Vedic influence on the Sun-worship in the Puranas

by Goswami Mitali | 2018 | 68,171 words

This page relates ‘Different Rituals and the Sun-Worship’ of the study on the Vedic influence of Sun-worship in the Puranas, conducted by Goswami Mitali in 2018. The tradition of observing Agnihotra sacrifice and the Sandhya, etc., is frequently observed among the Hindus. Another important innovation of the Sun-worship in the Puranas is the installation of the images of the Sun in the temples.—This section belongs to the series “Salient Traits of the Solar Divinities in the Veda”.

Part 42 - Different Rituals and the Sun-Worship

The worship of the Sun-god under different names and forms occupy a specific place in almost all the rituals of the Vedic period. Due to its importance, the deity was worshipped in many rituals. Observing the movement of the Sun, marriage and different ceremonies are performed.

The Marriage Ceremony:

Marriage, i.e., the vivāha is the ceremony that is regarded as the pivot of all the household ceremonies. The householder enters into the Gārhasthyāśrama by holding the hands of the wife through the marriage ceremony. The procreation of progeny and the attainment of spiritual merit through mutual co-operation were regarded as the chief purposes of Āryan marriages.[1]

The appropriate time for seizing the hands of a girl by the householder is prescribed in the Gṛhyasūtras. The Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra states that during the northern course of the Sun, in the time of increasing moon, on an auspicious day, the householder shall seize the hand of a girl.[2] The same is noted in the Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra also.[3] This time is also preferable for the tonsure, initiation, etc.[4]

The Āśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra states thus:

udagayana āpūryamāṇapakṣe kalyāṇe nakṣatre colakarmopanayanagodāna vivāhāḥ/[5]

In the marriage ceremony, Aryaman, a form of the solar god, regarded as the guardian of the unmarried girls, is prayed to release the bride and give her to the bridegroom.[6]

Pūṣan is prayed to lead the bride to the groom:

sā naḥ pūṣā śivatamāmairaya sā na ūrū uśatī vihara/ yasyāmuśanta praharāma śepaṃ yasyāmu kāmā bahavo niviṣṭyā iti/[7]

By the Abhyātāna formula, Indra, Yama, Mitra, Savitṛ, Sūrya, Viṣṇu are worshipped for the protection of the bride and the bridegroom.[8] The Abhyātāna is one kind of special oblations.

At wedding, the fried grains are poured at the joined hands of the bride by brideʹs brother:

vadhvañjalāvupastīrya bhrātā bhrātṛsthāno vā dvirlājānāvapati/[9]

After that, the bride makes sacrifices towards the god Aryaman, Varuṇa, Pūṣan, Bhaga, etc.[10] Both the bride and bridegroom revolve round the fire for seven times with the mantras, those sacred to Viṣṇu.[11] Again, before going to the house of the bridegroom, the relatives of brideʹs family make the girl sit down behind the fire, where the bridegroom offers Ājya oblation to Agni, to Soma, to Prajāpati, to Mitra, to Varuṇa, to Indra, to Indrāṇī, to the Gandharvas, to Bhaga, to Pūṣan, to Tvaṣṭṛ, to Bṛhaspati, wishing happy married life to the newly married couple.[12] The husband tries to appease his wife with god Sūrya. At the time of mounting on the chariot for the journey to the new home, the solar deity Pūṣan is worshipped, due to the prosperous aspect of him.[13] The Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra refers that the first one oblation of all the morning oblations, given by the bridegroom in the morning period for three days after marriage is devoted only to Sūrya.[14] On the fourth day, towards the morning, the husband offers oblations of cooked food towards Sūrya, along with other divinities like Agni, Vāyu, etc., for expiation.[15] He worships the deities to drive away all the evils from his wife. He desires protection from the substance that dwells in the bride which may bring death to her husband, causes sonlessness to her, destruction of the cattle, etc.[16] Viṣṇu is worshipped to make ready the womb of the bride for conception.[17]

The Rites Related to the Childbirth:

According to the Sāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra, it is believed that, the deity Savitṛ has shaped the male child in the womb of the mother.[18]

