Barbara: 23 definitions


Barbara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Barbar.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Barbara (बर्बर).—A country of purāṇic fame. The people living there were called Barbaras. They were considered as low caste people. There is also a statement that these people were born of the sides of the cow, Nandinī. (Śloka 37, Chapter 174, Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata). During the victory march of the Pāṇḍavas Bhīmasena conquered the Barbaras. Nakula also conquered these people. (Chapter 32, Sabhā Parva, Mahābhārata). In the Rājasūya yajña of Dharmaputra the Barbaras were present with gifts.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Barbara (बर्बर).—(Barbas)—people of the northern kingdom; a forest tribe; defeated by the Sagaras;1 ineligible for śrāddha.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 8. 5; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 49, 65; 18. 44; 31. 83; Matsya-purāṇa 121. 47; 144. 57; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 118; 47. 42; 58. 83; 98. 108.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 16. 16; 121. 43, 45.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Barbara (बर्बर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.29.15, III.48.19, VI.10.55, XII.200.40) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Barbara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Barbara (बर्बर) refers to a variety of prāsāda (upper storey of any building), according to the Mayamata (18.14). In the Śilparatna (32.6) and the Kamikāgama (57.8), this variety is known as Bāhlika.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Barbara (बर्बर) is the name of a tribe, usually to be represented by a brown (asita) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Barbara in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Barbara (बर्बर) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—This country mentioned as one of the region of north India. According to Purāṇas, this country locates in the north or in the north-western provinces. It is the famous place for sandal-wood, which was known as Barbarikacandana. But Rājaśekhara’s note in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, places this region in the exact north, the northern part of Baluchistan may also be taken as the Barbara region. This country of the Barbaras may be identified with the name Barbari, Barbarike or Barbaricum, which is situated in the north-west province on the bank of the river Indus on its western course.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Barbarā (बर्बरा) refers to a type of fish whose meat (māṃsa) is classified as “aquatic” (apcara) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The text [māṃsa-prakaraṇa] says the three fold division of meat [such as aquatic (apcara)...]. Here different types of meat and their properties are discussed in detail. The aquatic animals are [viz., barbarā].

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Barbara (बर्बर) refers to the “(hair tied up in the) barbarian style”, and is used to describe the Goddess, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “After the great soul Bhairava had praised the Great Goddess in this way, the Supreme Goddess broke open the Liṅga and emerged (from it). She was (dark) like blue collyrium, her form bent (kubjarūpā) and her belly (large like a) wolf. Her mouth, with projecting teeth, was slightly open and her hair (was tied) up (in the) barbarian style (barbara). Of many forms, she was both beautiful and deformed. Her left hand extended, Vāmadevī (the Goddess of the Left) spoke”.

2) Barbara (बर्बर) is the name of an upapīṭhas, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra verse 3.135-138, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—The Upapīṭhas are Śrījayantī, Kulutā, along with Mālava and Mahaujas, Kāṃcīpura, Kurukṣetra, Barbara, and Sāṃvara.

3) Barbarā (अवलोकन) is the Goddess of Śrīśaila, one of the four sacred mountains mentioned in the Śrīmatottara-tantra.—The subsidiary seats (upapīṭha) the goddess created by her gaze (avalokana) are four sacred mountains, of which one is Arbuda. A goddess resides on each mountain and exerts her authority there at Kubjikā’s behest, granting success (siddhi) to her devotees. They are: 1) Śrīśaila—Barbarā 2) Māhendra—Mahātārikā 3) Kailāśa—Kamalā 4) Arbuda—Koṅkaṇā.

4) Barbarā (बर्बरा) (i.e., “the barbarian”) refers to one of the six energies accompanying Nagnakubjikā (Naked Kubjikā) according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra.—Accordingly, “Form (rūpa) is the Transmission of the Sacred Seats (pīṭhakrama). (There) the goddess (shines with the) lustre of a blue cloud and collyrium. She has twelve arms and six faces. She is accompanied by six energies: [i.e., Barbarā (the Barbarian), ...]. The Naked (nagnā) Kubjikā, established in Form, is in the midst of the Transmission of the Child. Aflame with the Doomsday Fire, she is extremely fierce and frightening. The bestower of the divine Command, she can be approached (only) by means of the master’s teaching”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Barbara (बर्बर) refers to a country belonging to “Nairṛtī (south-western division)” classified under the constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā represent the south-western division consisting of [i.e., Barbara] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7

Barbara (बर्बर) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (both types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Barbara] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Barbara (बर्बर) refers to a sub-division of the Mlecchas: one of the two-fold division of men born in Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; on the mountains, Meru, etc., by kidnapping and power of learning, in the 2½ continents and in 2 oceans. [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. [...] The Mlecchas—[e.g., the Barbaras, ...] and other non-Āryas also are people who do not know even the word ‘dharma’”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Barbara (बर्बर) refers to an ancient country, kingdom or tribe of people, according to the 8th-century Kuvalayamālā written by Uddyotanasūri, a Prakrit Campū (similar to Kāvya poetry) narrating the love-story between Prince Candrāpīḍa and the Apsaras Kādambarī.—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...] On page 2.9 occurs a list of peoples in a country in which persons are born: [i.e., Barbara] [...]

