Nidarshana, Nidarśanā, Nidarśana: 17 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Nidarshana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Nidarśanā and Nidarśana can be transliterated into English as Nidarsana or Nidarshana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Nidarshan.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Nidarśana (निदर्शन, “counter-argument”) refers to one of the thirty-six “characteristic features” (lakṣaṇa) of perfect ‘poetic compositions’ (kāvyabandha) and ‘dramatic compositions’ (dṛśyakāvya, or simply kāvya). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17, these thirty-six lakṣaṇas act as instructions for composing playwrights. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Nidarśanā (निदर्शना, “illustration”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When a possible or, as is sometimes the case, even an impossible connection of things implies a relation of type and prototype, it is Nidarśanā or illustration.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Nidarśanā (निदर्शना) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Nidarśanā is also an important figure of speech treated by Ālaṃkārikas like Bhāmaha (K.A. III/33), Udbhaṭa (K.S.S. V/18), Daṇḍin (II/348-50), Vāmana (IV/320), Mammaṭa (X/97), Ruyyaka (A.S/P. 76), Visvanātha (X/51) and Jagannātha (R.G II/P. 456).

Cirañjīva defines nidarśanā as—“vākyārthayoḥ sadṛśayoraikyārope nidarśanā”.—When the identity between two similar sentences is imposed it is the figure nidarśanā. Jayadeva has given the similar definition. According to Cirañjīva the identity of the two sentences is imposed with the help of words yat and tat. It is to be pointed out here that Ālamkārikas like Mammaṭa, Viśvanātha, Ruyyaka etc. have admitted the presence of bimba-pratibimbabhāva in nidarśanā. But Cirañjīvahas not mentioned and he has defined in the line of Jayadeva.

Example of the nidarśanā-alaṃkāra:—

yo’bhito vasato nātha! bhavataḥ samupāgamaḥ |
madīyabhavane so’yamindorabhūtanirjharaḥ ||

“Oh lord! the fact that the arrival of you who live near to my abode is like the flow of nectar from the moon”.

Notes: In this verse on account of their pleasant and impossible nature two meanings—that is the arrival of the hero and the flow of nectar are identified with the use of two words ‘yat’ and ‘tat’. The impossible nature of two meanings is clear. The arrival of the hero was not possible due to want of time as he was with the other lady. Similarly the flow of nectar is not possible as it can be enjoyed by the gods only. So on account of the identity of two meanings, this is an example of nidarśanā. It is to be pointed out here that Bhāmaha (III/32), Vāmana (430) have admitted nidarśanā (bodhananidarśa is the name given by them) and the basis of possible relation between the meanings. It is Udbhaṭa who has stated for the first time the other type of nidarśanā based on impossible relation of the meanings (asambhavadvastusambandhah). Mammaṭa has admitted only the second type. Viśvanātha has concentrated on both the types. From the illustration of Cirañjīva it appears that he has concentrated upon the nidarśanā based on impossible relation—(asambhavadvastusambandhaḥ)

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra

Nidarśana (निदर्शन) refers to “illustration” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire. (Description): When well-known instances are mentioned for rejecting the contrary view, it is an instance of Unfavourable Precedent (nidarśana, lit. “example”).

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[«previous next»] — Nidarshana in Vyakarana glossary
Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Nidarśana (निदर्शन).—Illustration; cf. पर्याप्तो ह्येकः पुलाकः स्थाल्या निदर्शनाय (paryāpto hyekaḥ pulākaḥ sthālyā nidarśanāya) M.Bh. on I. 4. 23 Vart. 15; cf also इला साल्हा चात्र निदर्शनानि (ilā sālhā cātra nidarśanāni) R. Pr. I. 22.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Nidarshana in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Nidarśanā (निदर्शना, “illustration”) refers to one of the various Alaṅkāras (‘figures of speech’) classified as Artha (‘sense’), as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—Some examples of ‘nidarśanā-alaṅkāra are also found in this poem. With the help of this figure of speech, the poet has aptly presented in IX.20 the exact use of illustration. Here by way of illustrating the reality of the world that there is no union between earth and sky, Dāśarāja has aptly consolidated his daughter Satyavatī. The other examples are I.8, I.51, II.9, XV.2, etc.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nidarshana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nidarśana (निदर्शन).—&c. See under निदृश् (nidṛś).

Derivable forms: nidarśanam (निदर्शनम्).

See also (synonyms): nidarśaka.

--- OR ---

Nidarśana (निदर्शन).—a.

1) Pointing, showing.

2) Proclaiming, declaring announcing.

3) Teaching.

-nam 1 View, insight, looking into, sight, vision; शुद्धात्मा ब्राह्मणो रात्रौ निदर्शनमपश्यत (śuddhātmā brāhmaṇo rātrau nidarśanamapaśyata) Mb.12.217.14.

