Barbara: 21 definitions
Barbara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Barbar.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Barbara (बर्बर).—A country of purāṇic fame. The people living there were called Barbaras. They were considered as low caste people. There is also a statement that these people were born of the sides of the cow, Nandinī. (Śloka 37, Chapter 174, Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata). During the victory march of the Pāṇḍavas Bhīmasena conquered the Barbaras. Nakula also conquered these people. (Chapter 32, Sabhā Parva, Mahābhārata). In the Rājasūya yajña of Dharmaputra the Barbaras were present with gifts.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 8. 5; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 49, 65; 18. 44; 31. 83; Matsya-purāṇa 121. 47; 144. 57; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 118; 47. 42; 58. 83; 98. 108.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 16. 16; 121. 43, 45.
Barbara (बर्बर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.29.15, III.48.19, VI.10.55, XII.200.40) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Barbara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Barbara (बर्बर) refers to a variety of prāsāda (upper storey of any building), according to the Mayamata (18.14). In the Śilparatna (32.6) and the Kamikāgama (57.8), this variety is known as Bāhlika.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Barbara (बर्बर) is the name of a tribe, usually to be represented by a brown (asita) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Barbara (बर्बर) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—This country mentioned as one of the region of north India. According to Purāṇas, this country locates in the north or in the north-western provinces. It is the famous place for sandal-wood, which was known as Barbarikacandana. But Rājaśekhara’s note in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, places this region in the exact north, the northern part of Baluchistan may also be taken as the Barbara region. This country of the Barbaras may be identified with the name Barbari, Barbarike or Barbaricum, which is situated in the north-west province on the bank of the river Indus on its western course.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Barbarā (बर्बरा) refers to a type of fish whose meat (māṃsa) is classified as “aquatic” (apcara) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The text [māṃsa-prakaraṇa] says the three fold division of meat [such as aquatic (apcara)...]. Here different types of meat and their properties are discussed in detail. The aquatic animals are [viz., barbarā].
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Barbara (बर्बर) refers to the “(hair tied up in the) barbarian style”, and is used to describe the Goddess, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “After the great soul Bhairava had praised the Great Goddess in this way, the Supreme Goddess broke open the Liṅga and emerged (from it). She was (dark) like blue collyrium, her form bent (kubjarūpā) and her belly (large like a) wolf. Her mouth, with projecting teeth, was slightly open and her hair (was tied) up (in the) barbarian style (barbara). Of many forms, she was both beautiful and deformed. Her left hand extended, Vāmadevī (the Goddess of the Left) spoke”.
2) Barbara (बर्बर) is the name of an upapīṭhas, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra verse 3.135-138, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—The Upapīṭhas are Śrījayantī, Kulutā, along with Mālava and Mahaujas, Kāṃcīpura, Kurukṣetra, Barbara, and Sāṃvara.
3) Barbarā (अवलोकन) is the Goddess of Śrīśaila, one of the four sacred mountains mentioned in the Śrīmatottara-tantra.—The subsidiary seats (upapīṭha) the goddess created by her gaze (avalokana) are four sacred mountains, of which one is Arbuda. A goddess resides on each mountain and exerts her authority there at Kubjikā’s behest, granting success (siddhi) to her devotees. They are: 1) Śrīśaila—Barbarā 2) Māhendra—Mahātārikā 3) Kailāśa—Kamalā 4) Arbuda—Koṅkaṇā.
4) Barbarā (बर्बरा) (i.e., “the barbarian”) refers to one of the six energies accompanying Nagnakubjikā (Naked Kubjikā) according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra.—Accordingly, “Form (rūpa) is the Transmission of the Sacred Seats (pīṭhakrama). (There) the goddess (shines with the) lustre of a blue cloud and collyrium. She has twelve arms and six faces. She is accompanied by six energies: [i.e., Barbarā (the Barbarian), ...]. The Naked (nagnā) Kubjikā, established in Form, is in the midst of the Transmission of the Child. Aflame with the Doomsday Fire, she is extremely fierce and frightening. The bestower of the divine Command, she can be approached (only) by means of the master’s teaching”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Barbara (बर्बर) refers to a country belonging to “Nairṛtī (south-western division)” classified under the constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā represent the south-western division consisting of [i.e., Barbara] [...]”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7
Barbara (बर्बर) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (both types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Barbara] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Barbara (बर्बर) refers to a sub-division of the Mlecchas: one of the two-fold division of men born in Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; on the mountains, Meru, etc., by kidnapping and power of learning, in the 2½ continents and in 2 oceans. [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. [...] The Mlecchas—[e.g., the Barbaras, ...] and other non-Āryas also are people who do not know even the word ‘dharma’”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
barbara (बर्बर).—m S A people or an individual of it comprehended under the word svēccha Barbarian.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Barbara (बर्बर).—1 One not an Aryan, a barbarian, low fellow; तैस्ते यवनकाम्बोजा बर्बराश्चाकुलीकृताः (taiste yavanakāmbojā barbarāścākulīkṛtāḥ) Rām.1.54.23.
