeclinable postposition)
    vi (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    vinā (instrumental single)
    vinā (instrumental single)
    vi (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    vinā (instrumental single)
    vinā (instrumental single)
    (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    vinā (instrumental single)
    vinā (instrumental single)
  • asya -
  • as -> asya (absolutive); (1 der.)
    (absolutive), from √as
    a (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    asya (genitive single)
    idam (pronoun, masculine); (1 der.)
    asya (genitive single)
    idam (pronoun, neuter); (1 der.)
    asya (genitive single)
    as (verb class 4); (1 der.)
    asya (imperative active second single)
  • vairibhiḥ -
  • vairi (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    vairibhiḥ (instrumental plural)
    vairin (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    vairibhiḥ (instrumental plural)
    vairin (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    vairibhiḥ (instrumental plural)
  • Line 2: “vidhāya yāvattaraṇerbhidāmaho nimajjya tīrṇaḥ samare bhavārṇavaḥ”
  • vidhāya -
  • vidha (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    vidhāya (dative single)
    vidha (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    vidhāya (dative single)
  • yāvat -
  • yāvat (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    yāvat (indeclinable relative); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable relative)
    yāvat (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    (compound)
    yāvat (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    yāvat (nominative single)
    yāvat (vocative single)
    yāvat (accusative single)
  • taraṇer -
  • taraṇi (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    taraṇeḥ (ablative single)
    taraṇeḥ (genitive single)
    taraṇi (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    taraṇeḥ (ablative single)
    taraṇeḥ (genitive single)
  • bhidām -
  • bhid (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    bhidām (genitive plural)
    bhid (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    bhidām (genitive plural)
    bhid (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    bhidām (genitive plural)
    bhidā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    bhidām (accusative single)
  • aho* -
  • ahan (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    ahas (compound)
    ahaḥ (adverb)
    ahaḥ (nominative single)
    ahaḥ (vocative single)
    ahaḥ (accusative single)
    ahar (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    ahaḥ (adverb)
    has (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    ahaḥ (aorist active second single)
  • ni -
  • ni (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    ni (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    ni (nominative single)
    ni (vocative single)
    ni (accusative single)
    ni (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    ni (adverb)
    (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    ni (compound)
    ni (adverb)
    ni (nominative single)
    ni (vocative single)
    ni (accusative single)
    (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    ni (adverb)
  • majjya -
  • majj -> majjya (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    (compound), from √majj
    majj -> majjya (participle, neuter); (1 der.)
    (compound), from √majj
    majj -> majjya (absolutive); (1 der.)
    (absolutive), from √majj
    majj -> majjya (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    majjya (vocative single), from √majj
    majj -> majjya (participle, neuter); (1 der.)
    majjya (vocative single), from √majj
  • tīrṇaḥ -
  • tīrṇa (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    tīrṇaḥ (nominative single)
    tṝ -> tīrṇa (participle, masculine); (4 der.)
    tīrṇaḥ (nominative single), from √tṝ (class 1 verb)
    tīrṇaḥ (nominative single), from √tṝ (class 3 verb)
    tīrṇaḥ (nominative single), from √tṝ (class 5 verb)
    tīrṇaḥ (nominative single), from √tṝ (class 6 verb)
  • samare -
  • samara (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    samare (locative single)
  • bhavārṇavaḥ -
  • bhavārṇava (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    bhavārṇavaḥ (nominative single)

Sources

This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Naiṣadhacarita 12.71: Literally “The narrative of Niṣadha”. A Sanskrit epic poem. Also known as simply Naiṣadha. The story relates the history of Nala (King of Niṣadha) and Damayantī (daughter of Bhīma, king of Vidarbha). They are both characters from the Mahābhārata. The book was written by Śrīharṣa in the 12th century.
More info

Subhāṣitāvalī 2559: This is a compilation of Collection of 3527 subhāṣita verses authored by 360 poets. The book was compiled by Vallabhadeva in 1417-67 A.D..
More info

Authorship

Śrīharṣa (12th century) is the author of the Naiṣadhacarita.

Vallabhadeva (15th century) is the compiler of the Subhāṣitāvalī, into which he included this quote.

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 23 and can be found on page 5. (read on archive.org)

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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