2) Pointing to, showing.

3) Proof, evidence; बलिना सह योद्धव्यमिति नास्ति निदर्शनम् (balinā saha yoddhavyamiti nāsti nidarśanam) Pt.3.23.

4) An instance, example, illustration; ननु प्रभुरेव निदर्शनम् (nanu prabhureva nidarśanam) Ś.2; निदर्शनसाराणां लघुर्बहुतृणं नरः (nidarśanasārāṇāṃ laghurbahutṛṇaṃ naraḥ) Śi.2.5; R.8.45; जनकस्य नृपेन्द्रस्य तपसः सन्निदर्शनम् (janakasya nṛpendrasya tapasaḥ sannidarśanam) Pratimā 4.14.

5) Injunction.

6) Authority, text.

7) A scheme, system.

8) A precept, scriptural authority, an injunction.

9) The third member of an Indian syllogism (usually called udāharaṇa q. v.).

-nā A figure of speech (in Rhetoric) thus defined:-निदर्शना । अभवन्वस्तुसंबन्ध उपमापरिकल्पकः (nidarśanā | abhavanvastusaṃbandha upamāparikalpakaḥ) K. P.1; e. g. R.1.2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nidarśana (निदर्शन).—(nt.) exhibition (of skill or powers); compare darśana (2) in same sense: paścime nidarśane bāṇā vidhyanti Mahāvastu ii.75.20.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidarśana (निदर्शन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. An example or illustration. 2. Injunction, precept. 3. Tenour, purport. 4. Authority, text. 5. A sign. 6. A scheme. 7. View. 8. Evidence. E. ni fully or certainly, darśana showing, or ni + dṛśa lyuṭ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidarśana (निदर्शन).—i. e. ni-dṛś + ana, I. adj., f. . 1. Showing, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 5, 1. 2. Announcing, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 12815. 3. Teaching, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 18, 33. Ii. n. 1. Seeing, sight, Mahābhārata 9, 62. 2. Evidence, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 45. 3. Example, 9, 20; Mahābhārata 8, 1882. 4. Foreboding, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 9885. 5. Prognostic, Mahābhārata 5, 1235. 6. Symptom, 12, 11718.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidarśana (निदर्शन).—[feminine] ī pointing at, proclaiming, teaching (—°). [feminine] ā a cert. comparison ([rhetorie]); [neuter] pointing or looking at, evidence, example, symptom, omen, nārtham for instance.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nidarśana (निदर्शन):—[=ni-darśana] [from ni-dṛś] mf(ī)n. pointing to, showing, indicating, announcing, proclaiming, teaching, [Harivaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] suiting, pleasing (sarva-loka-nid; [varia lectio] ka-nidarśin and -vidarśin), [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 108, 18]

3) Nidarśanā (निदर्शना):—[=ni-darśanā] [from ni-darśana > ni-dṛś] f. a [particular] form of a simile or comparison (e.g. [Raghuvaṃśa i, 2]), [Kāvyaprakāśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] etc.

4) Nidarśana (निदर्शन):—[=ni-darśana] [from ni-dṛś] n. seeing, view, appearance, sight, vision (cf. svapna-nid), [Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] pointing to, showing, indicating, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata]

6) [v.s. ...] proof, evidence, [Pañcatantra]

7) [v.s. ...] n. instance, example, illustration, [???; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (-tva n., [Naiṣadha-carita]; nārtham ind. for instance, [Mahābhārata])

8) [v.s. ...] n. refutation of a stated argument, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of the third member of a complete syllogism (= udāharaṇa), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

10) [v.s. ...] n. a prognostic, sign, mark, omen, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Suśruta] (ifc. f(ā). , showing, betraying, [Rāmāyaṇa])

11) [v.s. ...] n. a scheme, system, [Suśruta]

12) [v.s. ...] injunction, precept, ordinance, authority, text, [Horace H. Wilson]

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Nidarśana (निदर्शन):——

1) Adj. (f. ī) — a) hindeutend auf , zeigend , verkündend , lehrend. — b) zusagend , gefallend. nidarśin v.l. —

2) f. ā die Erweckung des Verhältnisses von Bild und Gegenbild durch eine mögliche oder unmögliche Verknüpfung von Dingen [Kāvyaprakāśa 10,11.] —

3) n. (adj. Comp. f. ā) — a) das Schauen , Sehen. — b) Hinweisung auf. — c) das Zeigen. — d) Beleg , Beispiel. Nom.abstr. tva m. [Naiṣadhacarita 7,75.] — e) ein Beleg für die Unhaltbarkeit einer ausgesprochenen Ansicht. — f) Anzeichen , Symptom , Vorzeichen , Vorbedeutung. prīti Adj. so v.a. zeugend von Freundschaft. — g) Schema , System.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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