Drishtanta, Dṛṣṭānta, Drishta-anta: 21 definitions



Drishtanta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Dṛṣṭānta can be transliterated into English as Drstanta or Drishtanta, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त, “graphic illustration”) refers to one of the thirty-six “characteristic features” (lakṣaṇa) of perfect ‘poetic compositions’ (kāvyabandha) and ‘dramatic compositions’ (dṛśyakāvya, or simply kāvya). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17, these thirty-six lakṣaṇas act as instructions for composing playwrights. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त, “favourable precedent”).—One of the thirty-six lakṣaṇa, or “excellent points of a dramatic composition”;—Description of dṛṣṭānta: That which supporting the case in hand is an expression of its reason and is pleasing to all people, is a Precedent Favourable to the speaker (dṛṣṭānta, lit. “example”).

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त, “exemplification”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—Dṛṣṭānta or exemplification is the reflective representation of a similar subject.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Dṛṣṭānta is one of the important figures of speech which has been treated by most of the Ālaṃkārikas like Mammaṭa (X/102), Viśvanātha (X/69), Ruyyaka (A.S./P.75) Jagannātha (II/P. 452), though it has not been admitted by ancients like Bhāmaha, Ubhaṭa and Vāmana.

Cirañjīva defines dṛṣṭānta as—“cedbimbapratibimbatvaṃ dṛṣṭāntālaṅkṛtistadā”.—When there is a relation of bimba and pratibimba between two objects, it is the figure dṛṣṭānṭa. Cirañjīva has perhaps followed the definition of dṛṣṭānta furnished by Jayadeva. In fact this relation of bimba and pratibimba has been incorporated in the definition of dṛṣṭanta by so many Ālaṃkārikas like Mammaṭa, Viśvanātha, Jagannātha etc. When two ideas are represented as extremely similar to each other, so much so that one seems to be the reflection of another, the relation of the image and its reflection or bimbapratibimbabhāva is said to exist between them. This bimbapratibimbabhāva predominates in dṛṣṭānta. There is another relation called vastuprativastubhāva which comes as a contrast against bimbapratibimbabhāva and which is predominant in prativastūpamā.

Example of the dṛṣṭānṭa-alaṃkāra:—

anargalaparisphuranmadhuradivyakāvyaṃvadaṃ haṭhodgatapadadvayasphuritadhirapi spardhate |
dinaiḥ katipayairitaḥ kathayitaiva dillīpateḥ padaṃ tṛṇamiti sphuṭaṃ manasi bhillapallīpatiḥ ||

“A poet in whose mind only two lines have flashed by chance challenges to one who composes sweet and devine poetry flashed incessantly. The chief of the region of Bhills considers apperantly in his mind that (ascending) the throne of the emperor of Delhi even for a few days from this time is comparable to grass”.

Notes: In this verse the first object is that a poet of low calibre who have suddenly composed two lines only is found to throw a challenge to a poet with genius who is in the continuous habit of composing sweet and great poetry for a long long time. The second object is that the chief of the region of Bhills (tribals) considers the throne of the ruler of Delhi as trifle like grass. These two objects have got similarity and the relation of image and its reflection bimbapratibimbabhāva lies between the two. Here the challenge of a poet of low merit and the consideration of the chief of the region of Bhills both are objects of ridicule. So the challenge of a poet of low calibre and the consideration of the chief of the region of Bhills are like an image and its reflection hence it is an example of dṛṣṭānta and it bears definitely the poetic genius of Cirañjīva.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Drishtanta in Nyaya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त) refers to an “example” (a familiar instance). It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त, “example”) refers to the fifth of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Dṛṣṭānta or example is that about which a well-known person and an ordinary person give the same notion.12 It is a very important and useful part of any discussion dṛṣṭānta helps in the clear understanding of something. As for example, in case of the proposition ‘where there is smoka, there is fire’, dṛṣṭānta is the kitchen in which smoke and fire are perceived together by both an ordinary person and a learned person.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Drishtanta in Mimamsa glossary
Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त, “allegory”) refers to one of the various tools used by authors displaying their skill in the art of writing.—A story, poem, or word picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one. Though it is similar to other rhetorical comparisons, an allegory (dṛṣṭānta) is sustained longer and more fully in its details than a metaphor and appeals to imagination. The Rāmāyana is an allegory of the search for spiritual enlightenment.

