Parshad, Parṣad, Pārṣad: 15 definitions


Parshad means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Parṣad and Pārṣad can be transliterated into English as Parsad or Parshad, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Parṣad (पर्षद्) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Parṣadā forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Ākāśacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the ākāśacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Parṣad] are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Parṣad (पर्षद्) refers to a “company”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, [while describing the Space Circle (ākāśacakra)]: “Now, the Space Circle outside [this] is like a dark blue lotus [in color]. Sky-going Yoginīs are in the middles of the thirty-six spokes [of the circle], as follows—[...] [They are] eminent mistresses with companies (parṣad). The colors [of these Yoginīs] are various and wonderful. Alternatively, [they have] the circle’s color (dark blue). [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Parṣad (पर्षद्) [=Parṣada?] refers to a “congregations (of gods)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “How then, son of good family, is the Bodhisattva supported by the presence of the Buddha as unhindered and uninterrupted eloquence (pratibhāna)? Son of good family, there are the Bodhisattvas’ twenty-four sorts of eloquence. What are those twenty-four? [...] 13) eloquence which is never subdued; 14) imperishable eloquence of teaching the analysis of words; 15) luminous and splendid eloquence; 16) eloquence to be praised; 17) unfailing eloquence of teaching the dharma; 18) eloquence adorned with the congregations of gods (devaparṣad-alaṃkṛta-pratibhāna); [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Parṣad (पर्षद्) refers to an “assembly (gathering)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, “The Bhagavān was dwelling in the great city of Vārāṇasī. Providing great benefits he was teaching the Dharma to beings, namely the producer of virtue, fulfilling all hopes and wishes. [He was] in an assembly-gathering (parṣad-saṃnipāta), with a great assembly of Nāgas lead by Takṣaka. With a great assembly of Devas and humans”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Tessitori Collection I

Parṣad (पर्षद्) (Prakrit: Parisā) refers to a “group of beings” (attending the samavasaraṇa), according to the Dvādaśaparṣad (a work dealing with the Cosmology of Jain Canonical literature), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—The Dvādaśaparṣad deals with the intermediate directions or the ‘corners’ (kūṇi) where the groups of beings attending the samavasaraṇa sacred space have to sit or stand, after the Jina himself has sat in the centre and after they have entered and performed a cirucumambulation.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parṣad.—(LL), a congregation. Note: parṣad is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parṣad (पर्षद्).—f. [pṛṣ-adi]

1) An assembly, a meeting, conclave; परीतो भूतपर्षद्भिः (parīto bhūtaparṣadbhiḥ) Bhāgavata 3.14.23;1.83.21.

2) Particularly, a religious synod or assembly; चत्वारो वेदधर्मज्ञाः पर्षत् (catvāro vedadharmajñāḥ parṣat) Y.1.9. °वलः (valaḥ) A member of an assembly; पर्षद्वलान् महाब्रह्मैराट नैकटिकाश्रमान् (parṣadvalān mahābrahmairāṭa naikaṭikāśramān) Bhaṭṭikāvya 4.12.

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Pārṣad (पार्षद्).—f. An assembly.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parṣad (पर्षद्).—f. (-ṣad or ṣat) An assembly, an audience. E. pṛṣ to please, Unadi aff. adi; also pariṣad.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parṣad (पर्षद्).—parṣad = pariṣad (q. cf.), f. An assembly, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 14, 23.

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Pārṣad (पार्षद्).— (cf. pārṣada), m. pl. The retinue of a god, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 6, 29.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parṣad (पर्षद्).—[feminine] = pariṣad.

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Pārṣad (पार्षद्).—[plural] = seq. [masculine] [plural]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parṣad (पर्षद्):—f. = pari-ṣad, an assembly, audience, company, society, [Gṛhya-sūtra; Yājñavalkya] etc. (4 kinds of society, [Divyāvadāna 299, 14]).

2) Pārṣad (पार्षद्):—[from pārṣata] 1. pārṣad Vṛddhi form of pṛṣad in [compound]

3) 2. pārṣad f. (cf. next) an assembly, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [plural] the attendance or retinue of a god, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parṣad (पर्षद्):—[(d-t)] 5. f. An assembly.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parshad in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parshad in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parshad in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a councillor, senator; courtier; an attendant..—parshad (पार्षद) is alternatively transliterated as Pārṣada.

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