Adhama: 21 definitions


Adhama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Adham.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Adhama (अधम) refers to a “poor” [?] (condition of the world), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 9), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If Venus (śukra) should either disappear or reappear in a northern Vīthi there will be prosperity and happiness in the land; if in a central Vīthi there will not be much of either; and if in a southern Vīthi mankind will be afflicted with miseries. If Venus should disappear or reappear in the several Vīthis beginning from the northernmost one, the condition of the world will respectively be—1. Very excellent, 2. Excellent, 3. Good. 4. Fair, 5. Moderate, 6. Tolerable, 7. Poor [i.e., adhama], 8. Very poor, 9. Miserable”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Adhama (अधम) refers to a “base person”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.28 (“Description of the fraudulent words of the Brahmacārin”).—Accordingly, as Pārvatī said to her maid: “This base Brahmin (dvija-adhama) must be prevented strenuously. He is inclined to say something again. He will surely censure Śiva. Not only does he who disparages Śiva incur sin but also he who hears the same. A person who disparages Śiva is definitely worthy of being killed by Śiva’s attendants. If it is a brahmin he must be dismissed or the hearer shall go away from that place immediately. [...]”.

2) Adhamā (अधमा) (or Atinikṛṣṭikā) refers to the “very inferior” division of chaste ladies, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.54 (“Description of the duties of the chaste wife”).—Accordingly, as a Brahmin lady said to Pārvatī: “[...] O gentle lady, the chaste ladies can be divided into four classes. Even when they are remembered they dispel sins. The divisions comprise of the superior etc. They are superior, middling, inferior and very inferior (atinikṛṣṭikā). I shall explain their characteristics. Listen with attention. [...] She who remains chaste for fear of her husband or the family is very inferior (adhamā) among the chaste ladies, so say the ancient poets. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (shaktism)

Adhama (अधम) refers to “vile persons”, according to the 17th century Kaulagajamardana (“crushing the Kaula elephant”) authored by Kāśīnātha or Kṛṣṇānandācala.—Accordingly, [as Īśvara said to Pārvatī]: “Listen, O Pārvatī, I shall give a critique of the Pāṣaṇḍas. Knowing this, a wise man is not defeated by them. [...] He who wears ash from the cremation ground and delights in wine and flesh; he who performs such [rites] as bathing and the junctures for [mere] worldly rewards; and he who is the vilest (adhama) [of them all,] having become a hater of Viṣṇu, destroys everything; [all of them] are called Pāṣaṇḍas. [Now,] my dear, hear about the Kāpālika. [...]”

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Adhama (अधम) is the name of a Rāśi (zodiac sign) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Adhama).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Adhama (अधम) refers to the “lowest” (modes of existence), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Alas! Having joined with the lowest and highest modes [of existence] (adhama-uttama-paryāya) in the period of [a life] time, this cycle of rebirth deceives the multitude of sentient beings. A god becomes [filled] with lamenting, a dog ascends to heaven, a Brāhman might become discernible in substance [as a dog] or an insect or even a low outcaste”.

Synonyms: Jaghanya.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

adhama : (adj.) mean; low; ignoble.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Adhama, (adj.) (Vedic adhama = Lat. infimus, superl. of adho, q. v.) the lowest (lit. & fig.), the vilest, worst Sn.246 (narâdhama), 135 (vasalâdhama); Dh.78 (purisa°); J.III, 151 (miga°); V, 394 (uttamâdhama), 437 (id.), 397; Sdhp.387. (Page 27)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

adhama (अधम).—a (S) Inferior or low. 2 fig. Mean, base, vile, bad.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

adhama (अधम).—a Low; fig. vile, mean, base.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhama (अधम).—a. 'one who does not blow.' cf. अधमः कुत्सिते न्यूने अधःस्थाध्मानयोरपि (adhamaḥ kutsite nyūne adhaḥsthādhmānayorapi) Nm.

