Nidra, Nidrā: 23 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Nidra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Nidrā (निद्रा, “Sleep”):—One of the names of Mahākālī (tamas-form of Mahādevī). Mahākālī is one of the three primary forms of Devī. Not to be confused with Kālī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named tamas. For reference, see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Nidrā (निद्रा, “sleeping”).—One of the thirty-three ‘transitory states’ (vyabhicāribhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Nidrā (निद्रा, “sleeping”) is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as weakness, fatigue, exhaustion, intoxication, indolence, [too much] thinking, too much eating, [soporific] nature and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as heaviness of the face, stretching the limbs, rolling of the eyes, yawning, rubbing of the body, deep breathing, relaxed body, closing the eyes, bewilderment, and the like.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Google Books: A Practical Approach to the Science of Ayurveda

Nidrā (निद्रा, “sleep”).—One of the thee supporting pillars of the body.—After whole day’s routine, when one’s body and mind are completely tired, the sensory and motor organs become relaxed, then one goes to sleep. By means of sleep, the body and mind get rest which compensates the loss during activities. Sleep is invaluable. When one falls asleep, all the lax and inactive sensory and motor organs along with the mind get refreshed and energetic.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Nidrā (निद्रा) refers to “sleeping disease” according to the fifth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 23). Accordingly, “In sleep (nidra), the fatigue of the mind is followed by the fatigue of the sense-organs and their consequent withdrawal from the objective world”.

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Nidra (निद्र, “sleep”).—In sleeping disease (nidra), the fatigue of the mind is followed by the fatigue of the sense-organs and their consequent withdrawal from the objective world.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nidrā (निद्रा) refers to “sleep” (e.g., in all living beings) and is used to describe Goddess Umā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.3.—Accordingly, as the Gods eulogized Umā (Durgā/Satī) with devotion:—“[...] you are sleep in all living beings (i.e., nidrānidrā tvaṃ sarvabhūteṣu); you are hunger, satiety, thirst, splendour, brilliance and contentment. You are the delighter of every one for ever. To those who perform meritorious actions you are the goddess of fortune. To the sinners you are the eldest sister, the deity of Ignominy; you are peace for the universe, and the mother sustaining lives”.

Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society: The Harivaṃśa, the Goddess Ekānaṃśā

Nidrā (निद्रा) is the name of a female Goddess mentioned in the Harivaṃśa commonly identified with Ekānaṃśā. The role of [Ekānaṃśā] is closely linked to that of her two male companions (Kṛṣṇa and Saṃkarṣaṇa). The interactions of the Saṃkarṣaṇa-Ekānaṃśā-Kṛṣṇa triad are in fact presented in at least three different circumstances in the Harivaṃśa.

The Harivaṃśa consists of a long speech in which Viṣṇu tells Nidrā what she must do if he is to complete the mission he has undertaken. He promises her the most remarkable favors in return for her cooperation. [...] In any case, this passage clearly links Viṣṇu to the goddess Nidrā (or Ekānaṃśā). Viṣṇu is the only one who knows this woman’s power and thus the only one who has recourse to her. When he decides to intervene in favor of Earth and manifest himself in order to satisfy her grievances, he immediately orders the goddess to help him. The goddess Nidrā merely acts on Viṣṇu’s decision.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Nidrā (निद्रा) or Nidrāhasta refers to “supportive, sleepy, meditative” and represents one of the twenty-four gestures with a single hand, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Accordingly, pratimā-lakṣaṇa (body postures of the icons) is comprised of hand gestures (hasta, mudrā or kai-amaiti), stances/poses (āsanas) and inflexions of the body (bhaṅgas). There are thirty-two types of hands [viz., nidrā-hasta] classified into two major groups known as tolirkai (functional and expressive gestures) and elirkai (graceful posture of the hand).

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Nidrā (निद्रा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Nidrācinta forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vākcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vākcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Nidrā] and Vīras are reddish madder in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Nidrā (निद्रा, “sleep”) refers to one of the eight divisions of Darśanāvaraṇa, or “perception obscuring (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.—What is meant by sleep (nidrā)? To sleep induced by pride, sorrow or hard efforts is called sleep. What is meant by obscuring perception due to sleep (nidrā)? Perception obscured by the general sleep induced by the rise of perception obscuring karmas is obscuring perception due to sleep. Nidrā is also known as Nidrādarśanāvaraṇa or Nidrādarśanāvaraṇīya.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nidrā (निद्रा).—f (S) Sleep. nidrākula, nidrākrānta, nidrāgrasta, nidrātura, nidrānvita (S) Overcome with sleep.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nidrā (निद्रा).—f Sleep. nidrākula, nidrākānta, nidrāgrasta, nidrātura, nidrānvita Overcome with sleep.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nidrā (निद्रा).—2 P. To fall asleep, sleep.

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Nidrā (निद्रा).—

1) Sleep, sleepiness; प्रच्छायसुलभनिद्रा दिवसाः (pracchāyasulabhanidrā divasāḥ) Ś.1.3; निद्रामुद्रां क्षिपन् (nidrāmudrāṃ kṣipan) Māl.2.12.

2) Sloth; निद्रां च प्रतिभां चैव ज्ञानाभ्यासेन तत्त्ववित् (nidrāṃ ca pratibhāṃ caiva jñānābhyāsena tattvavit) (nivartayet) Mb.12.274.7.

3) Shutting, budding state.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidrā (निद्रा).—f.