But, in the Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra, Tvaṣṭṛ is invoked to give the shape of the child:

tvaṣṭā rūpāṇi piṃśatu…/[19]

In the beginning of the third month of the pregnancy, the Puṃsavana ceremony is performed with a view to securing son:

tṛtīyasya garbhamāsasyādisadeśe puṃsavanasya kālaḥ/[20]

Mitra and Varuṇa are worshipped for a male child.[21] Again, in Sīmantonnayana ceremony, Dhātṛ, the creator, who disposes offspring and wealth, is worshipped to give further life, son and safety, along with Varuṇa.[22]

After the birth of a child, the Jātakarman ritual is performed, in which Savitṛ is worshipped for the long life of the son.[23] On the twelfth day, after the birth of the child or in the third or fourth month, the Niṣkramaṇasaṃskāra is performed.[24] On that specific day, the child is first taken out of the house and the father makes the child look at the Sun with the utterance of the mantra: taccakṣurdevahitaṃ, etc.[25] The ceremony of showing of the Sun to the child is called Ādityadarśana. The Mānavagṛhyasūtra directs that, in it, a sthālīpāka is prepared and sacrificed to the Sun.[26]

With a mantra, the father shows the Sun to the son:

udutyaṃ jātavedasamityetayopasthāyādityābhimukhaṃ darśayet namaste astu bhagavanśataraśme tamonuda jahi me deva daurbhāgyaṃ saubhāgyena māṃ saṃyojayasva iti/[27]

In the sixth month, after the childbirth, the Annaprāśana ceremony is performed.[28] This is the ceremony of feeding the child for the first time. In the Annaprāśana, at the time of feeding the child, Varuṇa, Aditi, etc., are worshipped with oblation wishing the protection of the child.[29] After one year or three year, the tonsure ceremony of the child is performed.[30] In this, the razor is worshipped before cutting the hair.[31] The adhering mantra of this ritual explains that the razor used for the purpose is the razor, used by the solar deities, Savitṛ, Dhātṛ and Bṛhaspati for cutting the hair of Varuṇa and Indra respectively.[32] All they are the solar divinities and connected with the Cuḍākaraṇa ritual of an individual.

The Initiation Ceremony:

In the Upanayana or the initiation, mainly the deity Savitṛ is worshipped. With the initiation, the child steps into the new life of a student, where his object is to acquire more knowledge, health, strength, celibacy and etiquette. Invoking the solar deities Savitṛ, Pūṣan, the Aśvins, etc., the teacher takes the responsibility of the students. He recites the mantra: tatsaviturvṛṇīmahe, i.e. that we choose of Savitṛ, in devotion of the deity, filling his own palms and those of the pupil with water.[33] Then from the hollow of his hands, he makes the water flow down on the palm of the hands of the pupil.

Then having poured the water over his hands, he, with his own hand takes hold of the pupil’s hand together with the utterance of the mantra:

devasya tvā savituḥ prasaveʹśvinorbāhubhyāṃ pūṣṇo hastābhyāṃ hastaṃ gṛhṇāmyasau iti tasya pāṇinā pāṇiṃ saṅguṣṭhaṃ gṛhṇīyāta/[34]

The teacher takes the responsibility of the student by the impulse of the god Savitṛ, with the arms of the two Aśvins and with the hands of Pūṣan.[35] The student is asked to look at the Sun and the teacher murmurs few words in invocation of Savitṛ. He worships the deity for the protection of the student.[36] From that time, the teacher is regarded as the father of the brahmacārin.

The teacher is called Ācārya as because he gives the knowledge of dharma to the brahmacārin:

yasmāddharmānācinoti sa ācāryaḥ//[37]

With a formula ‘Move in the Sunʹs course’ he makes his turn round from left to right.[38] Sūrya, along with the deities Agni and Indra, is invoked to bestow insight, offspring and splendour on the brahmacārin.[39] Bhaga, Pūṣan, Aryaman, Mitra, etc., are also worshipped for long life, blessed offspring, strength, insight, etc., on the brahmacārin.[40] Both the teacher and the pupil recite Sāvitrī after that.[41] After one year of the studentship the teacher teaches the Savitṛ to the student.[42] First of all, it is recited foot-wise, then hemistich-wise and last of all in full.[43] The teacher advises the student to recite the Gāyatrīmantra, step by step, so that he becomes aware of his duties and performs them with an utter devotion so that the god may bestow intellectual strength on him and he would be self-confident. The Vedic study is opened by the Sāvitrī.[44] With the rising of the Sun, it starts with,[45] and, at the ending of the studentship the Sun-god is also worshipped.[46]

