Vicara, Vicāra: 31 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Vicara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vichara.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Vicāra (विचार, “progress”) refers to one of the thirty-six “characteristic features” (lakṣaṇa) of perfect ‘poetic compositions’ (kāvyabandha) and ‘dramatic compositions’ (dṛśyakāvya, or simply kāvya). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17, these thirty-six lakṣaṇas act as instructions for composing playwrights. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Vicāra (विचार, “deliberation”).—One of the thirty-six lakṣaṇa, or “excellent points of a dramatic composition”;—Description of vicāra: That which establishes something not direcrty perceived and is in harmony with the meaning expressed earlier and includes much elimination of errors (apoha), is called Deliberation (vicāra).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vicāra (विचार).—The importance of good consultation and its success—the words of Viṣanga to Bhaṇḍa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 21. 50-51.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vicāra (विचार).—(or विचारणा (vicāraṇā)), examination, question or topic or subject for examination; cf. कुतः पुनरियं विचारणा (kutaḥ punariyaṃ vicāraṇā) l M.Bh. on P. I. 1.50 Vart. 1.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Vicāra (विचार):—Morbidity; caused due to substance with Vayu mahabhuta predominance.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Vicāra (विचार) refers to the “teaching”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as Khageśī said to Bhairava, “[...] Accomplishment (siddhi) (can only be found) in Kula, Kaula and the Western (transmission) of Sadyojāta. O Śambhu, the one who bears the form of Sadyojāta has one face and three eyes. Our condition as the Yoni arose out of the previous Siddhakula. That is the Cave of this tradition and its teaching (vicāra) is the Śrīmata”.

2) Vicāra (विचार) refers to “reflection” (viz., inner reflection), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as the Goddess said to Bhairava: “[...] Now you will possess knowledge that has not been seen or heard (by the senses). It is the knowledge announced in the past and brought down (to earth) by Ādinātha. O Bhairava, you have taught its inner reflection [i.e., antara-vicāra], (whereas) my knowledge is (revealed) by the Command and is the Kula liturgy (krama) which is the Ājñākaula. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Vicāra (विचार) refers to a “discussion”, according to Kāśīnātha Upādhye’s Dharmasindhu, a commentary on the Rāma Daivajña’s Muhūrtacintāmaṇi (an astrological work).—Accordingly, “[...] The water clock [i.e., ghaṭīyantra], thus calibrated, should be placed in a copper basin or clay basin, full of water, when half of the Sun’s orb has risen or set. There this sacred formula is recited. ‘You have been created long time ago by Brahmā as the foremost among the [time measuring] instruments. For the sake of the state of [their] becoming a married couple you be the means of measuring time’. With this sacred formula, preceded by the worship of Gaṇeśa and Varuṇa, the bowl should be placed [on the water in the basin]. If the bowl thus placed moves to the south-east, south, south-west, or north-west of the basin, it is not auspicious. If it stays in the middle, or moves to other directions, it is auspicious. Likewise, if it fills [and sinks] in the five directions starting from the southeast, it is not auspicious. Thus the discussion of the water clock [i.e., ghaṭī-vicāra]. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsEvaluation; sustained thought. In meditation, vicara is the mental factor that allows ones attention to shift and move about in relation to the chosen meditation object. Vicara and its companion factor vitakka reach full maturity upon the development of the first level of jhana.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

M Fact to reflect upon (something), to consider, to deem.

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

One of the Pakinnaka cetasikas. Vicara is also a mental factor. It works together with vitakka most of the time. While vitakka applies to the object, vicara helps citta not to depart from the object so that citta is sustained to be in the object. Vicara reviews the object. Vicara is sustained application.

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

1. sustained thought; sustained thinking; sustained application; discursive thinking;

2. We read in the Visuddhimagga (IV,88) the following definition:

... Sustained thinking (vicarana) is sustained thought (vicara); continued sustenance (anusancarana), is what is meant. It has the characteristic of continued pressure on (occupation with) the object. Its function is to keep conascent (mental) states (occupied) with that. It is manifested as keeping consciousness anchored (on that object).

