Parpata, Parpaṭa: 23 definitions


Parpata means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ayurveda: Cikitsa

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) is a Sanskrit word referring to Hedyotis corymbosa, a species of plant from the Rubiaceae (coffee) family of flowering plants, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It can also be spelled as Parpaṭaka (पर्पटक). In a different context, Parpaṭa can refer to “a thin kind of cake baked in grease and made from rice or pease-meal”.

This plant (Parpaṭa) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant refers to the following official Botanical name: Fumaria parviflora, from the from the Papaveraceae (poppy) family of flowering plants.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) refers to the medicinal plant Fumaria parviflora Lamk. Syn. Fumaria indica Pugsley, and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (as well as the Pharmacopoeia).—Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Parpaṭa] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant plant Fumaria parviflora Lamk. Syn. Fumaria indica Pugsley (Parpaṭa) is known as Parpaṭaka according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

1) Parpaṭa (पर्पट) refers to a type of food preparation with pulses, according to the Carakasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 27.272, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—According to Carakasaṃhitā, pulses such as mudga (green gram), masūra (lentil), caṇaka (hemp) and kalāya (pea) were parched and eaten. Parpaṭas were prepared with flour of pulses. The soup prepared from mudga is described in Suśrutasaṃhitā.

2) Parpaṭa (पर्पट) is the name of dish featuring Māṣa (black-gram) as an ingredient, as described in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).

(Ingredients of Parpaṭa): split black-gram flour, asafoetida, turmeric, salt, cumin seeds and nitrate of potash (svarjikākṣāra).

(Cooking instructions): Soak the split black gram in water and remove its outer skin. Then allow it to dry in sun and powder it. This flour is called as dhūmasī. Mix this powder with asafoetida, turmeric, salt, cumin seeds and nitrate of potash (svarjikākṣāra). Knead the mixture and spread it as thin slices. These slices can be cooked by heating them in the ember directly or by frying them in oil. This preparation is known as parpaṭa. The author points that these parpaṭas can also be prepared with the flour of green gram and bengal gram in the place of black gram.

Parpaṭas can be seen as a common food item in almost all parts of India. In south India, this is known commonly by the name pappaṭa which is an unavoidable item particularly in the meals (‘sadya’) of Kerala.

Parpaṭa is also mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., parpaṭa]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., śigrubīja (the seed of drumstick)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Hedyotis corymbosa (Linn.) Lam.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning parpaṭa] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) is the Sanskrit name for a medicinal plant identified with various varieties and species, according to verse 5.8-10 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. Note: The different species of Parpaṭa are used in different parts of the country by the Vaidyas. These species as per Ṭh. B.S. et al., include—1) Fumaria indica Pugsley; 2) Fumaria Parviflora Lam.; 3) Fumaria officinalis Linn.; 4) Oldenlandia biflora Linn.; 5) Mollugo cerviana Ser.; 6) Polycarpaea corymbosa Lam.; 7) Glossocardia bosvallia DC.; 8) Justicia procumbens Linn.; PVS adds few more (D.V.): 9) Fumaria vaillantii Loisel.; 10) Mollugo oppositifolia Linn.; 11) Rungia repens Nees.

Parpaṭa is mentioned as having seventeen synonyms: Caraka, Reṇu, Tṛṣṇāri, Kharaka, Raja, Śīta, Śītapriya, Pāṃśu, Kalpāṅgī, Varmakaṇṭaka, Kṛśaśākha, Parpaṭaka, Sutikta, Raktapuṣpaka, Pittāri, Kaṭupatra and Kavaca.

Properties and characteristics: “Parpaṭa is cooling (śītala) and bitter (tikta). It relieves fever due to pitta and kapha. It cures the blood disorders, burning, anorexia, exhaustion (glāni), intoxication and vertigo”.

In Ūnānī medicine Parpaṭa is known as Śāhtarā (Śāhatarā) and stands included since the times of Avicenna in his ‘Canon’ and identified as Fumaria officinalis (H. Daljit Songh and H.H. Siddiqui). However Siddiqui’s contention does carry weight that it was Avicenna, who introduced it.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) or Reṇukā refers to Fumaria vaillantii, and is the name of a medicinal plant dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs (viz., Parpaṭa) during that time, disease manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) or Parpaṭaprāya.—Caraka refers to a pot-herb Parppataka (Olden-landia biflora) which alleviates excitements of phlegm and bile. Parpaṭaprāya food mentioned in Nīlamatapurāṇa verse 529 of the Nīlamata seems to have been made of this pot-herb.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) refers to a group of deities who together with the nine Durgās participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“Mahākālī went ahead for the destruction of Dakṣa accompanied by nine Durgās [...]. Eager in executing the command of Śiva, they accompanied the marching heroes—[viz., Parpaṭas] and set out quickly for the destruction of Dakṣa’s sacrifice”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Parpata in Kavya glossary
Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) refers to a “rice cake stuffed with sesamum”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 22.149.—Nārāyaṇa gives tilasaṃkulī as an equivalent. Cf. “parpaṭaudana-pūjāyāṃ jalahomena siddhidā” (Devīpurāṇa, chapter 50).

