Matangalila and Hastyayurveda (study)

by Chandrima Das | 2021 | 98,676 words

This page relates ‘Care and keeping of elephants’ of the study on the Matangalina and Hastyayurveda in the light of available epigraphic data on elephants in ancient India. Both the Matanga-Lila (by Nilakantha) and and the Hasti-Ayurveda (by Palakapya) represent technical Sanskrit works deal with the treatment of elephants. This thesis deals with their natural abode, capturing techniques, myths and metaphors, and other text related to elephants reflected from a historical and chronological cultural framework.

Care and keeping of elephants

Catching of elephants has received ample attention in treatises and so has the markers of selection. All this leads one to the question of keeping these captives and taking care of them. This issue has also been addressed in the texts. Treatises mention that after the captivation taking care of the newly caught elephants was very important task assigned to elephant keepers and trainers. Those found unworthy were the luckiest to move out of captivity. Though this issue does find mention in treatises at all. The texts mention that the great care should be taken of the newly caught and they must be tended with great care, especially in the early days of captivity. Mātaṅgalīlā (Chapter XI)[1] says that elephant is very fond of water and hence they should be washed frequently and given opportunity to plunge in streams. A daily schedule (dinacaryā) to be observed by elephant tenders is laid down in verse 8.[2] The trauma of the newly captured elephants and their survival after the psychological stress they go through is also discussed in the text. Elephants who live long in the forest, feeding on grass, herbs and fruits freely at will, cannot, survive in captivity with physical and mental pain. Therefore, they must be protected with care and here the role of veterinary physicians (vaidya) and mahouts (mahāmātya) is mentioned. They should treat the elephants as per the śāstra-measures.[3] The change in their natural food habits also generates the change of the humour in the body of elephants. They are enraged as they are deprived of the natural ambiance of the forest and their regular food i.e. what they had in the forest. A trauma is also generated on top of this due to captivity and eating unaccustomed food. Such elaborate descriptions are found in the texts on elephants.[4]

The texts also mention that the new life style also becomes a reason for ailment in an elephant and texts mention that diseases of the elephants occur due to getting or not-getting, due to not eating, over-eating, sleeping at a wrong place.[5] Cause of disease is also mentioned due to excess eating and drinking or doing the same without desire or due to tying up, consumption of excessive salt or due to lack of salt.[6] Medical treatises on elephants mention the disturbed humour in elephants due to the disturbance of vātika, paittika, śleṣmika and sānnipātika (due to wind, bile, phlegm, sudden onset).[7]

Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra also mentions the daily routine of an elephant. They were allowed to take bath twice a day, after that for feeding. In the afternoon is the time for exercise and for invigorating drink. Two parts of the night are their sleeping time and one third of part is decided for their time of lying down and getting up.[8] Oil was also been given for smearing the limb and the head and for burning of lamp in stall, in certain amount.[9]

These verses clearly reflect the consciousness of the elephant experts and also the trainers about the captive animal and its well-being. However this comes less from humanitarian angel and more from the stand point of the use of healthy captured elephants in royal service and warfare. Therefore the texts mention time and again that the elephants captured and brought from the forest should be properly treated. In this context a very interesting fact or detail is found mentioned in the text that the elephant grieving for the forest should never be made to drink water from a pitcher.[10] To keep the elephants in proper ambiance the texts mention that they must be sprayed with cool water released from a fountain. The elephant should be made to enter water upto its ears in the morning. This reveals that near the elephant pen or stables there were provisions or presence of a lake or pond and manual sprinkling arrangements were also made which made the elephants happy and forget the woes of captivity and they adjust with the present conditions soon.[11] The text also elaborates on the time of removing the elephants from water. The experts also engaged in the process of anointing the elephant’s body in the middle of the day with the oil of mustard washed hundred times. Two days later they were anointed with ghee. Thus upkeep or care of elephants was an expensive affair. Seasonal advices are also given in the treatises.[12]

As far as the feed of captive elephants is concerned the texts mention that they must be fed on kaṭaṅkara, bamboo leaves, leaves, grass, sugarcane, lotus-stalks, maurī, bananas, roots, śāluk, śṛṅgāṭaka and kaśeruka, which are pleasing, in order to soothe its grief.[13]

The text also mentions conditions where the newly caught elephant refuses to consume food since the given food is alien to the elephant and the trauma of capture or not being independent is also unbearable. The texts mention that such an elephant should be first given grass and rice, which must be increased by a pala until it reaches a kuḍupas. This kuḍupa of rice along with guḍa must be increased everyday by the intelligent until it reaches an āḍhaka of rice.[14]