Vitakka directs the citta to the object and vicara keeps the citta occupied with the object, "anchored" on it. However, we should remember that both vitakka and vicara perform their functions only for the duration of one citta and then fall away immediately, together with the citta.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'discursive thinking'; s. vitakka-vicāra.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vicāra (विचार, “judgment”) refers to one of the five characteristics of the first dhyāna according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII).—“are vitarka and vicāra one and the same thing or are they two different things? Answer.—They are two different things. Vitarka is the first moment of a coarse mind, vicāra is a more subtle (sūkṣma) analysis. Thus, when a bell is struck, the first sound is strong, the subsequent sound is weaker; this is vicāra”.

Also, “although the two things reside in the same mind, their characteristics re not simultaneous: at the moment of vitarka, the vicāra is blurred (apaṭu); at the moment of vicāra, the vitarka is blurred. Thus, when the sun rises, the shadows disappear. All the minds (citta) and all the mental events receive their name prorata with time: [vitarka and vicāra are distinct names of one single mind]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Vicāra (विचार, “thinking”) refers to one of the five classes of Dhyāna (meditation) which is one of six limbs of Yoga to be employed in Uttamasevā (excellent worship), according to the Guhyasamāja chapter 18.—[...] Dhyāna (meditation) is explained as the conception of the five desired objects through the five Dhyāni Buddhas, namely, Vairocana, Ratnasambhava, Amitābha, Amoghasiddhi and Akṣobhya. This Dhyāna is again subdivided into five kinds [viz., Vitarka (thinking)].

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Vicāra (विचार, “reflection”) refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., vicāra). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Vicāra also refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Vīcāra (वीचार).—What is meant by ‘shifting’ (vīcāra)? Shifting is with regards to objects (artha), words (vyanjana) and activities (yoga).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vicāra : (m.) investigation; management; planning.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vicāra, (vi+cāra) investigation, examination, consideration, deliberation.—Defd as “vicaraṇaṃ vicāro, anusañcaraṇan ti vuttaṃ hoti” Vism. 142 (see in def. under vitakka).—Hardly ever by itself (as at Th. 1, 1117 mano°), usually in close connection or direct combination with vitakka (q. v.). (Page 615)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vicāra (विचार).—m (S) The exercise of judgment or reason; consideration, investigation, studious contemplation or deliberation. 2 The result or product of consideration; determination or decision; judgment or opinion formed. 3 Regard or notice; consideration of or attention to as of importance. Ex. lagnāmadhyēṃ sōṃvaḷyā ōṃvaḷyācā vi0 rāhata nāhīṃ. 4 Perplexity or trouble; a difficult and disquieting case, or the disturbance and embarrassment occasioned by it. Numerous useful compounds are current; and numerous others may be formed. As none will be found in the columns, let the class and the rule and force of it be studied here:--sārāsāravicāra Estimation or weighing (of an article or an affair or a matter) through consideration of its qualities good and bad; contemplation of pros and contras; sadasadvicāra Consideration of the good and bad, or of the Right and wrong; kāryākāryavicāra Pondering upon the arguments for and against an act contemplated: also consideration of things right or to be done, and of things wrong or not to be done; iṣṭāniṣṭavi0, karmākarmavi0 or karttavyākarttavyavi0, kāryakāraṇavi0, gamanāgamanavi0, grāhyāgrāhyavi0, dharmā- dharmavi0, pātrāpātravi0, pāpapuṇyavi0, bhakṣyābhakṣyavi0, yōgyāyōgyavi0, varjyāvarjyavi0, vācyāvācyavi0, vidhi- niṣēdhavi0, vihitāvihitavi0, śubhāśubhavi0, sādhva- sādhuvi0, saṅgāsaṅgavi0. vicāra jāgaviṇēṃ See the commoner phrase vivēka jāgaviṇēṃ. vicārānta paḍaṇēṃ To fall into deep consideration or thought.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vicāra (विचार).—m Consideration. Decision, judg- ment or opinion. Regard, attention to as of importance. Ex. lagnāmadhyēṃ sōṃvaḷyā ōṃvaḷyācā vicāra rahāta nāhīṃ. Perplexity or trouble, a disquieting case. Ex. aśā prasaṅgīṃ kāya karāvēṃ hā mōṭhā vicāra yēūna paḍalā āhē. kāryakārya vicāra Pondering upon the arguments for and against as act contemplated. sadasadvicāra Consideration of the right and wrong. sārāsāra vicāra Contemplation of pros and contras. vicārānta paḍaṇēṃ Fall into deep considera- tion or thought.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vicara (विचर).—a. Wandered, swerved from; न त्वं धर्मं विचरं सञ्जयेह मत्तश्च जानासि युधिष्ठिराच्च (na tvaṃ dharmaṃ vicaraṃ sañjayeha mattaśca jānāsi yudhiṣṭhirācca) Mb.5.29.4.

