by Vettam Mani | 1975 | 609,556 words | ISBN-10: 0842608222
This page describes the Story of Pattu included the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani that was translated into English in 1975. The Puranas have for centuries profoundly influenced Indian life and Culture and are defined by their characteristic features (panca-lakshana, literally, ‘the five characteristics of a Purana’).
A) The ten books on rhetorics.
(1) The Sāhityadarpaṇa of Viśvanātha (2) The Kāvyādarśa of Daṇḍī (3) Kāvyaprakāsa of Mammaṭa (4) Daśarūpaka of Dhanañjaya (5) Kāvyālaṅkārasūtravṛtti of Vāmana (6) Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa of Bhojadeva (7) Alaṅkārasarvasva of Bhāmaha (8) Alaṅkārakaustubha of Kavikarṇapūraka (9) Kuvalayānanda of Appaya Dīkṣita (10) Candrāloka of Jayadeva.
C. Ten Commandments. The commandments of Christ are ten in number. (1) There is no other God but Yehova. (2) Do not instal idols and worship them. (3) Do not use God’s name vainly. (4) Do not do work on the Sabbath day but observe that day as sacred. (5) Respect your parents. (6) Do not kill. (7) Do not commit adultery. (8) Do not steal. (9) Do not give false evidence. (10) Do not desire for others' possessions.
D. The ten Kāmāvasthās. (1) Abhilāṣa (desire). (2) Cintana (Reflection). (3) Smṛti (remembrance). (4) Guṇakathana (Talking about the good qualities). (5) Udyoga (effort) (6) Pralāpa (gabble) (7) Unmāda madness) (8) Vyādhi (disease) (9) Jaḍatā (slothfulness) (10) Maraṇa (death).
E. The ten guṇas. The good qualities are ten in number. (1) Satya (truth) (2) Vinaya (modesty) (3) Devatārādhana (worship of God) (4) Adhyayana (study) (5) Kulaśuddhi (purity of family) (6) Suśīla (good conduct) (7) Śakti (strength) (8) Dhana (wealth) (9) Śūratā (valour) (10) Yuktiyukta Sambhāṣaṇa (intelligent and rational talk).
F. Ṛṣi gotras. There are ten Ṛṣi Gotras (families of sages): (1) Bharadvāja gotra (2) Kauśika gotra (3) Vatsya gotra (4) Kauṇḍinya gotra (5) Kaśyapa gotra (6) Vasiṣṭha gotra (7) Jāmadagnya gotra (8) Viśvāmitra gotra (9) Gautama gotra (10) Ātreya gotra. (All these ten gotras were brought down to Dakṣiṇabhārata by Paraśurāma).
G. Camatkāras. There are ten kinds of Camatkāra (poetical charm) according to the poet Kṣemendra. (1) Avicārita ramaṇīya (2) Vicāryamāṇaramaṇīya (3) Samastasūktavyāpī (4) Sūktaikadeśavyāpī (5) Śabdagata (6) Arthagata (7) Ubhayagata (8) Alaṅkāragata (9) Vṛttigata (10) Rasagata.
H. Cittāvasthās. There are ten states of mind. (1) Kāma (lust) (2) Saṅkalpa (imagination) (3) Vicikitsā (doubt) (4) Śraddhā (attention) (5) Aśraddhā (negligence) (6) Dhṛti (resolution) (7) Adhṛti (wavering) (8) Lajjā (shame) (9) Dhī (devotion) (10) Bhīti (fear).
I. Nādas. There are ten nādas (sounds) according to Haṃsopaniṣad. (1) Ciṇiti (2) Ciñciṇī (3) Kaṇṭhanāda (4) Śaṅkhanāda (5) Tantrīnāda (6) Tālanāda (7) Veṇunāda (8) Mṛdaṅganāda (9) Bherīnāda (10) Meghanāda.
J. Sins (pāpas). There are ten pāpas (sins). (1) Murder (2) Theft (3) Adultery (4) Calumny (5) Harshness (6) Deceit (7) Nonsensical utterances (8) Inflicting pain on others (9) Desire for another’s property (10) Atheism.
K. Daśapuṣpas. There are ten holy flowers.
(1) Pūvaṅkuruntal (2) Muyalcceviyan (Sutaśreṇi—Anthericum Tuberosum) (3) Karuka (Anantā—Bent grass) (4) Nilappana (Tālamūlika—Curculigo Orchioides) (5) Kayyanya (Bhṛṅgarāja—Trailing Eclipta) (6) Viṣṇukrānti (Kṛṣṇakrānti—Clikoria Ternatea) (7) Cherupūla (Illecobrum lanatum) (8) Tirutāli (Śrīhastinī—Asparagus Racemosus) (9) Uliñja (The smoothleaved heart-pea "Cardiopermum Halicacabum") (10) Mukkūṭṭi (Gaṇḍakāli—Sensitive plant).
N. Strength. There are ten items of strength. I. (1) Jñāna (knowledge) (2) Prajñā (wisdom) (3) Vīrya (heroism) (4) Kṣamā (patience) (5) Śīla (uprightness) (6) Dāna (charity) (7) Bala (might) (8) Upāya (resourcefulness) (9) Dhyāna (intuition) (10) Praṇidhi (power of observation).