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) is a Sanskrit word referring to a kind of thin cake made from either rice or pease-meal, which is then baked in grease, according to Monier-William.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: BDK Tripiṭaka: The Susiddhikara-sūtra

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) refers to one of the various types of cakes mentioned in Chapter 12 (“offering food”) of the Susiddhikara-sūtra. Accordingly, “Offer [viz., parpaṭa cakes], [...]. Cakes such as the above are either made with granular sugar or made by mixing in ghee or sesamum oil. As before, take them in accordance with the family in question and use them as offerings; if you offer them up as prescribed, you will quickly gain success. [...]”.

When you wish to offer food [viz., parpaṭa cakes], first cleanse the ground, sprinkle scented water all around, spread out on the ground leaves that have been washed clean, such as lotus leaves, palāśa (dhak) leaves, and leaves from lactescent trees, or new cotton cloth, and then set down the oblatory dishes. [...] First smear and sprinkle the ground and then spread the leaves; wash your hands clean, rinse out your mouth several times, swallow some water, and then you should set down the food [viz., parpaṭa]. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) refers to “a kind of thin cake made of rice or pease-meal and baked in grease”. It is the Gujarati pāpaḍa, “a thin crisp cake made of kidney-bean flour mixed with spices” (Mehta).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Parpata [པྲཔཏ] in the Ladakhi language is the name of a plant identified with Hypecoum leptocarpum Hook. f. & Thomson from the Papaveraceae (Poppy) family having the following synonyms: Hypecoum chinense. For the possible medicinal usage of parpata, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Parpata [पर्पट] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley from the Fumariaceae (Fumitory) family having the following synonyms: Fumaria parviflora var. indica, Fumaria vaillantii var. indica.

Parpata in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam. from the Caryophyllaceae (Carnation) family having the following synonyms: Achyranthes corymbosa, Polycarpaea nebulosa.

Parpata in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Glossocardia bosvallia from the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family having the following synonyms: Verbesina bosvallia.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Parpata in Bhutan is the name of a plant defined with Hypecoum leptocarpum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Hypecoum chinense Franch..

2) Parpata in India is also identified with Oldenlandia corymbosa It has the synonym Gerontogea herbacea (DC.) Cham. & Schltdl. (etc.).

3) Parpata is also identified with Oldenlandia herbacea It has the synonym Hedyotis dichotoma A. Rich., non Roth, nom. illegit. (etc.).

4) Parpata is also identified with Rungia parviflora.

5) Parpata is also identified with Rungia repens.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy (2004)
· Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1877)
· Taxon (1980)
· Phil. J. Sci. (1912)
· Taxon (1992)
· Glimpses in Plant Research (1988)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Parpata, for example extract dosage, health benefits, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, chemical composition, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parpaṭa (पर्पट).—1 A kind of medicinal plant.

2) A thin crisp cake made of flour (Mar. pāpaḍa); Gaṇeśa P.; stuffed with seasamum; तिलतिलकितपर्पटाभमिन्दुं वितर (tilatilakitaparpaṭābhaminduṃ vitara) N.16.149.

-ṭī 1 A kind of fragrant earth.

2) A kind of perfume.

Derivable forms: parpaṭaḥ (पर्पटः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parpaṭa (पर्पट).—m.

(-ṭaḥ) A medicinal plant with bitter leaves, (apparently the Oldenlandia biflora, though the Hindi name Papar is also applied to the Gardenia latifolia, Rox.) f. (-ṭī) 1. A thin crisp cake made of any pulse. 2. A red aluminous earth, apparently a sort of Bol, brought from Surat or Saurashtra. E. parp to go, and aṭan Unadi aff. “kṣetapāpaḍā” .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parpaṭa (पर्पट).—[masculine] ī [feminine] names of plants.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parpaṭa (पर्पट):—[from parp] m. a species of medicinal plant, [Suśruta] (Hedyotis Burmanniana or Mollugo Pentaphylla, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])

2) [v.s. ...] a kind of thin cake made of rice or pease-meal and baked in grease, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parpaṭa (पर्पट):—(ṭaḥ) 1. m. A medicinal plant with bitter leaves (Oldenlandia biflora). f. (ṭī) A thin crisp pulse cake; a red aluminous earth.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parpaṭa (पर्पट) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Pappaḍa, Pappaḍaga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parpata in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parpaṭa (ಪರ್ಪಟ):—

1) [noun] = ಪರ್ಪಟಕ [parpataka].

2) [noun] a small, round sheet made of flours of certain corns using spices, and kept dried, which is used for taste, after frying in oil.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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