Mahabharata (English)

by Kisari Mohan Ganguli | 2,566,952 words | ISBN-10: 8121505933

The English translation of the Mahabharata is a large text describing ancient India. It is authored by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa and contains the records of ancient humans. Also, it documents the fate of the Kauravas and the Pandavas family. Another part of the large contents, deal with many philosophical dialogues such as the goals of life. Book...

Section CLXIX

"The Brahmana continued,

'King Drupada (after this), distressed at heart, wandered among many asylums of Brahmanas in search of superior Brahmanas well-skilled in sacrificial rites. Overwhelmed with grief and eagerly yearning for children, the king always said,

'Oh, I have no offspring surpassing all in accomplishments.'

And the monarch, from great despondency, always said

'Oh, fie on those children that I have and on my relatives!'

And ever thinking of revenging himself on Drona, the monarch sighed incessantly.

And that best of kings, O Bharata, even after much deliberation, saw no way of overcoming, by his Kshatriya might, the prowess and discipline and training and accomplishment of Drona. Wandering along the banks of the Yamuna and the Ganga, the monarch once came upon a sacred asylum of Brahmanas.

There was in that asylum no Brahmana who was not a Snataka, no one who was not of rigid vows, and none who was not virtuous to a high degree.

And the king saw there two Brahmana sages named Yaja and Upayaja, both of rigid vows and souls under complete control and belonging to the most superior order. They were both devoted to the study of the ancient institutes and sprung from the race of Kasyapa.

And those best of Brahmanas were well-able to help the king in the attainment of his object. The king then, with great assiduity and singleness of purpose, began to court this pair of excellent Brahmanas.

Ascertaining the superior accomplishments of the younger of the two the king courted in private Upayaja of rigid vows, by the offer of every desirable acquisition. Employed in paying homage to the feet of Upayaja, always addressing in sweet words and offering him every object of human desire, Drupada, after worshipping that Brahmana, addressed him (one day), saying,

'O Upayaja, O Brahmana, if you, performest those sacrificial rites by (virtue of) which I may obtain a son who may slay Drona, I promise you ten thousand kine, or whatever else may be agreeable to you, O first of Brahmanas, truly am I ready to make gifts to you.'

Thus addressed by the king, the Rishi replied, saying,

'I cannot (perform such rites).'

But Drupada without accepting this reply as final, once more began to serve and pay homage unto that Brahmana. Then, after the expiration of a year, Upayaja, that first of Brahmanas, O monarch, addressing Drupada in sweet tone, said,

'My elder brother (Yaja), one day, while wandering through the deep woods, took up a fruit that had fallen upon a spot the purity of which he cared not to enquire about.

I was following him (at the time) and observed this unworthy act of his. Indeed, he entertains no scruples in accepting things impure. In accepting that (particular) fruit he saw not any impropriety of sinful nature: Indeed, he who observes not purity (in one instance) is not very likely to observe it in the other instances.

When he lived in the house of his preceptor, employed in studying the institutes, he always used to eat (impure) remnants of other people’s feasts. He always speaks approvingly of food and entertains no dislike for anything. Arguing from these, I believe that my brother covets earthy acquisitions.

Therefore, O king, go unto him; he will perform spiritual offices for you.'

Hearing these words of Upayaja, king Drupada, though entertaining a low opinion of Yaja, nevertheless went to his abode. Worshipping Yaja who was (still) worthy of homage, Drupada said unto him,

'O master, perform you spiritual offices for me and I will give you eighty thousand kine! Enmity with Drona burns my heart; it behoves you therefore to cool that heart of mine. Foremost of those conversant with the Vedas, Drona is also skilled in the Brahma weapon and for this, Drona has overcome me in a contest arising from (impaired) friendship.

Gifted with great intelligence, the son of Bharadvaja is (now) the chief preceptor of the Kurus. There is no Kshatriya in this world superior to him. His bow is full six cubits long and looks formidable, and his shafts are capable of slaying every living being.

That great bowman, the high-souled son of Bharadvaja, habited as a Brahmana, is destroying the Kshatriya power all over the earth. Indeed, he is like a second Jamadagnya intended for the extermination of the Kshatriya race. There is no man on earth who can overcome the terrible force of his weapons.

Like a blazing fire fed with clarified butter, Drona, possessed of Brahma might and uniting it with Kshatriya might, consumes every antagonist in battle. But (your) Brahma force is greater in itself than (Drona’s) Brahma force united with Kshatriya might.

Therefore, as I am inferior (to Drona) in consequence of my possession of Kshatriya might alone, I solicit the aid of your Brahma force, having obtained you so superior to Drona in knowledge of Brahma.

O Yaja, perform that sacrifice by means of which I may obtain a son invincible in battle and capable of slaying Drona. Ready am I to give you ten thousand kine.'

Hearing these words of Drupada, Yaja said, ’so be it.'

Yaja then began to recollect the various ceremonies appertaining to the particular sacrifice. And knowing the affair to be a very grave one, he asked the assistance of Upayaja who coveted nothing.

