Murdha, Murdhā, Mūrdhā, Murdhan, Mūrdhan: 35 definitions

Introduction:

Murdha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “heads of the people”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Sitā said to Śiva:—“[...] the most unbearable season of the advent of clouds (ghanāgama or jaladāgama) has arrived with clusters of clouds of diverse hues, and their music reverberating in the sky and the various quarters. [...] O Śiva, tossed about by the gusts of wind the clouds do not remain steady in any place, they rumble and appear as if they would fall on the heads of the people (mūrdhan)”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Murdhā (मुर्धा).—A son of Bhṛgu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 87.

2) Mūrdhā (मूर्धा).—A son of Bhṛgu.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 195. 13.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्).—The top of the orifice of the mouth; the place of utterance (स्थान (sthāna)) of the letters ऋ, ॠ, ट्,ठ्,ड् ढ् (, , , ṭh, ḍ ḍh) and ण्, र् (, r) and ष् (); cf. ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा (ṛṭuraṣāṇāṃ mūrdhā) S. K. on P. I. 1.9; cf also षटौ मूर्धनि (ṣaṭau mūrdhani) V.Pr.I.67,R.T.6,R.Pr.I.19, and T.Pr. II.37 where र् (r) appears excluded.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “forehead”, representing a especially dangerous spot to get bitten by snake, as taught in the Marma (“vital points of the body”) section of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—The Kāśyapasaṃhitā specifically mentions that snake-bite in the sense organs, heart, between the eye-brows, bosom, belly, palate, joints, neck, forehead (mūrdhan), chin, middle of the navel and joints of the feet, is highly risky.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Mūrdhā (मूर्धा):—Head

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Croaking Frogs: (Yoga)

Mūrdhā (मूर्धा) refers to the “head” (probably referring here to the upper part of the head) representing one of the sixteen vital centres of the body (i.e., ādhāra), according to the Jyotsnā 3.73 (Cf. Gorakṣaśataka 14 and Svātmārāma’s Haṭhapradīpikā 3.72).—In Haṭhayoga, ādhāra refers to a vital point of the body, a seat of vital function. Jyotsnā verse 3.73 cites a passage attributed to Gorakṣa listing the ādhāras as [e.g., mūrdhā (head), ...]. The Haṭhapradīpikā refers to sixteen ādhāras but does not name them or explain what they are. The Gorakṣaśataka also refers to sixteen ādhāras as something the Yogī should be familiar with, but does not name them.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “head”, according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, “The venerable (sacred seat called) Mātaṅga is Stillness and should be worshipped on the head [i.e., mūrdhan]. It has one form and is associated with Mātaṅgī and Vīra. It has the Seed of Power (AIṂ) and should be worshipped in the west. It is associated with the Siddha called Vaṭapura, whose power is astonishing”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “head”, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “With true devotion I worship that divine and omnipresent Śārikā, who bears the crescent moon on her head (mūrdhan), who grants liberation, destroys delusion everywhere, destroys the bad fear of meeting a wrong death. O mother Śārikā, whoever devotedly recites your tāra-syllable, which carries one across the ocean of transmigration, may, when his wisdom is ripened through the knowledge of the absolute, even put to shame the Lord of the Word. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Mūrdha (मूर्ध) refers to “monarchs”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 6), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If Mars, after his re-appearance in the constellation of Śravaṇa, should retrograde in that of Puṣya, anointed monarchs [i.e., mūrdha-abhiṣikta-pīḍā-kṛt] will be afflicted with miseries; those countries and those persons will suffer in whose Nakṣatra, Mars should begin to reappear. If Mars should pass through the middle of the constellation of Maghā and retrograde back through the same, the ruler of the Pāṇḍya country will perish and mankind will suffer from wars and drought”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “head” (of the Lord—Prabhu), according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[...] Out of [his own] head (mūrdhanmūrdhato hi purā) indeed has God, the Lord, created the King in ancient times. Therefore does he have his head anointed  (mūrdhan-abhiṣikta) and stands above all beings. The King is praised in Revealed Knowledge and Systematized Bodies of Knowledge as a double Brāhmaṇa (i.e. as worth twice as much as a Brāhmaṇa). If one is hostile to him out of delusion, that fool is hostile to Hari [himself]”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “heads” (of the horses), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.117-120, while describing the protection of the kingdom’s animals]—“The Mantrin should honor [Amṛteśa] in the middle of the cows, from this the herd should increase. He applies vermillion or red chalk infused with the mantra to the tips of the horns of the cow for [their] protection. He should perform the same rite to protect the horses. After he infuses the water jug with the mantra, he should pour it over their heads (mūrdhan). [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Gitashastra (science of music)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (gita)