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Vicāra (विचार).—

1) Reflection, deliberation, thought, consideration; विचारमार्गप्रहितेन चक्षुषा (vicāramārgaprahitena cakṣuṣā) Ku.5.42.

2) Examination, discussion, investigation; तत्त्वार्थविचार (tattvārthavicāra).

3) Trial (of a case); विषसलिलतुलाग्निप्रार्थिते मे विचारे (viṣasalilatulāgniprārthite me vicāre) Mk.9.43.

4) Judgment, discrimination, discernment, exercise of reason; विचारमूढः प्रतिभासि मे त्वम् (vicāramūḍhaḥ pratibhāsi me tvam) R.2.47.

5) Decision, determination.

6) Selection.

7) Doubt, hesitation.

8) Prudence, circumspection.

Derivable forms: vicāraḥ (विचारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vicāra (विचार).—m., Mahāvyutpatti 7732, or nt., id. 7860 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha); Gaṇḍavyūha 105.26; 133.10, a high number.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vicāra (विचार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. The exercise of judgment or reason on a present object, investigation, consideration, deliberation. 2. Dispute, discussion. 3. Selection. 4. Doubt, hesitation. 5. Prudence. E. vi before, car to go, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vicāra (विचार).—i. e. vi-car + a, m. 1. Consideration, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 42; deliberation, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 417 (doubt). 2. Discrimination, selection, [Hitopadeśa] 104, 7 (read sārāsāravicāraḥ). 3. Discussion. 4. Judging, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 72; judgment, [Hitopadeśa] 116, 10; decision. 5. Prudence, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 2891.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vicāra (विचार).—[masculine] proceeding, mode of procedure ( = a single case), also = seq.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vicara (विचर):—[=vi-cara] [from vi-car] mfn. wandered or swerved from ([ablative]), [Mahābhārata v, 812.]

2) Vicāra (विचार):—[=vi-cāra] [from vi-car] a m. (ifc. f(ā). ) mode of acting or proceeding, procedure (also = a single or particular case), [???]

3) [v.s. ...] change of place, [Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa]

4) [v.s. ...] pondering, deliberation, consideration, reflection, examination, investigation, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] doubt, hesitation, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] a probable conjecture, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] dispute, discussion, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) [v.s. ...] prudence, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

9) [=vi-cāra] b etc. See under vi-√car.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vicāra (विचार):—[vi-cāra] (raḥ) 1. m. The exercise of judgment or reason; investigation; discussion.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vicāra (विचार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Viāra, Vīṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vicara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Vicara (विचर):—(a) strayed, wandered or swerved from; (nm) a variable; ~[ṇa] wandering, strolling; movement; variation; •[karanā] to wander/move about; to variate; hence [vicarita] (a).

2) Vicāra (विचार) [Also spelled vichar]:—(nm) thought, thinking; idea; view, observation(s); pondering, deliberation, reflection; contemplation, reasoning; consideration; trial; ~[ka] a thinker; one who deliberates/contemplates; ~[karttā] one who sits in judgment; thinker, one who deliberates/contemplates; -[goṣṭhī] a seminar; ~[mūḍha] devoid of thinking power, stupid; ~[vāda] idealism; ~[vādī] an idealist; idealistic; ~[vāna] see ~[śīla; -vimarśa] discussion, exchange of views; ~[śakti] reasoning faculty, thinking power; ~[śīla] thoughtful; reflective, contemplative/reasoning; ~[śīlatā] thoughtfulness, contemplative character; -[svātaṃtrya] freedom of thought.

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