2) A fool, block-head; शृणु रे बर्बर (śṛṇu re barbara) H.2.
3) An elephant in the fourth year; Mātaṅga L.5.5.
-rā A kind of fly.
-ram 1 Vermilion.
3) yellow sandal-wood.
Derivable forms: barbaraḥ (बर्बरः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Barbara (बर्बर).— (borrowed from the Greek cf. varvara), m. A block head, [Hitopadeśa] 50, 8.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Barbara (बर्बर).—[adjective] stammering or curled.
— [masculine] [plural] the barbarians or Non-Aryans, sgl. a man of the lowest origin, adj. mean, vile.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Barbara (बर्बर):—mfn. (also written varvara) stammering (See -tā)
2) curly, [Kāṭhaka]
3) m. ([plural]) the non-Āryans, barbarians, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
4) the country of the barbarians, [Horace H. Wilson]
5) a low fellow, blockhead, fool, loon (used mostly in the [vocative case]), [Hitopadeśa]
6) (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) curly hair
7) Clerodendrum Siphonantus
8) Cleome Pentaphylla
9) a [particular] fragrant plant
10) Unguis Odoratus
11) a kind of worm
12) two kinds of fish
13) the noise of weapons
14) a kind of dance
15) Barbarā (बर्बरा):—[from barbara] f. a kind of fly, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) [v.s. ...] a species of Ocimum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] a kind of vegetable, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] a [particular] flower, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
20) Bārbara (बार्बर):—mfn. born in the country of the barbarians [gana] takṣaśīlādi.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Barbara (बर्बर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Babbara.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Barbara (बर्बर) [Also spelled barbar]:—(a) barbarian, savage; ~[tā] barbarism, savagery.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [adjective] uncivilised; crude; savage; barbarian.
2) [adjective] uncultured; lacking refinement.
--- OR ---
1) [noun] an uncivilised man; a savage; a barbarian.
2) [noun] a man without culture, refinement or education; a philistine.
3) [noun] the quality or state of being uncivilised.
4) [noun] lack of refinement; absence of culture.
5) [noun] not clearly distinguishable or perceptible, as to the ear or mind; indistinctness.
6) [noun] a variety of yellow sandal tree.
7) [noun] its wood.
8) [noun] a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow or vomited by a cow in the form of scybala.
9) [noun] the plant Cleome gynandra ( = Gynandropsis pentaphylla) of Capparaceae family.
10) [noun] the shrub Clerodendrum syphonanthus.
11) [noun] the acacia tree Acacia arabica of Mimosae family.
12) [noun] any country inhabited by non-Aryans.
13) [noun] the people in these countries.
14) [noun] a wicked, malevolent or cruel man.
15) [noun] a foolish, senseless fellow; a stupid man.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+54): Varvara, Barbaraka, Barbarila, Sukundana, Barbarottha, Barbarika, Cakrala, Barbura, Barbarata, Barbarasthana, Barba, Barbarin, Vanavarhina, Vanavarbarika, Surarhaka, Vanavarbara, Barbarikopakhyana, Babbara, Suskandana, Barbari.
Search found 32 books and stories containing Barbara, Barbarā, Bārbara; (plurals include: Barbaras, Barbarās, Bārbaras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 30: Mlecchas < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 8: Conquest of southern district of Sindhu by Bharata < [Chapter IV]
Part 4: War between Kṛṣṇa and Jarāsandha < [Chapter VII - Marriages of Śāmba and Pradyumna]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 60 - The Birth of Barbarīka < [Section 2 - Kaumārikā-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 41 - Luṃpeśvara (luṃpa-īśvara-liṅga) < [Section 2 - Caturaśīti-liṅga-māhātmya]
Chapter 17 - Dialogue between Nārada and Jalandhara < [Section 4 - Kārttikamāsa-māhātmya]
Natyashastra (English) (by Bharata-muni)
Part 7 - Data of India’s Cultural History in the Nāṭyaśāstra < [Introduction, part 1]
Part 8 - The Date of the Nāṭyaśāstra < [Introduction, part 1]
A House on Fire (by Stephen L. Klick)
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 8.7 - The region of Uttarāpatha (northern part) < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]