Yugma, Yugya: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Yugma means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Yugm.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Yugma (युग्म).—(I) lit, pair; the word is used for the second and fourth consonants ख्, घ्, छ्, झ् (kh, gh, ch, jh) etc. of the five classes which, in a way are combinations of two consonants; cf. युग्माः सोष्माणः (yugmāḥ soṣmāṇaḥ) R. T. 16; cf also युग्मौ सोष्माणौ (yugmau soṣmāṇau) where the word सोष्मन् (soṣman) is explained as उष्म। वायुस्तेन सह वर्तन्त इति सोष्माणः । खघ छझ टढ थध फभ (uṣma| vāyustena saha vartanta iti soṣmāṇaḥ | khagha chajha ṭaḍha thadha phabha); cf.also युग्मयोद्वितीयचतुर्थयोः (yugmayodvitīyacaturthayoḥ); (2) even, as opposed to odd, referring to the vowels ओ (o) and औ (au) which are even in the enumeration ए ओ ऐ औ (e o ai au). The consonants called युग्म (yugma) viz. ख, घ (kha, gha) and others which are defined as युग्म (yugma) are also the even consonants in their classes.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Yugma (युग्म) refers to a “combination of two sentences” as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—Another remarkable peculiarity of Hari Narayan’s style is that the stanzas are written in ‘yugmas’. The stanza is generally a complete sentence in the poem but some times more than one have a single finite verb. There are a good number of such verses which are found in Bhīṣmacarita and they are III.13-14 and X.35 to X.38. In this regard Madhusudan Mishra rightly observes that the poet is at liberty to choose his favourite metre to begin a canto, he also has to observe the restriction to continue it in spite of all odds. That is to say, sometimes the metre in hand may look too tiny before the elaborate ideas and the poet may face the situation of a square peg in round hole, but there is no alternative before the poet other than continuing the one at the beginning. The early poets must have felt such difficulties in their works, but soon they could have got through it by devising some tricks like yugma, sandanitaka, kalāpaka, kūlaka, etc. in which a number of stanzas are connected with one another as forming one sentence.

Kavyashastra book cover
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Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Yugma (युग्म) refers to a “pair” (e.g., a pair of clothes), according to the Nāradasaṃhitā verse 29.86-95 (pp. 181-184), a Sanskrit work on astrology having the Saralā commentary by Vasatirāma Śarmā.—Accordingly, “[...] In an auspicious copper basin, or in a clay basin that has been filled with water, having decorated it with effort by means of sandal paste, flowers and coloured rice, the basin which is placed upon grains of rice, to which a gold piece is added and which is covered by a pair of clothes [i.e., vastra-yugma], one should place the bowl after having seen the rise of half of the Sun’s orb. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (vaishnavism)

Yugma (युग्म) refers to “both”, according to Vedānta Deśika’s Yatirājasaptati (verse 73).—Accordingly, “May the Yatirājasaptati, the lamp that aids the Upaniṣads by which the distortions that are wrong views are extinguished, give us the knowledge that encompasses both the vibhūtis of the Blessed One (bhagavad-vibhūti-yugma)”.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Yugma.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘two’. Note: yugma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

yugma (युग्म).—m S A pair, brace, couple. 2 A male and female. 3 A couple of stanzas connected by the construction, the two together completing the sense.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

yugma (युग्म).—m A pair; a male or female.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Yugma (युग्म).—a. Even; युग्मासु पुत्रा जायन्ते स्त्रियोऽयुग्मासु रात्रिषु । तस्माद् युग्मासु पुत्रार्थी संविशेदार्तवे स्त्रियम् (yugmāsu putrā jāyante striyo'yugmāsu rātriṣu | tasmād yugmāsu putrārthī saṃviśedārtave striyam) Manusmṛti 3.48; Y.1.79.

-gmam 1 A pair, couple; see अयुग्म (ayugma).

2) Junction, union.

3) Confluence (of rivers).

4) Twins.

5) A couple of stanzas forming one grammatical sentence; द्वाभ्यां युग्म- मिति प्रोक्तम् (dvābhyāṃ yugma- miti proktam).

6) The sign Gemini of the zodiac; युग्मान्ते सूर्यमाहत्य महोल्केव दिवश्च्युता (yugmānte sūryamāhatya maholkeva divaścyutā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.6.14.

7) Mixing, uniting.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yugma (युग्म).—n.

(-gmaṃ) 1. A pair, a couple, a brace. 2. A twin. 3. Mixing, uniting. 4. A couple of verses. 5. The sign Gemini of the Zodiac. f.

(-gmā) Even. E. yuj to join, Unadi aff. mak, the final changed to ga.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yugma (युग्म).—i. e. yuj + ma, I. adj., f. , Even, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 48. Ii. n. 1. A pair, a couple, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 36, 4 (-cārin, du. Two going together). 2. Mixing. 3. [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 293, read yugyam.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yugma (युग्म).—[adjective] paired, even; [neuter] pair, double Śloka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Yugma (युग्म):—[from yuj] mf(ā)n. even (as opp. to ‘odd’), [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] n. a pair, couple, brace, [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Yājñavalkya; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] twins, [Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) the sign of the zodiac Gemini

5) [v.s. ...] a double Śloka (cf. yuga), [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

6) [v.s. ...] junction, confluence (of two streams), [Rāmāyaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] often [wrong reading] for yugya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yugma (युग्म):—(gmaṃ) 1. n. A pair; uniting, mixing; a couple of verses.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Yugma (युग्म) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Jugga, Jumma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Yugma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Yugma (युग्म) [Also spelled yugm]:—(nm) pair; couple; (a) two; ~[ka] pair, couple; ~[ja] twins.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Yugma (ಯುಗ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] a set of two things regarded as one unit; a pair.

2) [noun] a man and woman who are married to each other; a couple.

3) [noun] wooden crosspiece fastened over the necks of two oxen etc. and attached to the plough or cart to be pulled; a yoke.

4) [noun] a set of two stanzas, used to express a single idea.

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Yugya (ಯುಗ್ಯ):—[adjective] fit to be yoked; fit to be used for ploughing, drafting, etc.

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Yugya (ಯುಗ್ಯ):—[noun] a horse fit to be used for drafting a chariot.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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