Among different vratas, the Ādityavrata is one that the brahmacārin has to follow during his study in the preceptor’s house.[47] The other vratas are Godānikābda, Araṇyasaṃhitā, Jyeṣṭhasāmikā.[48]

They, who undergo the Ādityavrata wear one garment; they allow nothing to be between themselves and the Sun, except trees and roofs of the houses:

ye carantyekavāsaso bhavantyādityañjanāntardadhateʹnyatra vṛkṣaśaraṇābhyāṃ nāpoʹbhyavayan-tyūdardhvaṃ jānubhyāmaguruprayuktāḥ/[49]

Satyavrata Sāmaśramī states in the commentary of the relevant passage thus:

ye tu caranti careyuḥ, te ekavāsasaḥ uttarīyahīnāḥ bhavanti bhaveyuḥ tāvatkālamiti teṣāṃ prati prathamopadeśaḥ/ ca punaḥʹ vṛkṣaśaraṇābhyām anyatra ʹādityaṃ na antardadheʹ vṛkṣacchāyāṃ gṛhe ca bhavatyevādityāntardhānaṃ tatoʹnyatra ādityāntardhānāya chatrādikaṃ na vyavahareyuriti dvitīyaḥ/[50]

Most probably the sunbath-therapy of present day is similar, in some points of view, to this vrata; though it has no direct connection with the Vedic studies and fasts, etc. It is used as the remedy for curing some diseases, and regarded as the great sources of Vitamin D, for the entire body. Again, the students have to perform the Vaiśvadeva sacrifice, in which the oblation is made on the name of solar deity Viṣṇu. The other divinities Indra, Yama, Varuṇa, Āditya, Pūṣan, Dhātṛ, etc., are worshipped there. In this sacrifice, Sūrya is worshipped in his luminary form, i.e., in the form of a disc of the Sun.[51]

Again, Savitṛ, Mitra, Varuṇa and Pūṣan are worshipped to protect the worshipperʹs house and the brahmacārin also during his living in the house of teacher or at the time of setting out for a journey.[52] In the Upākarman ceremony, i.e. the ceremony by which, the annual course of study is opened, in the Utsarjana, Samāvartana, etc., also the solar divinities Savitṛ, Sūrya, Viṣṇu, etc., are worshipped for the protection and fulfilment of all the needs.[53]

After returning from preceptorʹs house the snātaka is served by arghya reception in his home. According to the Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, arghya reception is due to six persons, viz., to a teacher, to an officiating priest, to the father-in-law, to the king, to a friend and to a snātaka.[54]

Here, the guest is worshipped giving the position of the Sun-god:

varṣmoʹsmi samānānamudyatāmiva sūryaḥ/[55]

Having the seat, the guest himself declares that he is the highest one among the people, as the Sun among the thunderbolts, etc.[56] The guest is served vividly with different mantras sacred to Mitra, Savitṛ, etc., in the arghya reception.[57]

Other Rites:

It is observed that in a number of Gṛhya rites, the Sun-god is worshipped.

The time of the Vedic Śrauta rituals are generally determined by the rising and setting of the Sun:

prāgastamayodayābhyāṃ prāduṣkṛtya// astamite homaḥ//udite cānudite vā//[58]

For different activities, connected with the rituals, time is uttered mostly by saying sunset or sunrise.[59] The time for cooking of brahmaudana for the anupravacanīya sacrifice is determined as after the sunset.[60] The brahmaudana implies the boiled rice, with which the Brāhmaṇas are to be fed.

