Mela, Melā: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Mela means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The Ragas Of Karnatic Music

Melā (मेला).—According to Śrīnivāsa, a meḷa (melā) is a group of notes revealing the rāga. The meḷa is of three kinds, viz.,

  1. sampūrṇa,
  2. ṣāḍava,
  3. auḍava.

Ahobala in his Saṅgīta-pārijāta (17th century) uses the term meḷa simply to mean a rāga. He says that meḷas (melās) are made of śuddha and vikṛta-svaras and groups them into pūrṇa, ṣāḍava and auḍava varieties. He arrives at a total of 11,340 meḷas which, he says, were discovered by him.

Source: WikiPedia: Natyashastra

By the time Venkatamakhin formulated the melakarta ("mela") system, the grama system was no longer in use. Unlike the grama system, the mela system uses the same starting svara. It forms the scales by varying the intervals of the subsequent svaras, and does not specify a fixed interval for a svara in terms of shrutis.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Melā (मेला) is another name for Mahānīlī which is a variety of Nīlī: a medicinal plant possibly identified with Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (“true indigo”), according to verse 4.80-83 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Melā and Mahānīlī, there are a total of eight Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Melā (मेला) refers to the “secret meeting” with native women in Tantric Buddhism, according to the 9th-century Vajraḍākatantra. Accordingly, the Vajraḍākatantra tells that the secret meeting is held at night especially in the holy districts together with native women. Identification of one’s ritual fellow, communication and some ritual proceeding sare supposed to be done with secret signs (chomā). Chapter 18.75 give some information on places where the meeting is geld i.e. local fields or seats of goddesses, town or village, or the top of the mountain.

Chapter 36 argues concisely about  the content of the meeting (melā), focussing particularly on the importance of the sexual yoga. Every day, every month or every year, or in accordance with the time when “empowerment” arises in one’s body, a Yogin should perform ‘dance’ (nāṭya) (=sexual yoga) to obtain the accomplishment of mudrā.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mēlā (मेला).—f (S & H) Popularly mēḷā.

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mēlā (मेला).—m or a (The preterit of maraṇēṃ used as a noun or an adjective.) A dead person, or dead. This is the never-failing term of abuse by females to or of an offending male, implying that he is but a corpse or carcass. 2 Dead, i. e. flat, stale, spiritless, vapid &c. Used in variations of this sense in combination with numerous nouns of all classes; as mēlā cunā Dead lime,--lime that has been wrought up into mortar and applied in building. mēlī bhākara Dead bread,--food obtained without service or labor; bread of idleness. See mēlēṃ anna. mēlī mātī Earth that has been used or applied (in building). 2 Dry, ununctuous, uncohering earth. 3 Rotten earth: also earth of saline incrustations. mēlēṃ anna Dead victuals or provision, -food got without working for it (i. e. in the dishonorable way of sponging or, when uncanonical, begging); "res non parta labore." v khā. mēlēṃ kātaḍēṃ Dead skin. mēlēṃ kāma Any lifeless work or business; any mere labor devoid of excitement or exercise for mind or heart. mēlēṃ tūpa The residue of a quantity of ghee after consumption or application. mēlēṃ tēla Oil (as of a lamp) remaining unconsumed, stale oil. mēlēṃ nakha Dead, dry, or fungous nail. mēlēṃ pāṇī Water deprived of its air through boiling or heating: also water that has been used or applied. mēlēṃ māsa Dead or proud flesh. mēlēṃ rakta Dead (i. e. extravasated) blood: also effused blood, gore: also semi-animate or poor blood, as that of aged persons. mēlēṃ rājya An extinct sovereignty or sway. mēlēṃ lihiṇēṃ Unengaging or uninteresting writing, i. e. the business of copying. mēlēṃ hatyāra or -hatēra A hollow or untrusty weapon, i. e. a musket, matchlock, cannon &c. which, under whatever management, may yet fail of discharging its ball. Opp. to jīvanta hatyāra. mēlyācā pāḍa caḍhaṇēṃ or jāṇēṃ in. con. To become of the value of a corpse, i. e. to lose all value. mēlyācyā māgēṃ kōṇhī marata nāhīṃ No one dies because of the death of another; i. e. no one absolutely gives up his life because of a privation or loss.

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mēḷa (मेळ).—m (mēla S) Agreement, concord, harmonious consistency together. 2 Agreement, tally, balancing (as of an account). 3 A band (of musicians &c.) 4 A couple of serpents in coitu. 5 The efflorescence of the bamboo &c.

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mēḷā (मेळा).—m (mēlā S) A concourse of people; a gathering or an assembly; esp. as at stated periods for religious or commercial purposes; a fair &c. v bhara, jama. 2 A company of arbitrators: hence Judgment by arbitration, or a judgment passed. mēḷyāsa miḷaṇēṃ To join or unite with; to go over unto and amongst as one of.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mēlā (मेला).—m or a A dead person or dead. mēlēlā p Dead.