context information

Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[«previous next»] — Drishtanta in Vyakarana glossary
Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त).—Similar instance,generally quoted to explain effectively some rules or conventions laid down; cf. ननु चायमप्यस्ति दृष्टान्तः समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्ति-रिति । तद्यथा गर्गाः शतं दण्ड्यन्तामिति (nanu cāyamapyasti dṛṣṭāntaḥ samudāye vākyaparisamāpti-riti | tadyathā gargāḥ śataṃ daṇḍyantāmiti) M.Bh. on P.I. 1. 7.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Drishtanta in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त, “exemplification”) refers to one of the various Alaṅkāras (‘figures of speech’) classified as Artha (‘sense’), as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—Few examples of ‘dṛṣṭānta-alaṅkāra are found in the poem Bhīṣmacarita. With the help of this figure of speech, the poet has aptly presented Exemplification in VI.21. Here the poet has aptly exemplified Hastināpurī for a beautiful woman. Due to celebration Hastināpurī is looking more beautiful than Amarāvatī, the city of Gods and thus Amarāvatī starts feeling sorrow and jealous like a lady jealous of a beautiful lady. The other examples are XI.6 and XV.7.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Drishtanta in Ayurveda glossary
Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त):—[dṛṣṭāntaḥ] Description of universal truth fully comprehensible by the wise and ignorant person

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Drishtanta in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टांत).—m (S) An illustration, example, parable, allegory &c. 2 Personal cognizance or observation. Ex. tyānēṃ praśna sāṅgitalā tō mājhē dṛṣṭāntāsa ālā or tyācā malā dṛ0 ālā. 3 A vision or divine appearance (in a dream &c.) Ex. aisēṃ jāṇūni rukmiṇī- pati || kautuka kēlēṃ kaiśā rītī || mahādājīpantāsī || dṛ0 rātrīṃ dākhavilā ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टांत).—m An illustration, example. A vision or divine appearance (in a dream &c.)

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Drishtanta in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त).—

1) an example, illustration, parable; पूर्णश्चन्द्रोदयाकाङ्क्षी दृष्टान्तोऽत्र महार्णवः (pūrṇaścandrodayākāṅkṣī dṛṣṭānto'tra mahārṇavaḥ) Śi.2.31; साध्यसाधर्म्यात् तद्धर्मभावो दृष्टान्त उदाहरणम् (sādhyasādharmyāt taddharmabhāvo dṛṣṭānta udāharaṇam) Gautamasutra.

2) (in Rhet.) a figure of speech in which an assertion or statement is illustrated by an example (distinguished from upamā and prativastūpamā; see K. P.1 and R. G. ad. loc.).

3) a Śāstra or science; शोभार्थं विहितास्तत्र न तु दृष्टान्तः कृताः (śobhārthaṃ vihitāstatra na tu dṛṣṭāntaḥ kṛtāḥ) Mb.2.3.13.

4) death (cf. diṣṭānta).

Derivable forms: dṛṣṭāntaḥ (दृष्टान्तः), dṛṣṭāntam (दृष्टान्तम्).

Dṛṣṭānta is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms dṛṣṭa and anta (अन्त).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त).—m., a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 7870 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha); Gaṇḍavyūha 133.13 (text corruptly dṛṣṭvānta).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त).—m.