Mūrdha (मूर्ध, “forehead”) refers to one of the ten kinds of sthāna (the organs of utterance), according to Bhattojidīkṣita in his Siddhāntakaumudī and the Saṃgītaratnākara.—During the practise of Vocal Music, the proper production of the concerned sound is always considered as very important. Sthāna or ucchāraṇasthāna is the place of articulation of sound. Bhattojidīkṣita in his Siddhāntakaumudī said about ten kinds of sthāna (i.e., the organs of utterance), e.g., mūrdha (forehead).

context information

Gitashastra (गीतशास्त्र, gītaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of Music (gita or samgita), which is traditionally divided in Vocal music, Instrumental music and Dance (under the jurisdiction of music). The different elements and technical terms are explained in a wide range of (often Sanskrit) literature.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Mūrdhā (मूर्धा) or “head” refers to one of the various body parts whose Measurements should follow the principles of ancient Indian Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, a specific measurement of every limb of a man as well as of a woman is elaborately and systematically discussed. In this book, the writer has presented the measurement of almost all the body parts that should be maintained in a picture. For example, Mūrdhā (“head”) should be 12 aṅgulas.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

1) Mūrdha (मूर्ध) refers to “(the top of) one’s head”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja, having praised the Lord with these verses, addressed himself to the Lord: ‘[...] The Lord, having played with the supernormal knowledges, is skilled in the knowledge of ascertainment of the base of magic. The Lord, having been endowed with the understanding of observation, throughly shows the mental behavior of all living beings as he places it upon the palm of his hand. Since the Lord has been elevated above, nobody can look at the top of his head (anavalokita-mūrdha). The Lord, having been unsurpassed, became a hero in the whole system of threefold thousand great thousand worlds. [...]’”.

2) mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “summit” (consisting of the ten qualities), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “What then, son of good family, is the recollection of gods (devānusmṛti), which is authorized by the Lord for Bodhisattvas? [...] Further, the Bodhisattvas who are hindered by only one birth, and who dwell in the Tuṣita Heaven recollect ten qualities as the summit (mūrdhan)”.

What are those ten qualities?

  1. the perfection of insight as the summit (mūrdhan) of all perfections;
  2. the supernormal knowledge without retrogression [as the summit] of all supernormal knowledges;
  3. the stage of consecration [as the summit] of all stages;
  4. the right view and concentration without retrogression [as the summit] all wings of awakening;
  5. the meaning and eloquence without obstruction [as the summit] of special knowledges;
  6. the way into unattached knowledge [as the summit] of all knowledges;
  7. the knowledge of understanding superior, mediocre, and inferior [as the summit] of all his faculties;
  8. following the knowledge of light [as the summit] of power and fearlessness;
  9. the sight of the Buddha, seeing all qualities of the Buddha as being in the palm of his hand, [as the summit] of all kinds of sights;
  10. the perfect awakening through insight associated with a moment of thought [as the summit] after sitting on the place of awakening.

They recollect such ten qualities as the summit (mūrdhan). This recollection is not disturbed by any particular viewpoint (dṛṣṭi), manifestations of bad dispositions, mental efforts, or discursive thinking, so there is no impurity and thus the recollection of gods is, son of good family, called the recollection of gods, authorized by the Lord.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “head (of a Nāga)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, “Now there lived a Brahmin called Viṣṇudatta in Navanagara. [...] He enchanted an iron stake and placed it on the head (mūrdhanmūrdhni dattam) of that Nāga. The head of the Nāga (mūrdhansa ca nāgo mūrdhānaṃ) burst and it felt great pain. The Nāga became extremely angry with great fury. Then in a moment, an instant, a short time, the Nāga’s body was overcome with great pain by the intensity of swaying. Then because of this rays came forth from its body and the fields of the Brahmin were burnt. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “top”, according to the Nāmamantrārthāvalokinī by Vilāsavajra, which is a commentary on the Nāmasaṃgīti.—Accordingly, [while describing Ādibuddha]—“[...] [The Ādibuddha] has five faces. [...] [His five faces] have five [different] colours: dark blue for the east [and forward-facing face], yellow for the south, red for the west, [and] green for the north. On the top (mūrdhan), he has a white face, the face of [the deity] Paramāśva. [...]”.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) refers to the “summit (of a mountain)”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: “Now, [the Blessed One] has taught [holy sites] such as the pīṭha and upapīṭha in sequence. [...] (7) The melāpaka [sites] are proclaimed to be a bank of a river, a garden, an ocean, and a place where four roads meet. (8) The upamelāpaka [sites] are on the summit of a mountain (giri-mūrdhan), the center of a village, and Vṛndākaumāriparvaka (or a mountain [where there is] a flock of maidens). A lineage land is [also] the upamelāpaka. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mūrdhā (मूर्धा).—f S The head. 2 In geometry. Base.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mūrdhā (मूर्धा).—f The head. Base (in Geometry).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्).—m. [muhyatyasminnāhate iti mūrdhā, cf. Uṇādi-sūtra 1.156]

1) The forehead, brow.

