Adhas, Adhah, Adhaḥ: 23 definitions


Adhas means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Adhas (अधस्) refers to “below” (e.g., Ūrdhvādhas—‘above and below [at the extremities of the breath]’), according to the Kulakaulinīmata verse 4.71-75.—Accordingly, “(Kuṇḍalinī) bestows (marital) bliss and so is said to be Nityā (the Eternal Woman). [...] O Supreme Goddess! Once cast the Two Drops in the belly, one who is sustained by her, O Gaurī, obtains supreme marital bliss. [...] (As such) she is subtle. I will (now) explain how she is in a gross form. She who is the first (and foremost energy) present in touch and the rest (of the sensations) above and below (ūrdhva-adhas) (at the extremities of the breath) is offered libation by the union of man and woman. Residing on the plane of the Neuter she is (the one) energy and her form is (made of all the) energies. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaiva philosophy

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Adhas (अधस्) refers to “below”, according to the Viṃśikāvṛtti 7.—Accordingly, “For if an atom has one part in the direction of the east, [and others in the directions of the south, west, north, above] and below (adhas-diś-bhāga), given that [the atom] is differentiated into [various] parts according to the directions, how could the atom be one [whereas it] consists of these [different parts]?”.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Adhas (अधस्) refers to “(going) downwards”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “The nectar of immortality in the moon goes downwards (adhas); as a result men die”.

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Adhas (अधस्) refers to the “lower (Kuṇḍalinī)”, according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] There is no transition to the no-mind state because of piercing [Cakras, knots, etc.] with lower (adhas) and upper Kuṇḍalinī [ūrdhvādhaḥkuṇḍalībhedād]. Simply by [constant] immersion [of the mind in the internal gaze of Śāmbhavī Mudrā], this yoga bestows the supernatural powers. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Adhas (अधस्) refers to “above”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 11.1-24ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Tumburu]—“[...] [He worships] Deva as Tumburu in the middle of an eight petaled lotus, in the maṇḍala, [starting] in the East, O Devī. [...] He installs Gāyatrī and Sāvitrī to the left and the right. [The Sādhaka] installs a hook above and immediately after (adhasadha ūrdhve'ṅkuśaṃ), māyā below. All this is always to be joined with the root mantra. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Adhas (अधस्, “nadir”) represents one of the “two directions above and below” (paṭidisā in Pali), itself part of the “ten directions” (diś in Sanskrit or disā in Pali) according to an appendix included in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). Adhas, Adhastāt or Heṣṭhimā (?) is a Sanskrit word which is known in Pali as adho or heṭṭhimā, in Tibetan as ḥog and in Chinese as hia.

2) Adhas (अधस्, “nadir”).—According to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra Chapter XV (the arrival of the Bodhisattvas of the ten directions), “in the region of the nadir (adhas), beyond universes as numerous as the sands of the Ganges and at the extreme limit of these universes, there is the universe called Houa (Padma); its Buddha is called Houa tö (Padmaśrī) and its bodhisattva Houa chang (Padmottara)”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Adhas (अधस्, “downwards”) or Adhovyatikrama refers to “exceeding the limits for movement set in the downwards directions”, representing one of the five transgressions (aticara) of the “vow of directional limits” (digvirati): one of the seven supplementary vows (śīlavrata), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 28.—What is meant by exceeding the limit of downward movement (adho-vyatikrama)? To go below in wells or sea etc beyond the lowest downward movement limit set is exceeding the limit of downward movement.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Adhas (अधस्) refers to “downwards”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “A god [com.—when going downwards, etc. (adhogatyādau)] becomes [filled] with lamenting, a dog ascends to heaven, a Brāhman might become discernible in substance [as a dog] or an insect or even a low outcaste (śvapaca). Like an actor here on the stage, the embodied soul continually takes on individual characters [and] he abandons others”.

2) Adhas (अधस्) refers to the “lower region”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “That [cosmos] is not at all produced by anyone, not at all sustained by anyone, so also not destroyed by anyone. Nevertheless, that exists by itself without support in the atmosphere. [...] It is the shape of a cane stool in the lower region (adhas), like a cymbal in the middle and it is like a drum on the top. Thus, that consists of three parts”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Adhaḥ.—cf. s-ādha-ūrdhva (IE 8-5); what is below the surface of the ground; root-crops. Note: adhaḥ is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Adhas in Indonesia is the name of a plant defined with Foeniculum vulgare in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Anethum pannorium Roxburgh (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Deutsche Flora. Pharmaceutisch-medicinische Botanik (1882)
· CIS Chromosome Information Service (1976)
· Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana (1974)
· Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica (1984)
· Lagascalia (1976)
· Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association (1977)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Adhas, for example side effects, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, health benefits, extract dosage, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

Adhaḥ (अधः).—ad S Down, downwards, below.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

Adhaḥ (अधः).—ad Below, down, downwards.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhas (अधस्).—ind. [adhara-asi, adharaśavdasthāne adh ādeśaḥ P.V.3.39.]

