Apramana, Apramāṇa: 11 definitions



Apramana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Apramāṇa (अप्रमाण) refers to the “four immeasurables”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32.—The third class of supplementary dharmas recommended by the Prajñāpāramitā for the Bodhisattva is made up of the four immeasurables (apramāṇa):

  1. loving kindness (maitrī or maitrā),
  2. compassion (karuṇā),
  3. joy (muditā),
  4. equanimity (upekṣā).

These are the four limitless ones (apramāṇa), the four liberations of the mind (cetovimukti) or the four abodes of Brahmā (brahmavihāra). This last term is by far the most frequent in the post-canonical Sanskrit texts and in the Mahāyāna sūtras and śāstras.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Open Research Library: The Samvarodaya-tantra: selected chapters

The four Apramāṇas (अप्रमाण):

  1. Care for the welfare of others is maitrī (benevolence);
  2. Karuṇā (compassion) makes the affliction of others disappear;
  3. Muditā (joy) is delight in the happiness of others;
  4. And upekṣā (resignation) is indifference to other beings.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

apramāṇa (अप्रमाण).—a (S) That is without proof or authority.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

apramāṇa (अप्रमाण).—a That is without proof or authority.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Apramāṇa (अप्रमाण).—a.

1) Unlimited, immeasurable, boundless.

2) Without authority, proof or weight, unauthorized.

3) Not regarded as an authority, not trustworthy; आजन्मनः शाठ्यमशिक्षितो यस्तस्याप्रमाणं वचनं जनस्य (ājanmanaḥ śāṭhyamaśikṣito yastasyāpramāṇaṃ vacanaṃ janasya) Ś.5.25.

-ṇam 1 That which cannot be taken as authority in actions; i. e. a rule, direction &c. which cannot be accepted as obligatory.

2) Irrelevancy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Apramāṇa (अप्रमाण).—nt. (in meaning 1 = Pali appamaññā, f.; see Critical Pali Dictionary s.v.), (1) infinitude, as n. for brahmavihāra (q.v.), of which there are four, maitrī (maitrā), karuṇā, muditā, upekṣā: listed as apramāṇāni Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xvii.17., compare xx—xxi.43; Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. viii.196; Mahāvyutpatti 1503—7; Bodhisattvabhūmi 241.15—16; Lalitavistara 297.12 (verse) maitrī-upekṣa-karuṇā-muditā- pramāṇāḥ (read °ṇā? hardly [bahuvrīhi]); mentioned without list, Gaṇḍavyūha 471.18 catur-apramāṇa-vihāra-; Śikṣāsamuccaya 105.16; Lalitavistara 45.16 catur-apramāṇa-prabha-teja-dharaḥ; 341.1 catur- apramāṇa (wrongly printed catura pramāṇa); (2) a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 7934 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha); 8041; Gaṇḍavyūha 134.7.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apramāṇa (अप्रमाण).—[neuter] no authority.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Apramāṇa (अप्रमाण):—[=a-pramāṇa] [from a-pramā] n. a rule which is no standard of action, [Mahābhārata; Śākaṭāyana etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] (in discussion) a statement of no importance or authority.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apramāṇa (अप्रमाण):—I. [tatpurusha compound] n.

(-ṇam) No-authority, a rule, injunction, reasoning, saying, precedent &c. which is not binding, no standard to be guided by, irrelevancy; (comp. the similar terms apramā, aprāmāṇya, amā, amātva, amāna, amānatā, also pramāṇābhāsa); e. g. in Mādhava's Jaiminīya-nyāyam.: arthābodhādapramāṇaṃ pikālambhanacodanā . maivaṃ mlecchaprasiddhyāpi tadbodhādaviruddhayā; or aguṇatvādanāmatvādamantratvādananvaye . aṣṭatvādyapramāṇaṃ cennārthavādatayānvayāt; or in the Nyāya S.: rodhopaghātasādṛśyebhyo vyabhicārādanumānamapramāṇam, or in the instance s. v. anaikāntikatva; or Śaṅkara in the comm. on the Bṛhadār.: yadi tāvadupaniṣado brahmaikatvapratipattipramāṃ kurvanti kathamapramāṇaṃ bhaveyuḥ; or in a Vārtt. to Pāṇini: taddhitārthanirdeśe liṅgavacanamapramāṇaṃ tasyāvivakṣitatvāt ‘gender and number are irrelevant (i. e. not the subject of the rule) in the chapter on the derivations with taddhitas &c.’ (Kaiyyaṭa: apramāṇamiti . tadvaśātkāryasya vidhiniṣedhau na bhavata ityarthaḥ); or in the Śakunt.: tasyāpramāṇaṃ vacanaṃ janasya ‘the word of such a person is no-authority, (where apramāṇam is not to be considered as a [bahuvrihi compound]). E. a neg. and pramāṇa. Ii. [bahuvrihi compound] m. f. n.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇam) Immeasurable, immense, infinite; (the word occurs scarcely in this sense in the classical Saṃskṛt; comp. the following articles). E. a priv. and pramāṇa.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Apramāṇa (अप्रमाण):—(3. a + pra) adj.

1) ohne Maass, unermesslich, s. d. folg. compp. —

2) ohne Gewicht, ohne Bedeutung: vacanam [Śākuntala 121.]

--- OR ---

Apramāṇa (अप्रमाण):—

2) [TARKAS. 50.] —

3) n. keine Autorität [Śākuntala 121.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Apramāṇa (अप्रमाण):—n. keine Autorität [Mahābhārata 13,163,25.] [Śākuntala 121.] etwas Nichtssagendes [Tarkasaṃgraha 50.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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