Nārāyaṇa, on the commentary of the respective passage narrates:

brahmabhya odano brahmaudanaḥ/ brahmaśabdo brāhmaṇavācakaḥ/ tena brāhmaṇabhojanaṃ vidhāsyamānamata eva carorbhavati/[61]

Again, the significance of the term anupravacanīya becomes clear with the commentary of Rudraskanda on Khadiragṛhysūtra:

pravacanāt paścāt kriyata ityanupravacanīyahomaḥ/[62]

A ritual for strewing the Kuśa round the fire altar is valid for all the ceremonies in which oblations are made towards the solar divinities.[63] It is believed that these grasses belong to Viṣṇu.[64] Both, the deity Viṣṇu and grasses cover a large area. Most probably this is the reason for linking the grasses to Viṣṇu.

Again, at the time of dipping the Kuśas (two strainers) into the ājyas, Savitṛ is uttered to purify it with the rays of the Sun:

savituṣṭvā prasava utpunāmyacchidreṇa pavitreṇa vasoḥ sūryasya raśmibhiḥ/[65]

The sunrays are regarded as the uninjured purifier. The water in the śruva spoon is also purified by the impulse of Savitṛ.[66] The sacrificer holding the Kuśa blades with the left hand and śruva in the right, mentions his hands as the hands of Viṣṇu and offers ājya oblations to Agni, Soma, Pūṣan, etc., in different directions.[67]

Being a householder, the sacrificer worships the sacred domestic fire regularly and performs the five great sacrifices. He worships the fire in the morning as well as in the evening with the oblation of barley or rice, sesamum, etc.[68]

The performer sacrifices in the evening worshipping the Agni and in the morning worshipping the Sun:

agnaye svāhā iti sāyaṃ juhuyāt sūryāya svāhā iti prātastūṣṇīṃ dvitīye ubhayatra//[69]

Different Gṛhyasūtras contain the chapters on the Pañcamahāyajñas. According to the Āśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, if the performer offers oblations over the fire, that is called Devayajña, i.e. the sacrifice to the gods; if he makes bali offerings that is the sacrifice to the Beings; if he makes piṇḍa offerings to the fathers, that is the sacrifice to the Pitṛs; if he studies the Vedic texts, that is the sacrifice to Brahman; if he gives to men, that is the sacrifice to men:

tadyadagnau juhoti sa devayajño yadbaliṃ karoti sa bhūtayajño yatpitṛbhyo dadāti sa pitṛyajño yatsvādhyāyamadhīyate sa brahmayajño yanmanuṣyebhyo dadāti sa manuṣyayajña iti//[70]

In Devayajña, with the word svāhā, he offers the offerings to the divinities Indra, Yama, Varuṇa, etc.[71]

Seasonal Ceremonies:

Again, different periodical sacrifices are performed by the householder. The Śravaṇā ceremony is performed on the full moon day of Śrāvaṇa. Here Sūrya is worshipped as serpent.[72] As Śrāvaṇa is rainy season, in this, oblation is mainly made to Viṣṇu and other deities like Varuṇa, etc.[73] At Āgrahāyanī, the full moon day of Mārgaśīrṣa, Pratyāvarohaṇa ceremony is celebrated. Here Parjanya is worshipped.[74] Savitṛ is also worshipped in the ritual along with Mitra and others.[75] On the full moon day of Prauṣṭhapāda, the sacrifice is made to Indra, and the ajya oblations are made to Indra, Indrāgnī, etc.[76]

On the full moon day of Āśvayuga, the offerings of Pṛṣātakas, i.e., a mixture of curds and butter,[77] are made towards Indra, Indranī, the two Aśvins, the full moon of Āśvayuga, and to the autumn:

āśvayujyāṃ pṛṣātakāḥ// pāyasamaindraṃ śrapayitvā dadhimadhughṛtamiśraṃ juhotīndrāyendrāṇyā aśvibhyāmāśvayujyai paurṇamāsyai śarade ceti//[78]

The cows are besprinkled at the time of returning home by reciting the Sāmavedic mantra: ā no mitrā varuṇā, etc.[79]

A rite is performed in an auspicious day or under the Nakṣatra Jyeṣṭhā before ploughing. This rite is performed in adoration to Indra as Indra is the lord of plough.[80] To Indra, to Parjanya, to two Aśvins, etc., the worshipper offers oblations. After the ploughing, Ājya oblations are offered to Indra and Sītā, the wife of Indra, performing the Sītāyajña. By these the worshipper wishes the full growth of his crops.[81]