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Adhama (अधम).—a. [av-ama; avateḥ amaḥ, vasya pakṣe dhaḥ Uṇādi-sūtra 5.54.] The lowest, vilest, meanest; very bad, or low, or vile (in quality, worth, position &c.) (opp. uttama); अधम- मध्यमोत्तमाः (adhama- madhyamottamāḥ) or उत्तमाधममध्यमाः (uttamādhamamadhyamāḥ) &c.; शस्त्रावपाते गर्भस्य पातने- चोत्तमो दमः । उत्तमो वाधमो वापि पुरुषस्त्रीप्रमापणे (śastrāvapāte garbhasya pātane- cottamo damaḥ | uttamo vādhamo vāpi puruṣastrīpramāpaṇe) || Y.2.277. oft. at the end of comp.; नर°, द्विज° (nara°, dvija°); चाण्डालश्चाधमो नृणाम् (cāṇḍālaścādhamo nṛṇām) Manusmṛti 1.12 lowest in position; अधम° (adhama°) the vilest of the vile, the meanest wretch.

-maḥ 1 An unblushing sensualist (bhayadayālajjāśūnyaḥ kāmakrīḍāviṣaye kartavyākartavyāvicārakaḥ Śabda K.); वापीं स्नातुमितो गतासि न पुनस्तस्याधमस्यान्तिकम् (vāpīṃ snātumito gatāsi na punastasyādhamasyāntikam) K. P.1.

2) A sort of योग (yoga) or conjunction of planets (nṛṇāṃ vittajñānādiṣu adhamatvasūcakaḥ ravicandrayoḥ sthitiviśeṣarūpo yogabhedaḥ Tv.)

-mā A bad mistress (hitakāripriyatame'hitakā- riṇī). [cf. L. infimus].

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhama (अधम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Inferior, low. 2. Vile, despicable. E. ava to preserve, ama Unadi affix, and va changed to dha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhama (अधम).— (an old superlative, akin to adhas), adj., f. . Extremely low, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 65. In Karmadhāraya compounds it is generally the latter part: e. g. Dvija-, m. the meanest of twice-born men, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 140; Nara-, m. the lowest of mortals, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 26; Pāpa-, m. the lowest of the wicked; Pārthiva-, m. the meanest of kings; Puruṣa-, m. the vilest of men; Śaśaka-, m. the vilest of hares.

— Cf. [Latin] infimus.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhama (अधम).—[adjective] undermost, lowest, worst of (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Adhama (अधम):—mfn. (See adhara), lowest, vilest, worst, very low or vile or bad (often ifc., as in narādhama, the vilest or worst of men)

2) m. an unblushing paramour

3) Adhamā (अधमा):—[from adhama] f. a low or bad mistress

4) Adhama (अधम):—cf. [Latin] infimus.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhama (अधम):—I. m. f. n.

(-maḥ-mā-mam) 1) Very low or inferior in place or degree.

2) Vile, despicable. (In the vituperative sense it stands often as the latter part of a [tatpurusha compound] compound; f. i. pāpādhama, narādhama.) Ii. m.

(-maḥ) (In rhetoric, according to some.) A paramour of a low description, one without fear, pity or shame &c. Iii. f.

(-mā) (In rhetoric, according to some.) A mistress of a low description, one ungrateful, whimsical, acting unkindly towards her lover &c. E. av, uṇ. aff. ama, with v changed to dha; or according to others a [tatpurusha compound] composed of a neg. and dhama (from dhmā); but a preferable etym. is that from adhas, taddh. aff. ma, with elision of s; or better from adh (the thematic form common to adhama, adhara, adhas, adhastāt), aff. ama.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhama (अधम):—[(ma-mā-maṃ) a.] Inferior.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Adhama (अधम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ahama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Adhama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Adhama (अधम) [Also spelled adham]:—(a) mean, base, vile; hence ~[] (nf).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Adhama (ಅಧಮ):—

1) [adjective] being at a lower level; inferior; placed at bottom.

2) [adjective] of inferior quality; mean; lacking social or moral values.

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Adhama (ಅಧಮ):—

1) [noun] a man of inferior quality; a man lacking basic values; a rascal; rogue; wretch.

2) [noun] an impudent and lustful man; a lecher.

3) [noun] (astrol.) a combination of planets foreboding an impending evil or calamity.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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