(-drā) 1. Sleep, sleepiness, sloth. 2. Dream. E. ṇid to condemn or censure, Unadi affix rak; or drai to sleep, affix kvip and ni prefixed. or more correctly. ni + drā bhāve a .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidrā (निद्रा).—[ni-2. drā], f. 1. Sleep, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 26, 9. 2. Sleepiness, [Hiḍimbavadha] 1, 4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidrā (निद्रा).—[feminine] sleep, kara† [adjective] causing sleep.

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Nidrā (निद्रा).—go to sleep, sleep. — Cf. nidrāṇa & nidrita.

Nidrā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms ni and drā (द्रा).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nidrā (निद्रा):—[=ni-drā] a. ni-√1. drā (or √drai) [Parasmaipada] [Ātmanepada] -drāyati, te (-drāti, [Śāntiśataka]; [perfect tense] -dadrau, [Naiṣadha-carita]), to fall asleep, sleep, slumber, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] b f. sleep, slumber, sleepiness, sloth, [Ṛg-veda; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] the budding state of a flower (hence drāṃ-√tyaj, to bloom), [Śārṅgadhara-paddhati]

4) [v.s. ...] a mystic. Name of the letter bh, [Upaniṣad]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidrā (निद्रा):—[ni-drā] (drā) 1. f. Sleep.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Nidrā (निद्रा):—(von 2. drā mit ni) f. [Uṇādisūtra 2, 17.]

1) Schlaf [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 7, 36.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 313.] [Suśruta 1, 4, 11.] [Yogasūtra 1, 10.] [Sânkhya Philosophy 20.] āhāranidrābhayamaithunaṃ ca sāmānyametatpaśubhirnarāṇām [Spr. 409.] kṣaṇa [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 2, 7, 13.] pravṛddhanidrāśayita [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 35, 64. 23, 39.] nidrāntarita [Pañcatantra 117, 5.] vaśa [Vetālapañcaviṃśati] in [Lassen’s Anthologie 25, 3.] na viveśa ca nidrainaṃ niśāsu śayanaṃ gatam [Rāmāyaṇa 4, 26, 9.] nidrābhibhūta [Suśruta 1, 45, 16.] nidrayāpahṛtā [Nalopākhyāna 10, 7.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 46, 16.] hṛtamajñānanidrayā [5, 76, 19. Nalopākhyāna 24, 12.] nidrāṃ sumapasevate [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 35, 23.] nidrāmabhyehi 14. nidrāmupāgamat 22. śanairnidrāmadhvakhinnā jagāma sā [SOM. NAL. 80.] [Pañcatantra 124, 1.] [Meghadūta 110.] yayau nidrāṃ śanaiśca saḥ [Geschichte des Vidūṣaka 123.] [Śṛṅgāratilaka 12.] nidrāmupetasya [Sāhityadarpana 67, 15.] na ca tena vinā nidrāṃ labhate [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 19, 22. 2, 51, 9 (94, 11 Gorresio). 3, 60, 34.] pracchāyasulabhanidrā divasāḥ [Śākuntala 3.] alabdhanidra [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 13, 47.] labdhanidrāsukhā [Meghadūta 95.] prāpya nidrāṃ kathaṃcana [Kathāsaritsāgara 26, 146.] nidrāmuvāha [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 9, 20.] tyaktanidre babhūvatuḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 65, 21.] nidrāṃ vihāya [Raghuvaṃśa 5, 73.] vītanidra [?ad Śākuntala 78. Dhūrtasamāgama 74, 17.] muktanidra [Kathāsaritsāgara 10, 72.] naṣṭanidra [Pañcatantra 38, 4.] kṣaṇabhagnanidra [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 9, 10.] mahānidra [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 37, 30.] nidrāndha vor Schlaf (Schläfrigkeit; nidrā = tandrī [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 25, 178]) blind [Hiḍimbavadha 1, 4.] [Mahābhārata 7, 8374.] kara [Harivaṃśa 3570.] [Suśruta 1, 176, 3.] [Dhūrtasamāgama 90, 10.] rata [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 92, 11.] nidrālasa schläfrig [5.] [Bhartṛhari 3, 73.] aṅgāni nidrālasavihvalāni [Ṛtusaṃhāra 6, 11, v. l.] nidrālasya Schläfrigkeit [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 8, 13.] langes Schlafen, neben ālasya, tandrī, tandrā [Mahābhārata 2, 260. 5, 1048.] [Suśruta 1, 13, 8. -] [Harivaṃśa 6465.] ajīrṇanidrāṇi [Ṣaḍviṃśabrāhmaṇa 5, 4] soll nach [Sāyaṇa] bedeuten ajīrṇamatinidrāśca; vgl. [WEBER], Zwei vedische Texte über Omina und Portenta, [S. 321. fg.] Bei Blumen ist Schlaf so v. a. Knospenzustand: nidrāṃ tyaj aufblühen [Spr. 433.] Der Schlaf als Göttin personif. [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 63, 8. 9.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 78,] [Nalopākhyāna 8.] Vgl. a, vinidra . —

2) myst. Bez. des Buchstabens bha [Weber’s Indische Studien 2, 316.]

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Nidrā (निद्रा):—

1) Schläfrigkeit: na svapnena jayennidrām [Spr. 1501.] nidrātura schläfrig so v. a. matt von Statten gehend, von Gebeten [Oxforder Handschriften 103,a,5.] — Vgl. mahā .

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Nidrā (निद्रा):—

1) [Ṛgveda 8, 48, 14.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nidrā (निद्रा):—(nf) sleep; slumber; —[devī] Somnus; goddess of sleep; •[kī goda meṃ/śaraṇa meṃ jānā] lit. to be consigned to the care of Somnus (the goddess of sleep)—to go to sleep; —[roga] narcolepsy; ~[vijñāna] hypnology.

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