(-ntaḥ) 1. A science, a Sastra. 2. An example, an illustration. 3. Death, dying. E. dṛṣṭa obvious or seen, and anta end.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त).—m. (n. [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 109, 37 Gorr.) 1. a prototype, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 5298. 2. an example, [Hitopadeśa] ii, [distich] 97. 3. comparison, Chr. 9, 45.

Dṛṣṭānta is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms dṛṣṭa and anta (अन्त).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त).—[adjective] serving for an example or standard; [masculine] example, standard, precedent.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त):—[from dṛṣṭa > dṛś] m. (n. only, [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 109, 37]) ‘the end or aim of what is seen’, example, paragon, standard, allegory, type, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] instance, exemplification ([rhetoric])

3) [v.s. ...] a Śāstra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a [particular] high number, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] death, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. diṣṭ)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त):—(ntaḥ) 1. m. A science; an example, a fable or parable.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त):—(dṛṣṭa + anta) m.

1) Muster, Musterbild, Gleichniss, Beispiel (der Gipfel des Gesehenen oder was sich vor allem Andern dem Auge als sein Ziel, Object, darstellt) [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 19, 65.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 268.] [Medinīkoṣa t. 115.] dṛṣṭāntastu sadharmasya vastunaḥ pratibimbanam [Sāhityadarpana 698.] yatra yūpā maṇimayāścaityāścāpi hiraṇmayāḥ . śobhārthaṃ vihitāstatra na tu dṛṣṭāntataḥ kṛtāḥ .. so v. a. nicht etwa als einzelne Prachtstücke [Mahābhārata 2, 70.] vaiṣamyādatha vā lobhātkāmādvāpi paraṃtapa . brāhmaṇasya bhavecchūdrā (bhāryā) na tu dṛṣṭāntataḥ smṛtā .. nicht um ein Beispiel daran zu nehmen [13, 2506. 2547.] nātmā śakyate hantuṃ (im Sohne) dṛṣṭāntopagato hyasau [2629.] lokadṛṣṭāntakovida [Harivaṃśa 5298.] dṛṣṭāntaṃ (neutr.!) jīvitaṃ yeṣāṃ kaccitte te surakṣitāḥ [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 2, 109, 37.] śakuniḥ śakaṭāraśca dṛṣṭāntāvatra bhūṣateḥ [Hitopadeśa II, 97.] kathamiveti dṛṣṭānta ucyate [] zu [Bṛhadāranyakopaniṣad Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 88. 319.] [Suśruta 1, 149, 11.] [Kapila 1, 37.] [TARKASAM̃GR. 38. 41.] [Madhusūdanasarasvatī’s Prasthānabheda] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 18, 5 v. u.] [KUVALAY. 51],b. śataka [HAEB. Anthol. 217 - 226.] —

2) Lehrbuch (śāstra) [Amarakoṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —

3) eine best. grosse Zahl [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 182.] —

4) Tod (vgl. diṣṭānta) [Medinīkoṣa]

--- OR ---

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त):—

1) Beispiel, Exemplification: dṛṣṭānto yastu pakṣārthasādhanāya nidarśanam [Sāhityadarpana 441. 434.] dṛṣṭāntastu sadharmasya vastunaḥ pratibimbanam [698.] [PRATĀPAR. 93,b.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Dṛṣṭānta (दृष्टान्त):——

1) Adj. als Muster dienend , maassgebend [R.GORR.2,109,37.] Am Anf. eines Comp. als Adv. [Mahābhārata 13,49,17] ( = pratyakṣam [Nīlakaṇṭha]). —

2) m. — a) Muster , Praecedens , Beispiel , Exemplification [Kāvyaprakāśa 10,16.] na tu dṛṣṭāntataḥ nicht aber in Folge eines Praecedens und auch nicht aber als Praecedens. [Harivaṃśa 5298.] wohl fehlerhaft für vṛttānta , wie die neuere Ausgabe liest. — b) *Lehrbuch. — c) *Tod. — d) *eine best. grosse Zahl.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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