The Śunāsīrīya is an agricultural rite, related to ploughing. It is performed at any time after the Śākamedha, in a period of four months. The special offering at Śunāsīrīya consists of a cake on twelve potsherds for Śunāsīrau or for Indra Śunāsīra, fresh milk or barley gruel for Vāyu, and a cake of one potsherd for Sūrya, in addition to the offerings of Cāturmāsya.[82]

At the time of building the house on the ground, some rituals are performed. At the time of establishing the pillar, pouring water into it, the sacrificer utters the name of Varuṇa and Mitra.[83] Getting the consent of Brāhmaṇa, he enters into the house offering oblations to Indra, Bṛhaspati, etc.[84] He touches the wall and the post with their eastern, southern, western and northern juncture,[85] and going out of the house worships the quarter of the horizon, with the mantra, ‘May Ketā and Suketā protect me from the east.’ Here, Agni and Sūrya are called as Ketā and Suketā, respectively.[86]

At the time of consecration of a garden, establishing the sacred fire, a mess of cooked food is prepared and sacrifices are performed towards Viṣṇu, Indra, etc., with the formulas—

To Viṣṇu svāhā! To Indra and Agni svāhā! To Viśvakarmā svāhā! etc.[87]

There are some other ceremonies, related to the solar divinities, which are performed for the attainment of special wishes. One, who is desirous of the enjoyment of riches is advised to worship Sūrya, the desirous of rich in wealth is advised to look at him.[88] Again, the desirous of stock of horses and elephants is advised to sacrifice fried grain to the Sun.[89] Sun-god is worshipped for wealth and safety too.[90] In the context of expiation also, Sūrya in the form of Savitṛ is worshipped uttering the syllable Om, the Mahāvyāhṛtis, etc.[91]

Footnotes and references:


cf., Ram Gopal, India of Vedic Kalpasūtras, p. 204


Śāṅ GS.,1.5.5


cf., udagayana āpūryamāṇapakṣe puṇyāhe kumāryāḥ pāṇiṃ gṛhṇīyāt// Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 1.4.5


Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.4.1




cf., aryamaṇaṃ na devaṃ kanyā agnimayakṣata/ sa imāṃ devoʹryamā preto muñcātu nāmutaḥ svāhā/


Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 1.4.16

Also vide, tāṃ naḥ pūṣañchivatamāmerayasva yasyāṃ bījaṃ manuṣyā vapanti yā na ūrū uśatī visrayātai yasyāmuśantaḥ praharema śepam/ Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra,


cf., agnirbhūtānāmadhipatiḥ samāvatvindro jyeṣṭhānāṃ yamaḥ pṛthivyā vāyurantarikṣasyra sūryo divaścandramā nakṣatrāṇāṃ bṛhaspatirbrahmaṇo mitraḥ satyānāṃ varuṇoʹpāṃ samudraḥ srotyānāmannarthasāmrājyānāmadhipati tanmāvatu soma oṣadhīnāṃsavitā prasavānāṃ rudraḥ paśunāṃ tvaṣṭā rūpāṇāṃ viṣṇuḥ parvatānāṃ maruto gaṇānāmadhipatayaste māvantu pitaraḥ pitāmahāḥ parevare tatāstatāmahāḥ/… Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 1.5.10


Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.7.8


cf., aryamaṇaṃ nu devaṃ kanyā agnimayakṣata… varuṇaṃ nu devaṃ kanyā agnimayakṣata… pūṣaṇaṃ nu devaṃ kanyā agnimayakṣata/ sa imāṃ devaḥ pūṣā preto muñcātu nāmutaḥ svāhetyavicchindatyañjaliṃ sruceva juhuyāt/ Ᾱś.GS., 1.7.8

