Ari, Āri, Ar: 15 definitions


Ari means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Ari (अरि).—Ārṣeya pravara (Aṅgiras).*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 196. 10.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)

Ari refers to “the enemy” and represents one of the twelve categories of the maṇḍala system laid out by Kauṭilya (4th century BCE) and Kāmandaka (7th century A.D.). These twelve cateogires of state can be broadly applied to Gaṇapatideva  (r. 1199-1262 A.D.) and the Kākatīya empire. The enemy was the Velanāṭi-coḍas who were controlling entire coastal Āndhra.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Āri (आरि).—tad. affix applied to the word पूर्वतर (pūrvatara) when the whole word refers to a year, e.g.परारि (parāri) in the last year; cf. B.V.3.22 Vārt. 2.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Ari (अरि) refers to “enemy” or “stranger”, and is mentioned in verse 2.24 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] one shall not turn one’s back upon beggars, nor shall one despise or insult (them). One shall excel in beneficence even towards an enemy (ari) intending to do harm”.

Note: Ari (“enemy”) has been translated by dgra-gźan, which is best interpreted as a hendiadys meaning “enemy & stranger”. It may be remembered in this connection that Thieme (Fremdling p. 1 sqq.) has established “stranger” to be the original meaning of Sanskrit ari.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Ari (“ebony”) is one of the exogamous septs (divisions) among the Kurubas (a tribe of South India). The Kurubas are sub-divided into clans or gumpus, each having a headman or guru called a gaudu, who gives his name to the clan. And the clans are again sub-divided into gotras or septs (viz., Ari).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Ari.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘six’; cf. ari-ṣaḍ-varga. Note: ari is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ari : (m.) enemy.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Ari, (Ved. ari; fr. ) an enemy.—The word is used in exegesis & word explanation, thus in etym. of arahant (see ref. under arahant v.); of bhūri Ps. II, 197.—Otherwise in late language only, e.g. Sdhp. 493 (°bhūta). See also arindama & aribhāseti. (Page 77)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ari (अरि).—m S An enemy.

--- OR ---

arī (अरी).—f A cobbler's awl. Pr. gāṇḍīkhālīṃ arī āṇi cāmbhāra pōra mārī Used when people run wildly about to look for what they hold in their hands. 2 An iron spike (as of a playing-top, of a large hand-mill &c.), a goad &c. 3 (Better harī) A line or row (as of trees or standing-crops).

--- OR ---

ārī (आरी).—See under अ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ari (अरि).—m An enemy. arimardana a Enemy- killer or destroyer.

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arī (अरी).—f A cobbler's awl. An iron spike (as of a large hand-mill &c.).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ari (अरि).—a. [ṛ-in] Moving, going, reaching; obtaining, aspiring, devoted to, zealous (Ved.).

-riḥ 1 An enemy, foe (cf. Uṇ.4.138); (used in the Veda like an adjective in the sense of 'ungenerous', 'malicious', 'not worshipping or devoted', 'hostile'); विजितारिपुरःसरः (vijitāripuraḥsaraḥ) R.1.59,61; 4.4.

2) An enemy of mankind (said of the six feelings which disturb man's mind); कामः क्रोध- स्तथा लोभो मदमोहौ च मत्सरः (kāmaḥ krodha- stathā lobho madamohau ca matsaraḥ); कृतारिषड्वर्गजयेन (kṛtāriṣaḍvargajayena) Ki.1.9.

3) A species of खदिर (khadira) or Mimosa (viṭkhadira; Mar. śeṇyā khaira).

4) Name of the number six (from the six enemies).

5) Name of a condition in astronomy.

6) Any part of a carriage.

7) A wheel, also a disk, अन्योऽन्यहस्तकलितैः कति मूर्तिभेदाः, शम्भोर्हरेरिव गदारिसरोजशङ्खैः (anyo'nyahastakalitaiḥ kati mūrtibhedāḥ, śambhorhareriva gadārisarojaśaṅkhaiḥ) Līlā.

8) A lord, master.

9) The wind.

1) A pious or religious man.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ari (अरि).—m.

(-riḥ) 1. An enemy. 2. A wheel. 3. A species of Khadira or Mimosa. E. to go, ac affix, and i substituted for a.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ari (अरि).—m. 1. probably a-rā (+ i?) An enemy, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 267. 2. ṛ + i, A wheel, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 324.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ari (अरि).—1. [adjective] eager, devoted, faithful.

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Ari (अरि).—2. [adjective] greedy (lit. not giving), impious, envious, hostile, adverse. [masculine] enemy.

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Āri (आरि).—A. cause to run; [Middle] run.

Āri is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms ā and ri (रि).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ari (अरि):—[from a-rakta] a m. [varia lectio] for arin below.

2) 1. ari mfn. (√), attached to faithful, [Ṛg-veda]

3) m. a faithful or devoted or pious man, [Ṛg-veda]

4) [=a-ri] 2. a-ri mfn. (√; = 1 ari, assiduous, etc., [Grassmann]), not liberal, envious, hostile, [Ṛg-veda]

5) [v.s. ...] m. (is) an enemy, [Ṛg-veda; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] (aris) idem, [Atharva-veda vii, 88, 1 and xiii, 1, 29], (in [astronomy]) a hostile planet, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of the sixth astrological mansion, [ib.] (in [arithmetic]) the number six (cf. arāti)

8) [v.s. ...] a species of Khadira or Mimosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Ar (अर्):—[=ā-√ṛ] [from ā] See ā-r.

10) Ār (आर्):—1. ār [class] 4. [Parasmaipada] āryanti, to praise, [Ṛg-veda viii, 16, 6 and x, 48, 3] (perhaps connected with √).

11) 2. ār (ā-√ṛ) [Parasmaipada] ([subjunctive] 2. sg. -ṛṇos, [Ṛg-veda i, 30, 14 and 15]; ā-ṛṇvati, [Ṛg-veda i, 144, 5]; but also [imperative] 2. [plural] iyarta, [Ṛg-veda viii, 7, 13]; [Aorist] āratām, etc.) [Ātmanepada] (3. sg. ā-ṛṇve, [Ṛg-veda v, 74, 5])

—to insert, place in [Ṛg-veda];

—to excite;

—to bring near, fetch, [Ṛg-veda];

—to come;

—to reach, obtain, fall into (misfortune), [Ṛg-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa] etc.;

—to inflict, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa] :

—[Causal] ārpayati, to cause to partake of [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iv, 5, 7, 7];

—to fix, settle, annex;

—to inflict, injure.

12) Ārī (आरी):—[=ā-√rī] [Parasmaipada] (ā-riṇanti, [Ṛg-veda ix, 71, 6]) to pour, let drop:

—[Ātmanepada] ā-rīyate, to trickle or flow upon;

—to flow over, [Ṛg-veda]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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