2) The head in general; नतेन मूर्ध्ना हरिरग्रहीदपः (natena mūrdhnā hariragrahīdapaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 1.18; R.16.81; नैसर्गिकी सुरभिणः कुसुमस्य सिद्धा मूर्ध्नि स्थितिर्न चरणैरवताडनानि (naisargikī surabhiṇaḥ kusumasya siddhā mūrdhni sthitirna caraṇairavatāḍanāni) Uttararāmacarita 1.14; Kumārasambhava 3.22.

3) The highest or most prominent part, top, summit, peak, head; अतिष्ठन्मनुजेन्द्राणां मूर्ध्नि देवपतिर्यथा (atiṣṭhanmanujendrāṇāṃ mūrdhni devapatiryathā) Mb. 'stood at the head of all kings' &c.; उत्तमे शिखरे जाते भूम्यां पर्वतमूर्धनि (uttame śikhare jāte bhūmyāṃ parvatamūrdhani) Sandhyā Mantra; Ś.5.7; Meghadūta 17.

4) (Hence) A leader, head, chief, foremost, prominent.

5) Front, van, forepart; स किल संयुगमूर्ध्नि सहायतां मघवतः प्रतिपद्य महारथः (sa kila saṃyugamūrdhni sahāyatāṃ maghavataḥ pratipadya mahārathaḥ) R.9.19.

6) (In geom.) The base.

7) (In gram.) The roof of the palate.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) or Mūrdhāna.—(compare Sanskrit mūrdhan), head (condition), summit, the second of the ‘stages of partici- pation in penetration’, see nirvedha-bhāgīya: mūrdhā- nam, n. sg., Mahāvyutpatti 1213 (so Mironov; Kyoto ed. v.l. °naḥ) = Tibetan rtse mo, summit(s); same is meant by mūrdhā- vasthā Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xiv.26 commentary; mūrdhāgatāni Divyāvadāna 79.28, but in next line, 80.1, and 166.15; 240.20; 271.12; 469.12, mūrdhānaḥ (sometimes mss. mūrdhnānaḥ), n. pl., as also Abhidharmakośa LaV—P. vi.164, where the meaning of the term is explained.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūrddhan (मूर्द्धन्).—m.

(-rddhā) 1. The head. 2. The Forehead. 3. Top. 4. Front, 5. The head, the chief. E. mūh to be foolish, Unadi aff. kanin, form irr.; or murv to bind, the same aff., dhañ augment; also read mūrdhan and mūrdhvan .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्).—m. The head, [Pañcatantra] 184. 10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūrdha (मूर्ध).—(—°) = mūrdhan.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्).—[masculine] forehead, scull, head, highest part, top, point, summit, chief, leader. mūrdhnā & mūrdhni kṛ put on the head i.e. esteem highly, [with] dhṛ the same, [with] vṛt stand above all.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्):—m. ([Uṇādi-sūtra i, 158]) the forehead, head in general, skull, ([figuratively]) the highest or first part of anything, top, point, summit, front (of battle), commencement, beginning, first, chief (applied to persons), [Ṛg-veda] etc., etc., (mūrdhni with √vṛt etc., to be above everything, prevail; with √dhṛ, or ā-√dā = mūrdhnā √1. kṛ, to place on the head, hold in high honour)

2) the base (in [geometry]; opp. to agra; perhaps [wrong reading] for budhna), [Colebrooke]

3) (in gram.) the roof or top of the palate (as one of the 8 Sthānas or places of utterance), [Pāṇini 1-1, 9 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

4) (with Buddhists) ‘the summit’, Name of a state of spiritual exaltation, [Divyāvadāna]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mūrdha (मूर्ध):—[from mūrdhan] 1. mūrdha in [compound] for mūrdhan.

2) [from mūrdhan] 2. mūrdha (ifc.) = mūrdhan the head (cf. dvi and tri-mūrdha).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mūrddhan (मूर्द्धन्):—(rddhā) 5. m. The head.

2) (rddhā) 5. m. The head; a base.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mūrdhan (मूर्धन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Muṃḍha, Muṃḍhāṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Murdha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mūrddhā (मूर्द्धा):—(nm) cerebrum, uppermost part of hard palate; head; the uppermost point.

context information

...

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mūrdha (ಮೂರ್ಧ):—

1) [noun] the front portion of the head.

2) [noun] the head.

3) [noun] the region in front of something.

4) [noun] the pointed top of a mountain; a peak.

5) [noun] a man who leads, guides or represents others; a leader.

6) [noun] the roof of the mouth (where a few sounds get modified or modulated; the palate.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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