… avicchindatyañjalimiyaṃ nāryyupabrūteʹryamaṇaṃ nu devapūṣaṇamityuttarayorhute patiryathetaṃ parivrajya pradakṣiṇamagniṃpariṇayati…/ Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 2.2.6-10


cf., ekamiṣe viṣṇustvānvetu/ dve ūrje viṣṇustvānvetu/ trīṇi vratāya viṣṇustvānvetu/ catvāri māyobhavāya viṣṇustvānvetu/ pañca paśubhyo viṣṇustvānvetu/ ṣaḍrāyaspoṣāya viṣṇustvānvetu/ sapta saptabhyo hotrābhyo viṣṇustvānvetu/ iti/ Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra,


Sāṅ.GS., 1.11.4


cf., prayāṇa upapadyamāne “pūṣā tveto nayatu hastagṛhya” iti yānamārohayet/ Ᾱś.GS., 1.8.1


cf., nityaṃ sāyaṃ prātarvrīhibhiryavairvā hastenaite āhutī juhoti/ agnaye svāhā/ prajāpataye svāhā/ iti/ saurīṃ pūrvāṃ prātareke samāmananti// Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra,


cf., agnimupasamādhāya prāyaścittājyāhutīrjuhotyagne prāyaścitta iti caturagneḥ sthāne vāyucandrasūryāḥ samasya pañcamīṃ bahuvadūdyāhuterāhuteḥ sruvasampātamudapātreʹvanayettanaināṃsakeśanakhāmabhyajya hāsayitvā plāvayanti// Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 2.5.2-6 agne prāyaścitte tvaṃ devānāṃ prāyaścittirasi brāhmaṇastvā nāthakāma upadhāvāmi yāʹsyai patighnī tanūstāmasyai nāśaya svāhā/ vāyo prāyaścitte tvaṃ devānāṃ… sūryaprāyaścitte… Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 1.11.2

Also vide, Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra,; Sāṅ.GS.1.18.2


Sāṅ.GS., 1.18.3


cf., dakṣiṇena pāṇinopasthamabhimṛśedviṣṇuryoniṃ kalpayatvityetayarccāgarbhandhehisinīvāli/ Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 2.5.9 viṣṇuryoniṃ kalpayatu …// Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra,

Also vide, KGS., 1.4.15;


Sāṅ.GS., 1.19.6




Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 2.6.1


cf., …patiravasthāya dakṣiṇena pāṇinā dakṣiṇamaṃsamanvavamṛśyānantarhitaṃ nābhideśamabhimṛśetpimāṃsau mitrāvaruṇāvityetayarccātha yathārtham// Ibid., 2.6.2-4


cf., jātarūpeṇa vādāya kumārasya mukhe juhoti medhāṃ te mitrāvaruṇavityetayarcā sadasampatimadbhutamiti ca/ Ibid., 1.7.21

prathamagarbhāyāścaturthe māsyāpūryamāṇapakṣe purāye nakṣatregnimupasādhāya vyāhṛtiparyantaṃ kṛtvā dhātā dadātu no rayim/ Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra,


cf., kumāraṃ jātaṃ purāʹnyairālabhātsarpirmadhunī hiraṇyanikāṣaṃ hiraṇyena prāśayet/ “pr ate dadāmi madhuno ghṛtasya vedaṃ savitrā prasūtaṃ maghonām āyuṣmāngupto devatābhiḥ śataṃ jīva śarado loke asmin” iti// Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.15.1


cf., caturthe māsi niṣkrmaṇikā// sūryamudīkṣayati taccakṣuriti// Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra,

jananājjayotsne tṛtīye tṛtīyāyāṃ prātaḥ snāpya kumāramastamite śāntāsu dikṣu pitā candramasamupatiṣṭhet prāñjaliḥ/ KGS., 2.3.1


cf., taccakṣurdevahitaṃ purastācchukramuccarat/ paśyema śaradaḥ śataṃ jīvema śaradaḥ śataṃ śṛṇuyāma śaradaḥ śataṃ prabravāma śaradaḥ śatamadīnāḥ syāma śaradaḥ śataṃ bhūyaśca śaradaḥ śatāt// Vājasaneyisaṃhitā, 36.24


cf., caturthe māsi payasi sthālīpākaṃ śrapayitvā tasya juhoti/ ādityaḥ śukra udagātpurastāddhaṃsaḥ śuciṣadyadedenamiti sūryasya juhoti/ Mānavagṛhyasūtra, 1.19.2,3