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mēḷa (मेळ).—m Agreement; tally. A band.

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mēḷā (मेळा).—m A concourse of people; a gather- ing. Judgment by arbitration.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mela (मेल).—[mil-ghañ]

1) Meeting, union, intercourse.

2) A fair.

3) A company, an assembly.

4) Conjunction (of planets). (Also melaka).

Derivable forms: melaḥ (मेलः).

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Melā (मेला).—[mil-ṇic ac ṭāp]

1) Union, intercourse.

2) A company, assembly, a society.

3) Antimony.

4) The indigo plant.

5) Ink.

6) A musical scale.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mela (मेल).—m. (1) a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 7768 = Tibetan (ḥ)phrad yas = melu, q.v.; (2) name of a nāga king, in [compound] Ela-melau, dual dvandva: Mahāvyutpatti 3291 (so read with v.l., also v.l. in Mironov and Tibetan, see s.v. Ela-mela); Mahā-Māyūrī 247.33.

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Melā (मेला).—= next: Gaṇḍavyūha 106.12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mela (मेल).—mf.

(-laḥ-lā) Meeting, union, assemblage; in the modern dialects, applied to a large concourse of people collected at stated periods for religious or commercial purposes, as at Haridwar, &c. f.

(-lā) 1. Ink. 2. Antimony or any collyrium. 3. Union, intercourse. 4. A company, a society. 5. The indigo-plant. 6. A musical scale. E. mila to mix, to meet, aff. ghañ; also with lyuṭ aff. melana .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mela (मेल).—i. e. mil + a, I. m., and f. , Assemblage, meeting, [Pañcatantra] 245, 4 (). Ii. f. , Ink (borrowed from ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mela (मेल).—[masculine] ā [feminine] meeting, assembly.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mela (मेल):—m. (√mil) meeting, union, intercourse, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

2) Melā (मेला):—[from mela] a f. See below.

3) [from mela] b f. an association, assembly, company, society, [Pañcatantra]

4) [v.s. ...] a musical scale, [Catalogue(s)] (perhaps, m(mela). )

5) [v.s. ...] a [particular] high number, [Buddhist literature]

6) [v.s. ...] any black substance used for writing, ink, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] antimony, eye-salve, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] the indigo plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mela (मेल):—[(laḥ-lā)] 1. m. f. Meeting, union; assemblage. f. Ink; collyrium.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Mela (मेल):—(von mil)

1) m. Zusammenkunft, Verkehr: kṣattrā yathā tena rātrau melaḥ (śaśaṃsa saḥ) [Kathāsaritsāgara 71, 300.] jñātibhiśca samaṃ melaṃ kurvāṇo na vinaśyati [Spr. 707.] —

2) f. ā a) Zusammenkunft, Versammlung, Gesellschaft [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 507.] [Medinīkoṣa l. 45.] [WILSON, Sel. Works 1, 18. 97. 105. 173, 323. 2, 164. fg. 220. fg.] mahājana [Pañcatantra 245, 4.] — b) Tonleiter: melānāṃ vivekaḥ (de scalarum variationibus [AUFRECHT]) [Oxforder Handschriften 200,b,13.] — c) eine best. hohe Zahl (bei den Buddhisten) [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 180. - S.] melā auch bes.

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Melā (मेला):—f.

1) Schwärze zum Schreiben, Dinte [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 8, 27.] [Medinīkoṣa l. 45.] [Hārāvalī 212.] —

2) Augensalbe [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 507.] —

3) die Indigopflanze (nīlī) [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 3, 13, v. l.] = mahānīlī [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma -] Nach [BENFEY] aus dem griechischen μέλας; vgl. melā auch unter mela .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Mela (मेल):——

1) m. Zusammenkunft , Verkehr.

2) f. ā — a) Zusammenkunft , Versammlung , Gesellschaft , — b) Tonleiter [Campakaśreṣṭhikathānakam 42.] Geschlecht ungewiss. — c) *eine best. hohe Zahl (buddh.). — melā s. auch bes.

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Melā (मेला):—f.

1) Schwärze zum Schreiben , Dinte.

2) Augensalbe.

3) die Indigopflanze. — Vgl. auch mela 2).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Mela (मेल) [Also spelled male]:—(nm) concord; consonance, agreement; match; mixture, combination; unity; conciliation; connection; mail train; —[] matching; -[jola/milāpa] intimacy; reconciliation, rapprochement; union; —[gāḍī] a mail train; -[mulākāta] approach; association, friendly relationship; -[mohabbata] mutual goodwill / affection; —[khānā] to match; to be in agreement.

2) Melā (मेला):—(nm) a fair; festival crowd; -[ṭhelā] fanfare, hustle and bustle, crowd and confusion; —[uṭhanā] festivities to come to an end; —, [cāra dina kā] a short-lived attraction.

context information

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