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Barbara in India is the name of a plant defined with Cleome viscosa in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Sinapistrum viscosum (L.) Moench (among others).

2) Barbara is also identified with Ocimum basilicum It has the synonym Plectranthus barrelieri (Roth) Spreng. (etc.).

3) Barbara is also identified with Rotheca serrata It has the synonym Clerodendrum serratum f. lacteum Moldenke (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Catalogue of the Indigenous and Exotic Plants Growing in Ceylon (1824)
· Encycl. (Lamarck) (1785)
· Labiatarum Genera et Species (1832)
· Transactions of the Linnean Society of London (1794)
· Taxon (1979)
· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Barbara, for example health benefits, side effects, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, chemical composition, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

barbara (बर्बर).—m S A people or an individual of it comprehended under the word svēccha Barbarian.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Barbara (बर्बर).—1 One not an Aryan, a barbarian, low fellow; तैस्ते यवनकाम्बोजा बर्बराश्चाकुलीकृताः (taiste yavanakāmbojā barbarāścākulīkṛtāḥ) Rām.1.54.23.

2) A fool, block-head; शृणु रे बर्बर (śṛṇu re barbara) H.2.

3) An elephant in the fourth year; Mātaṅga L.5.5.

-rā A kind of fly.

-ram 1 Vermilion.

2) Gum-myrrh.

3) yellow sandal-wood.

Derivable forms: barbaraḥ (बर्बरः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Barbara (बर्बर).— (borrowed from the Greek cf. varvara), m. A block head, [Hitopadeśa] 50, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Barbara (बर्बर).—[adjective] stammering or curled.

— [masculine] [plural] the barbarians or Non-Aryans, sgl. a man of the lowest origin, adj. mean, vile.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Barbara (बर्बर):—mfn. (also written varvara) stammering (See -tā)

2) curly, [Kāṭhaka]

3) m. ([plural]) the non-Āryans, barbarians, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

4) the country of the barbarians, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) a low fellow, blockhead, fool, loon (used mostly in the [vocative case]), [Hitopadeśa]

6) (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) curly hair

7) Clerodendrum Siphonantus

8) Cleome Pentaphylla

9) a [particular] fragrant plant

10) Unguis Odoratus

11) a kind of worm

12) two kinds of fish

13) the noise of weapons

14) a kind of dance

15) Barbarā (बर्बरा):—[from barbara] f. a kind of fly, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] a species of Ocimum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] a kind of vegetable, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [v.s. ...] a [particular] flower, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

20) Bārbara (बार्बर):—mfn. born in the country of the barbarians [gana] takṣaśīlādi.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Barbara (बर्बर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Babbara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Barbara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Barbara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Barbara (बर्बर) [Also spelled barbar]:—(a) barbarian, savage; ~[] barbarism, savagery.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Barbara (ಬರ್ಬರ):—

1) [adjective] uncivilised; crude; savage; barbarian.

2) [adjective] uncultured; lacking refinement.

--- OR ---

Barbara (ಬರ್ಬರ):—

1) [noun] an uncivilised man; a savage; a barbarian.

2) [noun] a man without culture, refinement or education; a philistine.

3) [noun] the quality or state of being uncivilised.

4) [noun] lack of refinement; absence of culture.

5) [noun] not clearly distinguishable or perceptible, as to the ear or mind; indistinctness.

6) [noun] a variety of yellow sandal tree.

7) [noun] its wood.

8) [noun] a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow or vomited by a cow in the form of scybala.

9) [noun] the plant Cleome gynandra ( = Gynandropsis pentaphylla) of Capparaceae family.

10) [noun] the shrub Clerodendrum syphonanthus.

11) [noun] the acacia tree Acacia arabica of Mimosae family.

12) [noun] any country inhabited by non-Aryans.

13) [noun] the people in these countries.

14) [noun] a wicked, malevolent or cruel man.

15) [noun] a foolish, senseless fellow; a stupid man.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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