Vicikitsa, Vicikitsā: 15 definitions


Vicikitsa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vichikitsa.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा, “indecision”) refers to one of the “five hindrances” (Pañcanivāraṇa), according to the Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—Note: The kartika, "flaying knife", symbolizes cutting away the pañca-nivāraṇa, "The Five Hindrances": 1) kāmacchanda, "sensual desire", 2) vyāpāda, "evil intent", 3) styānamiddha, "laziness-lethargy", 4) auddhatyakaukṛitya, "restlessness-regret", 5) vicikitsā, "indecision".

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Vicikitsa in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा) or Vimati refers to “doubt” and represents one of the seven Anuśaya (tendencies of defilement), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 3).—Accordingly, “There are seven tendencies of defilement (anuśaya): (1) anuśaya of attachment to pleasure (kāmarāga), (2) anuśaya of hostility (pratigha), (3) anuśaya of attachment to existence (bhāvarāga), (4) anuśaya of pride (māna), (5) anuśaya of ignorance (avidyā), (6) anuśaya of wrong view (dṛṣṭi), (7) anuśaya of doubt (vicikitsā or vimati). These are the seven anuśayas. [...]”

2) Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा) or Vicikitsānīvaraṇa refers to the “obstacle of doubt” according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “the obstacle of doubt (vicikitsā-nīvaraṇa).—When doubt covers the mind, one is unable to fix one’s mind on the good dharmas. Concentration (samāhita-citta) being absent, there is nothing to be gained from the Buddhadharma. Thus the man who goes to a mountain of jewels (ratnagiri) is unable to gather any if he has no hands”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Vicikitsa in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा, “doubt”) refers to one of the “six defilements” (kleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 67). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., vicikitsā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Google Books: Divine Stories

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा, “doubt”) refers to one of the “Nine bonds to Existence” (navasaṃyojana).—The term saṃyojana is usually translated as “fetter,” but these nine [e.g., doubt (vicikitsā)] do not correspond to the standard list of fetters (e.g, ten fetters, five lower fetters, three fetters).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Vicikitsa in Jainism glossary
Source: Jaina Yoga

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा, “repulsion”) refers to an aspect of samyaktva (right belief) classified under the aticāra heading, according to various Jain authors. Two interpretations of vicikitsā are given by the Śvetāmbaras from Siddhasena Gaṇin onwards: either it means hesitation or doubt about the value of the results of various human activities (not about the tenets of Jainism as in the case of the first aticāra); or else it means repugnance for the bodies of Jaina ascetics because these are evil-smelling owing to the accumulation of filth and sweat on their unwashed limbs. What hinders them from bathing in water that has been rendered sterile, people ask, oblivious of the fact that a monk must insist on the impuritvof the body.

The aticāras of samyaktva (e.g., Vicikitsā) may virtually, if the fourth and fifth of them which are closely related are merged together, be equated with the first four doṣas. Both aticāras and doṣas represent the negation of the aṅgas. Pūjyapāda holds that it is in any event unnecessary to have eight aticāras corresponding to the eight aṅgas as the fourth and fifth—para-pāṣaṇḍi-praśaṃsā and para-pāṣaṇḍi-saṃstava—are elastic and comprehensive.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा) refers to “(the faults of) hate of the Tīrthaṅkaras’ speech”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Vajranābha acquired strong Tirthakṛt-body-making and family-karma by the twenty sthānakas as follows:—[...] The ninth [sthānaka] is right-belief, free from the faults of doubt, etc. [viz., vicikitsā], adorned with the qualities of firmness, etc., characterized by tranquillity, etc. [...]”.

Note: The faults of right belief in addition to doubt (śaṅkā) are: acceptance of other doctrines (kāṅkṣā); hate of the Tīrthaṅkaras’ speech (vicikitsā); praise of false doctrine (mithyadṛṣtipraśaṃsana); acquaintance with false doctrine (°saṃstava). Yogaśāstra 2.17.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vicikitsa in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा).—f S Doubting, doubt.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vicikitsa in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा).—

1) Doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; येयं प्रेते विचिकित्सा मनुष्ये अस्तीत्येके नायमस्तीति चैके (yeyaṃ prete vicikitsā manuṣye astītyeke nāyamastīti caike) Kaṭh. Up.1.1.2; Bṛ. Up.1.5.3; तुभ्यं मद्विचिकित्सायामात्मा मे दर्शितो बहिः (tubhyaṃ madvicikitsāyāmātmā me darśito bahiḥ) Bhāgavata 3.9.37.

2) Mistake, error.

3) Finding out the real state (tattvanirṇaya); द्रव्यस्य विचिकित्सार्थं गुणदोषौ शुभाशुभौ (dravyasya vicikitsārthaṃ guṇadoṣau śubhāśubhau) Bhāgavata 11.21.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा).—f.

(-tsā) 1. Doubt, uncertainty. 2. Error, mistake. E. vi before, kit to doubt, in the reduplicate form, aff. ac .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा).—i. e. vi-cikitsa, desider. of kit, + ā, f. Doubt, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 42, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा):—[=vi-cikitsā] [from vi-cit] f. doubt, uncertainty, question, inquiry, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] error, mistake, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा):—[vi-cikitsā] (tsā) 1. f. Doubt; mistake.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Vigicchā, Vicigacchā, Vitigicchā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vicikitsa in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vicikitsa in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vicikitsā (विचिकित्सा) [Also spelled vichikitsa]:—(nf) scepticism, doubt.

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