Mānavagṛhyasūtra, 1.19.4


cf., ṣaṣṭhe māseʹnnaprāśanam/ Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 1.19.1


Sāṅ.GS., 1.27.7


cf., tṛtīye varṣe cūḍākarma/ Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra, tṛtīye varṣe caulam/ KGS., 2.3.16


cf., svadhite mainaṃ hiṃsīḥ / iti kṣureṇābhinidadhāti/ Ibid.,


cf., yenāvapatsavitā kṣureṇa somasya rājño varuṇasya keśān tena brāhmaṇo vapatvāyuṣmānayaṃ jaradaṣṭirastu yena pūṣā bṛhaspaterindrasya cāyuṣeʹvapat tena te vapāmyāyuṣe dīrghāyutvāya jīvase…/ Mānavagṛhyasūtra, 1.21.6


Ᾱś.GS., 1.20.4


Ibid.; Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 2.10.26


Ᾱś.GS., 1.20.4


cf., ādityamīkṣayet/ deva savitareṣa te brahmacārī taṃ gopāya sa māmṛtetyācāryaḥ// Ibid., 1.20.6




cf., utsṛjyāpo devasya ta iti dakṣiṇottarābhyāṃ hastābhyāmañjaliṃ gṛhṇīyādācāryaḥ// sūryasyeti’


cf., … mayi medhāṃ mayi prajāṃ mayi sūryo bhrājo dadhātu yatte agne tejastenāha tejasvī bhūāsam…//Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra,1.21.4


cf., athainaṃ paridadāti/ parīmamindra brahmaṇe mahe śrotrāya dadhmasi/ athainaṃ jarimā ṇayejjayokśrotre adhijāgarat/ iti brāhmaṇam/ parīmamindra brahmaṇe mahe rāṣṭrāya dadhmasi/ athainaṃ…// Hiraṇyakeśigṛhyasūtra,

medhāṃ me devaḥ savitā ādadhātu medhāṃ me devī sarasvatī ādadhātu medhāmaśvinau devāvādhattāṃ puṣkarasrajāviti/ Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 2.4.8

Also vide, Sāṅ.GS., 2.3.1


cf., … ityupasthāya jānvācyopasaṃgṛhya brūyādadhīhi bhoḥ sāvitrīṃ bho anubrūhīti// tasya vāsasā pāṇibhyāṃ ca pāṇī saṃgṛhya sāvitrīmanvāhab pacchoʹrdharcarśaḥ sarvām/ Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.21.4,5


Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra., 2.5.12


Ibid., 2.5.10-12


Ibid., 2.5.1


Ibid., 2.9.10


cf., vedarṭhaṃ samāpya snāyāt…uduttamamiti mekhalāmunmucya daṇḍaṃ nidhāya vāsoʹnyatparidhāyādityamupatiṣṭhate// Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 2.6.1,15


cf., teṣusāyaṃprātarudakomasparśanamādityavratantunacarantyeke/ Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 3.1.30


cf., godānavrātikādityavrataupaniṣadajyeṣṭhasāmikāssaṃvatsarāḥ/ KGS., 2.5.17; Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 3.1.28


Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 3.1.31; KGS., 2.5.18; Sāṅ.GS., 2.11


Satyavrata Sāmaśramī on Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 3.1.31


Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra, 2.14.7,8


Ibid., 2.18.3


Ibid., 4.5.12; 4.6.4; 4.9.3


cf., ṣaḍarghyā bhavantyācārya ṛtvigvaivāhyo rājā priyaḥ snātaka iti/ Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 1.3.1


Ibid., 1.3.8


cf., imaṃ tamabhitiṣṭhāmi yo mā kaścābhidāsatītyenamabhupaviśati// Ibid.


cf., mitrasya tveti madhuparkaṃ pratīkṣate// devasya tveti pratigṛhṇāti// Ibid., 1.3.16,17


KGS., 1.5.7-9


cf., astamite camasadarvyāvādāya śūrpañcātipraṇītasyārdhaṃ vrajati// Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 3.7.11


Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.22.10


Nārāyaṇa on Ibid.


