Tikta, Tiktā: 14 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Tikta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Tiktā (तिक्ता):—Another name for Kaṭuka (Helleborus niger), a species of medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda. The Sanskrit word Tiktā is derived from Tikta, meaning “fragrance” or “bitter, pungent”. This synonym is also identified by Bhāvamiśra in his 16th century Bhāvaprakāśa. Certain plant parts are eaten as vegetables.

2) Tikta (तिक्त) is another name for Paṭola (Trichosanthes dioica, “pointed gourd”) according to the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. Certain plant parts of Paṭola are eaten as vegetables.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Tikta (“bitter”) is a taste which gives rise to a sort of sucking sensation at the throat, removes the slimy character of the cavity of the mouth, gives rise to the appearance of goose-flesh on the skin, and increases the relish for food. The specific attributes of air (vayu or pavana) and sky (akasha) predominate in a bitter taste. The pungent, astringent and bitter (tikta) ones are dry and light in character. The tastes such as sweet, bitter (tikta) and astringent are cold in their properties. Tastes such as sweet, bitter (tikta) and astringent possessed of the virtue of subduing the deranged Pitta. Tastes such as pungent, bitter (tikta) and astringent tend to subdue the deranged Kapha.

Virtue of Tikta—A bitter taste serves to restore the natural relish of a person for food and brings on a sense of general languor. It is a good appetiser, and acts as a good purifying agent (in respect of ulcers, etc.), and proves curative in itches and urticaria. It removes thirst, swoon and fever, purifies mother’s milk, and is possessed of the virtue of drying up urine, ordure, mucous, fat and pus, etc.

A bitter taste (tikta-rasa), though possessed of the aforesaid properties, may bring on numbness of the limbs, wry-neck, convulsions, facial paralysis, violent headache, giddiness, and an aching, cutting and breaking pain, as well as a bad taste in the mouth in the event of its being largely partaken of in exclusion of all other tastes.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Tikta (तिक्त) refers to “bitter”, and is mentioned in verse 1.16 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Tikta (“bitter”) has here been represented by its usual equivalent kha(-ba). Contrast vv. 14 & 15.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Tiktā (तिक्ता) is another name for Mūrvā, a medicinal plant identified with Marsdenia tenacissima from the Asclepiadoideae or “milkweed family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.19-21 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Tiktā and Mūrvā, there are a total of twenty-eight Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Tiktā (तिक्ता) is also mentioned as a synonym for Tiktatuṇḍī, a medicinal plant identified with Coccinia indica (ivy gourd ) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.64-65.

3) Tiktā (तिक्ता) is also mentioned as a synonym for Yavatiktā, a medicinal plant identified with Andrographis paniculata (creat or green chireta) from the Acanthaceae or “acanthus family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.76-78.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Tikta (तिक्त) is another name for “Paṭola” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning tikta] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Tikta (तिक्त, “bitter”) refers to one of the “six kinds of tastes” (rasa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 36). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., tikta). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Tikta (तिक्त, “bitter”) refers to one of the five types of Rasa (taste) which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma (e.g., tikta).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tikta (तिक्त).—a S Sharp, pungent, biting. 2 Bitter. 3 Used as s m Pungency: also bitterness.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tikta (तिक्त).—a. [tij-bā° kartari kta]

1) Bitter, pungent (as one of the six flavours of Rasas); तस्यास्तिक्तैर्वनगजम- दैर्वासितं वान्तवृष्टिः (tasyāstiktairvanagajama- dairvāsitaṃ vāntavṛṣṭiḥ) Me.2.

2) Fragrant; कटुतिक्तकषायास्तु सौरभ्येऽपि प्रकीर्तिताः (kaṭutiktakaṣāyāstu saurabhye'pi prakīrtitāḥ)' इति केशवः (iti keśavaḥ) Śi.5.33; तोयक्रीडानिरतयुवति- स्नानतिक्तैर्मरुद्भिः (toyakrīḍāniratayuvati- snānatiktairmarudbhiḥ) Me.33.

-ktaḥ 1 Bitter taste; (see under kaṭu).

2) The Kuṭaja tree.

3) Pungency.

4) Fragrance.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tikta (तिक्त).—mfn.

(-ktaḥ-ktā-ktaṃ) 1. Bitter. 2. Fragrant. m.

(-ktaḥ) 1. A bitter taste, bitterness. 3. Fragrance, perfume. 3. A medicinal plant, (Echites antidysenterica.) 4. A tree, (Capparis trifoliata:) see varuṇa. f.

(-ktā) Katuki, a medicinal plant. n.

(-ktaṃ) A medicinal plant, (Mollugo pentaphylla.) E. tij to sharpen, (the appetite,) affix karttari kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tikta (तिक्त).—[adjective] sharp, pungent, bitter, fragrant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tikta (तिक्त):—a ktaka See below.

2) [from tij] b mfn. bitter (one of the 6 modifications of taste, rasa), pungent, [Mahābhārata xii, xiv; Suśruta] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] fragrant, [Meghadūta; Śiśupāla-vadha v, 33]

4) [v.s. ...] m. a bitter taste, pungency, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] fragrance, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] Wrightia antidysenterica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Capparis trifoliata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Agathotes Chirayta, [Nighaṇṭuprakāśa]

9) [v.s. ...] = pari-, [ib.]

10) [v.s. ...] Terminalia Catappa, [ib.]

11) [v.s. ...] a sort of cucumber, [ib.] (cf. anārya-, kirāta-, cira-, mahā-)

12) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a medicinal plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] a kind of salt, [Nighaṇṭuprakāśa]

14) Tiktā (तिक्ता):—[from tikta > tij] f. Name of a plant (= -rohiṇī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Clypea hernandifolia, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; a water-melon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Artemisia sternutatoria, [Bhāvaprakāśa]; = yava-, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; cf. kāka-), [Suśruta iv, 5, 12.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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