Dushkara, Duṣkara, Dus-kara, Dutkara: 17 definitions

Introduction:

Dushkara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Duṣkara can be transliterated into English as Duskara or Dushkara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Dushkar.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Dushkara in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Duṣkara (दुष्कर) (Cf. Suduṣkara) refers to “very difficult”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.14 (“The Birth of Tāraka and Vajrāṅga”).—Accordingly, after Vajrāṅga spoke to Varāṅgī: “O sage, thus Vajrāṅga whirled a lot in a dilemma. Intelligently he considered the corresponding strength and weakness of both the alternatives. O sage, as willed by Śiva, though intelligent the king of demons agreed to the proposal. He told his wife ‘So be it’. For that purpose he performed another very difficult penance [i.e., duṣkarataponyadduṣkaraṃ] with great zeal with me as the object of worship, for number of years. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Duṣkara (दुष्कर) refers to “difficulty”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 40).—Accordingly, “[Question].—The ten powers are knowledges and the four fearlessnesses (vaiśāradya) are also knowledges. What are the similarities and the differences? [Answer].—When the qualities of the Buddha are explained at length, this is bala; when they explained in brief, this is vaiśāradya. Furthermore, when there is activity (kriyā), this is bala; when there is neither doubt (saṃśaya) nor difficulty (duṣkara), this is vaiśāradya. When wisdom is accumulated, this is bala; when ignorance is dispersed, this is vaiśāradya. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Duṣkara (दुष्कर) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Duṣkara] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

duṣkara (दुष्कर).—a (S) Difficult of performance. 2 That works or does evil.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

duṣkara (दुष्कर).—a Difficult of performance.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Duṣkara (दुष्कर).—a.

1) wicked, acting badly; काँल्लोकांस्तु गमिष्यामि कृत्वा कर्म सुदुष्करम् (kāṃllokāṃstu gamiṣyāmi kṛtvā karma suduṣkaram) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12. 27.18.

2) hard to be done or accomplished, arduous, difficult; वक्तुं सुकरं कर्तुं दुष्करम् (vaktuṃ sukaraṃ kartuṃ duṣkaram) 'sooner said than done'; Amaruśataka 46; Mṛcchakaṭika 3.1.; Manusmṛti 7.55. (-ram) 1 a difficult or painful task or act, difficulty.

2) atmosphere, ether.

Duṣkara is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms dus and kara (कर).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Duṣkara (दुष्कर).—nt. (= Pali dukkara; Sanskrit as adj.), difficult task, said of the feats of religious performance accomplished by a Bodhisattva: °rāṇi Mahāvastu i.83.12; 95.15; °raṃ 104.21; °ra-kārakā bodhisattvāḥ Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 293.9; Gaṇḍavyūha 74.10; °ra-kāriṇo bodhisattvasya Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 203.9; °ra-caryā Mahāvyutpatti 6679; Lalitavistara 36.2; 250.10 ff., or -cārikā Mahāvastu ii.130.12, course of (such) difficult tasks (engaged in by Bodhisattvas).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duṣkara (दुष्कर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-rī-raṃ) 1. Difficult to be done. 2. One who behaves ill, does wrong, &c. wicked, bad. n.

(-raṃ) 1. Æthen atmosphere. 2. Doing any thing with pain or difficulty. E. dur bad, and kara what does from kṛ with karmaṇi khal aff. duḥkhena kriyate .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duṣkara (दुष्कर).—i. e. dus-kara, adj., f. . 1. Difficult to be performed, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 55. 2. Difficult to be supported, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 32, 2. 3. Difficult, Mahābhārata 4, 52. 4. With following yadi, Scarcely, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 73, 7.

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Duṣkara (दुष्कर).—adj., f. , difficult [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7. 55; duṣkaraṃ yadi, scarcely, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 73, 7.

Duṣkara is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms dus and kara (कर).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duṣkara (दुष्कर).—[adjective] difficult, arduous, uncommon, extraordinary; difficult to or to be (infin.); [neuter] hardly, scarcely ([with] yad or yadi).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Duṣkara (दुष्कर):—[=duṣ-kara] [from duṣ > dur] mfn. hard to be done or borne, difficult, arduous, [Brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (often with [infinitive mood]; raṃ yad or yadi, with indic. or [Potential] and also with [infinitive mood] = hardly, scarcely, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa])

2) [v.s. ...] rare, extraordinary, [Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara]

3) [v.s. ...] doing wrong, behaving ill, wicked, bad, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) [v.s. ...] n. difficult act, difficulty, [ib.]

5) [v.s. ...] austerity, [Divyāvadāna 392]

6) [v.s. ...] aether, air, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] the tree of plenty, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duṣkara (दुष्कर):—[du-ṣkara] (raḥ-rā-raṃ) a. Hard to be done. n. Æther; sky; tree of abundance; doing evil.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Duṣkara (दुष्कर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Duara, Dukkara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dushkara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Dushkara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Duṣkara (दुष्कर) [Also spelled dushkar]:—(a) difficult, hard, arduous; hence ~[] (nf).

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Duṣkara (ದುಷ್ಕರ):—

1) [adjective] difficult to perform, understand, etc.

2) [adjective] inflicting distress, pain, etc.; harmful; cruel.

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Duṣkara (ದುಷ್ಕರ):—

1) [noun] the quality or fact of being difficult; difficulty.

2) [noun] the evil quality or intention.

3) [noun] (rhet.) the quality of being complex, complicated, intricate, etc., which is considered as one of the major fallacies in a literary work.

4) [noun] such a literary work.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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