Rudraskanda on KGS., 2.5.34


cf.,sampūyotpunātyudagagrābhyāmpavitrābhyāmaṅguṣṭhābhyāñcopakaniṣṭhikābhyāñcāṅgulibhyāmab hisaṃgṛhya prākśastrirutpunāti devastvāsavitotpunātvacchidreṇapavitreṇa vasoḥ sūryyasya raśmibhiriti sakṛdyajuṣāṃ dvistūṣṇīm/ Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 1.7.25


Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.8.16


Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.3.3


Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.8.24


Ibid., 1.9.3-5


Āpastambagṛhyasūtra, 3.7.19; Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.9.7


Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.9.8


Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 3.1.3


Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.2.1-9; Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra, 1.2.5


cf., āgneyapāṇḍupārthivānāṃ sarpāṇāmadhipateʹvanenikṣva śvetavāyavāntarikṣāṇāṃ sarpāṇāmadhipateʹvanenikṣvābhibhūḥ sauryadivyānāṃ sarpāṇāmadhipatevanenikṣveti//


cf., divyānāṃ sarpāṇāmadhipatirīkṣatām, divyāḥ sarpā īkṣantām, ādarśenekṣayati/ Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra, 4.15.12 apaśvetapadājahi pūrveṇa cāpareṇa ca/ sapta ca vāruṇīrimāḥ prajāḥ sarvāśca rājabāndhavaiḥ svāhā/


cf. upodutiṣṭhanti udāyuṣā svāyuṣotparjanyasya vṛṣṭyā pṛthivyāḥ saptadhāmabhiriti// Ibid., 3.2.14


Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra, 4.18.3


cf., prauṣṭhapadyāmindrayajñaḥ// pāyasamaindraṃ śrapayitvāʹpūpāṃścāpūpaiḥ stīrtvāʹʹjyabhāgāviṣṭvāʹʹjyāhutīrjuhotīndrāyendrāṇyā ajāyaikapadeʹhirbudhnyāya


Sāṅ.GS., 4.16.3


Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 2.16.1,2


SV., 1.220; KGS., 3.3.4


cf., atha yavānāmetamutyaṃ madhunā saṃyutam/ yavarṭha sarasvatyā adhivanāya cakṛṣuḥ indra āsītsīrapatiḥ śatakratuḥ kīnāśā āsanmarutaḥā sudānava iti// Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra, 3.1.6


cf., puṇyāhe lāṅgalayojanaṃ jyeṣṭhā vendradaivatyam// indraṃ parjanyamaśvinau maruta udalākāśyapaṃ svātikārīṃsītāmanumatiṃ ca dadhnā taṇḍulairgandhairakṣatairiṣṭvāʹnaḍuho


Vide, Ram Gopal, India of Vedic Kalpasūtras, p.541


cf., athāsminnapa āsecayet/ aitu rājā varuṇo revatīvirasminsthāne tiṣṭhatu modamānaḥ/ irāṃ vahantau ghṛtamokṣamāṇā mitreṇa sākaṃ saha saṅviśantviti// Ᾱśvalāyanagṛhyasūtra, 2.9.5


cf., sthālīpākasya juhoti/ agnimindraṃ bṛhaspatiṃ viśvāndevānupahvaye sarasvatīṃ ca vājīṃ ca vāstu


Ibid., 3.4.10-13


cf., niṣkamya diśa upatiṣṭhate/ ketā ca mā suketā ca purastādgopāyetāmityagnirvai ketādityaḥ suketā


Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra, 5.3.3


cf., prathamayāʹʹdityamupatiṣṭhedbhogakāmoʹrthapatau prekṣamāṇe//KGS., 4.1.13


cf., tṛtīyayā candramasi tilataṇḍulān kṣudrapaśusvastyayanakāmaḥ/ Ibid., 4.1.15,16

tṛtīyayā candramasi tilataṇḍulān kṣudrapaśusvastyayana kāmaḥ/ Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 4.5.32


cf., caturthyāʹʹdityamupasthāya gurumarthamabhyttiṣṭhet// KGS., 4.1.16

caturthyādityamupasthāyārthān prapadyeta svastyarthavānāgacchati/ Gobhilagṛhyasūtra, 4.5.33


Śāṅkhyāyanagṛhyasūtra, 6.3.12; 7.68.9

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