II. (1) Buddhi (intelligence) (2) Kṣamā (patience) (3) Vīrya (heroism) (4) Dhyāna (divine intuition) (5) Jñāna (knowledge) (6) Kṛpā (grace) (7) Śīla (upright ness) (8) Bala (9) Dāna (10) Upekṣā (inattention).
III. Then there are the following ten balas: (1) Mūlabala (strength inherent) (2) Bandhubala (Strength of relatives) (3) Rājasainyabala (strength of the royal army) (4) Svakīya Senābala (strength of own army) (5) Bāhya senābala (strength of reinforcement from outside) (6) Kāṭṭālabala (strength of foresters) (7) Gajabala (strength of the elephants) (8) Turagabala (strength of horses) (9) Bandhusainyabala (strength of the army of relatives) (10) Padātibala (strength of footsoldiers).
O. Daśamūla. There are ten important medicinal roots: (1) Kumbil (Cayaphal). (2) Kūvala (Śrīphala—Aegle Marmelos) (3) Muñja (Śrīparṇa—Permna Spinosa) (4) Pātiri (Kṛṣṇavṛnda Trumpet Flower Tree) (5) Palakappayyāni (Śoṇaka—Bignonia Indica) (6) Orila (Padmacāriṇī—Hibiscus Mutabilies) (7) Mūvila (Kalaśī -Hedysarum Lagopodioides) (8) Karuttacuṇṭa (Pracodanī—small egg-plant) (9) Veluttacuṇṭa (white pracodanī) (10) Ñerīñjil (Gokaṇṭaka—Barleria longifolia).
P. Limbs of the king (Aṅgas). The ten aṅgas of a king are (1) Nāḍu (country) (2) Mala (mountain) (3) Nadī (river) (4) Ūru (village) (5) Koṭṭāra (palace) (6) Kutira (horse) (7) Āna (elephant) (8) Muraśu (War drum) (9) Koṭi (flag) (10) Cenkol (sceptre).
Q. Rūpakas. (dramatic compositions). There are ten classes of rūpakas:
The chief sentiment in a drama should be one of the three following rasas: (1) Vīrarasa (sentiment of heroism) (2) Śrṅgārarasa (sentiment of love) (3) Karuṇarasa (pathos). There should be five to ten acts. The singer should be a famous one. It must have Pañcasandhis (five junctures). Śākuntala and Uttararāmacarita are perfect Nāṭakas.
In this kind of drama the plot is invented or fictitious and deals with the social life of the day. The hero of the play can be either a hero or a meek person. The heroine can be a noble lady or a harlot. The main sentiment should be Śṛṅgāra (love). Mālatīmādhava, Mṛcchakaṭika are examples of Prakaraṇas.
There is only one character and one Act in this species. The plot is fictitious and the hero is an expert humorous libertine. Līlāmadhura and Mahiṣamaṅgala Bhāṇa are examples.
This is a farce. The plot is fictitious and is in the nature of a low comedy. Satire is the chief sentiment of this species.
This has got four Acts. The plot will be famous and the chief sentiment will be one of wrath and fierceness. There will be no Viṣkambha (interlude between Acts to give connection to the story between Acts) or Praveśaka (introducer explaining portions of the plot which may not be put on stage but an understanding of which is necessary to follow the story). There must be sixteen haughty and excited characters like a Deva, Gandharva, Yakṣa and Rākṣasa. Tripuradahana is an example.
Female characters will be rare in this kind of dramas. There will be only one Act. The sentiments of satire or love or calmness should not be predominant. The hero should be a famous divine sage. Saugandhikāharaṇa is an example.
The plot should be based on a story of the devas and asuras. There will be three Acts. There must be twelve brave heroes in it. The chief sentiment will be heroism. The seizure of a city, declaration of war or a big fire should be part of the play. Sumudramathana is an example.
This will have one Act and one actor. Any of the sentiments can be portrayed. The story must be completed by Ākāśabhāṣita (speech to which reply is given on the stage as if spoken from the sky) Candrikā is an example.
This has only one Act. The heroes should be people of the prākṛta type. Pathos is the chief sentiment. This should contain the pathetic wail of many women. This is called Utsṛṣṭikāṅka also. Śarmiṣṭhā-Yayāti is an example.
This will contain four Acts. The heroes of the play should be valiant. There must be ten Patākā-Nāyakas (producers of different kinds of episodical incidents in the drama). They will be Uddhatas (haughty and excited persons).
There are ten chief metals: (1) Gold (2) Silver (3) Copper (4) Tin (5) Lead (6) Zinc (7) Iron (8) Steel (9) Brass (10) Mercury.
There are ten articles of worship: (1) Arghya (oblation of valuables) (2) Pādya (water for washing feet) (3) Ācamana (water for cleansing mouth) (4) Madhuparka (a mixture of honey with four other sweet articles) (5) Punarācamana (water for cleansing mouth again) (6) Gandha (Sandal paste) (7) Puṣpa (flowers) (8) Dhūpa (frankincense) (9) Dīpa (light) (10) Nivedya (articles of food offerings).
There are many Upaniṣads of which only 108 ones are in print; of these the most important are ten in number and they are the following: (1) Īśāvāsya (2) Kena (3) Kaṭha (4) Praśna (5) Muṇḍa (6) Māṇḍūkya (7) Chāndogya (8) Taittirīya (9) Aitareya (10) Bṛhadāraṇyaka.