Then Yaja promised to perform the sacrifice for the destruction of Drona.

Then the great ascetic Upayaja spoke unto king Drupada of everything required for the grand sacrifice (by aid of fire) from which the king was to obtain offspring.

And he said,

'O king, a child shall be born unto you, endued, as you desirest, with great prowess, great energy, and great strength.'

"The Brahmana continued,

'Then king Drupada, impelled by the desire of obtaining a son who was to slay Drona, began, for the success of his wish, to make the necessary preparations.

(And when everything was complete) Yaja, after having poured libations of clarified butter on the sacrificial fire, commanded Drupada’s queen, saying,

'Come hither, O queen, O daughter-in-law of Prishata! A son and a daughter have arrived for you!'

Hearing this, the queen said,

'O Brahmana, my mouth is yet filled with saffron and other perfumed things.
My body also bears many sweet scents;
I am hardly fit for accepting (the sanctified butter which is to give me offspring).
Wait for me a little,
O Yaja! Wait for that happy consummation.'

Yaja, however, replied,

'O lady, whether you comest or waitest, why should not the object of this sacrifice be accomplished when the oblation has already been prepared by me and sanctified by Upayaja’s invocations?'

"The Brahmana continued,

'Having said this, Yaja poured the sanctified libation on the fire, whereupon arose from those flames a child resembling a celestial who possessing the effulgence of fire, was terrible to behold. With a crown on this head and his body encased in excellent armour, sword in hand, and bearing a bow and arrows, he frequently sent forth loud roars. And immediately after his birth, he ascended an excellent chariot and went about in it for some time.

Then the Pancalas in great joy shouted,

'Excellent, Excellent.'

The very earth seemed at that time unable to bear the weight of the Pancalas mad with joy. Then, marvellous to say, the voice of some invisible spirit in the skies said,

'This prince has been born for the destruction of Drona.
He shall dispel all the fears of the Pancalas and spread their fame.
He shall also remove the sorrow of the king.'

And there arose, after this from the centre of the sacrificial platform, a daughter also, called Pancali, who, blest with great good fortune, was exceedingly handsome.

Her eyes were black, and large as lotus-petals, her complexion was dark, and her locks were blue and curly.

Her nails were beautifully convex, and bright as burnished copper; her eye-brows were fair, and bosom was deep. Indeed, she resembled the veritable daughter of a celestial born among men.

Her body gave out fragrance like that of a blue lotus, perceivable from a distance of full two miles. Her beauty was such that she had no equal on earth.

Like a celestial herself, she could be desired (in marriage) by a celestial, a Danava, or a: Yaksha.

When this girl of fair hips was born an incorporeal voice said,

'This dark-complexioned girl will be the first of all women, and she will be the cause of the destruction of many Kshatriyas.

This slender-waisted one will, in time, accomplish the purpose of the gods, and along with her many a danger will overtake the Kauravas.'

On hearing these words, the Pancalas uttered a loud leonine roar, and the earth was unable to bear the weight of that joyous concourse.

Then beholding the boy and the girl, the daughter-in-law of Prishata, desiring to have them, approached Yaja and said,

'Let not these know any one else except myself as their mother.'

Yaja, desiring to do good unto the king said, ’so be it!'

Then the Brahmanas (present there), their expectations fully gratified, bestowed names upon the new-born pair,

'Let this son of king Drupada, they said, be called Dhrishtadyumna, because of his excessive audacity and because of his being born like Dyumna with a natural mail and weapon.'

And they also said,

'Because this daughter is so dark in complexion, she should be called Krishna (the dark).'

"The Brahmana continued,

'Thus were born those twins of the great sacrifice of Drupada. And the great Drona, bringing the Pancala prince into his own abode, taught him all weapons in requital of half the kingdom he had formerly taken from Drupada.

The high-souled son of Bharadvaja, regarding destiny to be inevitable, did what would perpetuate his own great deeds.'"


This concludes Section CLXIX of Book 1 (Adi Parva) of the Mahabharata, of which an English translation is presented on this page. This book is famous as one of the Itihasa, similair in content to the eighteen Puranas. Book 1 is one of the eighteen books comprising roughly 100,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

FAQ (frequently asked questions):

Which keywords occur in Section CLXIX of Book 1 of the Mahabharata?

The most relevant definitions are: Brahmana, Drona, Yaja, Drupada, Upayaja, Brahmanas; since these occur the most in Book 1, Section CLXIX. There are a total of 29 unique keywords found in this section mentioned 123 times.

What is the name of the Parva containing Section CLXIX of Book 1?

Section CLXIX is part of the Caitraratha Parva which itself is a sub-section of Book 1 (Adi Parva). The Caitraratha Parva contains a total of 19 sections while Book 1 contains a total of 19 such Parvas.

Can I buy a print edition of Section CLXIX as contained in Book 1?

Yes! The print edition of the Mahabharata contains the English translation of Section CLXIX of Book 1 and can be bought on the main page. The author is Kisari Mohan Ganguli and the latest edition (including Section CLXIX) is from 2012.

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