1) Below, down; पतत्यधो धाम विसारि सर्वतः (patatyadho dhāma visāri sarvataḥ) Śiśupālavadha 1.2; in lower region, to the infernal regions or hell; व्यसन्यधोऽधो व्रजति स्वर्यात्यव्यसनी मृतः (vyasanyadho'dho vrajati svaryātyavyasanī mṛtaḥ) Manusmṛti 7.53. (According to the context adhaḥ may have the sense of the nominative, °aṅkuśaḥ &c.; ablative, adho vṛkṣāt patati; or locative, adho gṛhe śete).

2) Beneath, under, used like a preposition with gen.; तरूणाम्° (tarūṇām°) Ś.1.14; rarely with abl. also; बाहित्थं तु ततोऽप्यधः (bāhitthaṃ tu tato'pyadhaḥ) Hemachandra; (when repeated) lower and lower, down and down; अधोधः पश्यतः कस्य महिमा नोपचीयते (adhodhaḥ paśyataḥ kasya mahimā nopacīyate) H.2.2; यात्यधोधो- व्रजत्युच्चैर्नरः स्वैरेव कर्मभिः (yātyadhodho- vrajatyuccairnaraḥ svaireva karmabhiḥ) H.2.47; अधोधो गङ्गेयं पदमुपगता स्तोकं (adhodho gaṅgeyaṃ padamupagatā stokaṃ) Bhartṛhari 2.1; from under, just below (with acc.); नवानधोऽधो बृहतः पयोधरान् (navānadho'dho bṛhataḥ payodharān) Śiśupālavadha 1.4. In comp. with nouns अधः (adhaḥ) has the sense of (a) lower, under, as °भुवनं, °लोकः (bhuvanaṃ, °lokaḥ) the lower world; °वासः (vāsaḥ) or °अंशुकम् (aṃśukam) an under-garment; or (b) the lower part; °कायः (kāyaḥ) the lower part of the body; अधःकृ (adhaḥkṛ) means to surpass, eclipse, overcome, vanquish, despise, scorn; तपः शरीरैः कठिनैरुपार्जितं तपस्विनां दूरमधश्चकार सा (tapaḥ śarīraiḥ kaṭhinairupārjitaṃ tapasvināṃ dūramadhaścakāra sā) Kumārasambhava 5.29; अधःकृताशेषान्तःपुरेण (adhaḥkṛtāśeṣāntaḥpureṇa) K.177; °कृतकुसुमायुधं (kṛtakusumāyudhaṃ) 179; Śiśupālavadha 1.35; क्षितिप्रतिष्ठोऽपि मुखारविन्दैवर्धूजनश्च- न्द्रमधश्चकार (kṣitipratiṣṭho'pi mukhāravindaivardhūjanaśca- ndramadhaścakāra) 3.52; °कृतैनसः (kṛtainasaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 16.8. dispelled. (c) अधस्, अधस्तात् (adhas, adhastāt) -Pudendum muliebre.

Derivable forms: adhaḥ (अधः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhas (अधस्).—ind. 1. Down, downwards, below. 2. The lower or infernal regions. 3. Pudendum muliebre. E. adhara with asi affix, and ra dropped.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhas (अधस्).—[a + dhas] (cf. idam). I. adv. 1. Underneath. 2. Low, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 224. 3. Down, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 214; to hell, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 53. Ii. prepos. Under, with the gen., [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 59, and abl. [Pañcatantra] 115, 25. Iii. doubled: adhodhas, i. e. adhas-adhas, adv. 1. Lower and lower, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 53. 2. One below the other.

— Cf. and see adhara.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhas (अधस्).—[adverb] below, down; adhodhas deeper and deeper. With kṛ put low, despise; [with] pat sink down. As [preposition] under, below, [with] [accusative] (also adhodhas), [genetive], [ablative], & —°.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Adhaḥ (अधः):—etc. See adhas.

2) Adhas (अधस्):—ind. (See adhara), below, down

3) in the lower region

4) beneath, under

5) from under (with [accusative] [genitive case], and [ablative])

6) also applied to the lower region and to the pudendum muliebre

7) cf. [Latin] infra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhas (अधस्):—ind.

1) Underneath, downwards or from below.

2) The lower regions, the nadir, or: from or in the lower regions, the nadir. (In these meanings it is used in the sense of a nominative, ablative or locative; or governs in the first meaning a noun in the genitive, more seldom in the ablative; the reiterated adho dhas implies proximity and is followed by the noun in the accusative, f. i. adhodho grāmam below the village, but in its neighbourhood; it may occur as the former and as the latter part of [tatpurusha compound] compounds.)

3) Pudendum muliebre.

4) Away, out(?). See adhastāt; cf. adharāk. E. adh (considered as a substitute of adhara, but more probably the thematic form common to adhama, adhara, adhas and adhastāt), taddh. aff. asi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhas (अधस्):—adv. Down, below.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Adhas (अधस्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Adha, Adhaṃ, Adhā, Ahe, Heṭṭha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Adhas in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Adhaḥ (अधः):—pref. down; under; below;

2) Adhas (अधस्):—pref. down; lower; level;

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Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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