As far as their maintenance is concerned we get organised information in the texts which reflect that a lot of attention was given to the upkeep of elephants.[15] The texts are vocal about the significance of elephants and their role in attaining victory in battle for a ruler. They were thus considered to be the chief force. In order to achieve success in battle a ruler has to own a number of excellent elephants in his army and provide them with all kinds of comfort especially by giving them water to drink in the morning and at night and bathing them as and when required, by providing them with soft beds of earth and by arranging grounds for them to play with dust, so that they are happy.[16] As elephants‘diseases occur due to captivity, beating, trauma of captivity or loss of freedom, not eating, indigestion, exertion and wakefulness. The texts are explicit that their remedies should be natural and they should be treated as per norms laid down in the texts i.e. according to rules with herbs and medicines that grow in the forest.[17] The texts provide several remedial measures and information about potions for cure of diseases and pain. For example we find mention of a potion wherein the elephants are advised the intake of roots of madhūka, kola and vīra and āragvadha as these are pleasing to the mind for assuaging their internal pain.[18] Special cares with seasonal differences have been discussed in the eleventh chapter of Mātaṅgalīlā[19]. For instance in cold weather they were kept in closed and heated stalls, covered with blankets, and given spicy foods and strong drink to keep them warm; that heavy work was avoided in hot weather, care being taken to keep their stalls cool and afford plenty of water for bathing; and that in the rainy season smoke was provided in their stalls to rid them of flies and gnats. Arthaśāstra says that it is a duty of overseer to allow elephants for baths twice a day.[20] Mention may be made of procedure for trimming of tusks of elephant. Kalpanāratnam was one unique Sanskrit treatise exclusively written on cutting of tusks of elephant. On the other hand Gajaśāstra also throws light on this subject especially suggesting proper time for cutting of tusks. For example it mentions that on days of the tiṣya, aśvin, bhogin, kara, saumya, maghā, anurādhā, pauṣṇa, uttarā, aditi, marut, vasu and vaiṣṇava (stars), on Thursday, Friday or Monday, in a good time, barring riktā, tusks should be cut according to prescribed rules.[21]

Cutting of tusks is advocated in spring, on Sunday or Thursday, on an auspicious day after bowing to gods and Brāhmaṇas.[22] For each variety or category of elephant the texts provide specific information including the length of tusk to be chopped off including the duration in years. Such information on the finger-length distinctions and years in cutting tusks is found in the Gajaśāstra.[23] To be precise six fingers for river-elephants, three for mountain-elephants, four fingers in the blended i.e. those who roam in the riverine tracts and also on the mountains. As far as the instruments for cutting of tusks is concerned the texts mentions that an expert uses threads, saws and iron files.[24] He measures the tusks to be cut by placing a thread from the corner of the elephant’s eye to the tip of the space between its bumps, the thread should be stretched over the tusk and this amount should be (i.e. the tusk) chopped off or cut off as far as mountain-elephants are concerned. The measurement in river-elephants is from the eye to the centre of the bumps.[25] The method of cutting tusks (dantacchedananiyama) is also describe elaborately in verses 36-39 of the Chapter X of Gajaśāstra[26] as follows: On a day and star spoken of, in a very auspicious moment, making the elephant scented with incense and worshipping it with sufficient scents and garlands, a physician, trained in treating elephants‘tusks, restrained and well-educated, pure and clad in white, after having fasted the night, should offer oblations and appease Brāhmaṇas in the prescribed manner, should first sprinkle the elephant which sits facing north or east, with holy water on the head, then taking the right tusk, decked with jewels should cut it and then sprinkle it with cold water.

It is interesting to note that even for cutting off tusks the texts mention auspicious days for example verses 40-41[27] mention that starting from dvitīyā up to the aṣṭamī, tusks of elephants should be cut. Tusks must not be cut on saptamī and navamī. The right (tusk) should be cut first, then the left. If the right tusk is cut first, victory is attained.[28] Gradually superstitions also crept in and their inclusion in the texts reveal that the elephant trainers were trying to gain more and more importance and the rituals and their inclusion in the texts show that this knowledge was gaining popularity across the kingdoms and had almost become a universal science with some amount of fiction, myth and symbolism mixed with superstitions. For example verses 43-44[29] mention that if the cut tusk falls to the ground, the king’s empire is lost in a short while. Therefore, the tusk must be held tightly with both hands in the beginning. This is also an indicator that while the tusks were cut utmost care was taken as these were quite expensive and hence rites and rituals crept into the process to gain more prominence and social attention.

Gajaśāstra (Chapter X)[30] and Kalpanāratna [Kalpanāratnam] (Chapter 2 & 5)[31] provide detailed information on the colour and odour of the tusk in the process of cutting and its implications. These were indicators of good and bad omen for example a certain colour of the cut tusk would foretell the loss of the king’s steeds[32], whereas a certain odour relates to the prosperity of the kingdom[33], acquisition of land, prosperity of the city[34], epidemic in the kingdom.[35]

Similarly the results of the shapes of the cut tusks also were connected to fatalistic elements. It was believed that if that cut tusk appears as an ornament or a svastikā, the elephant bring success in expeditions.[36] But if its appearance is that of a palace, a bilva tree and the vardhamāna sign, it points to victory in battle and prosperity of the kingdom, as well as gains a wife and always happiness in mind.[37] Further the text mentions that if the cut tusk resembles the figures of crocodiles, snails, conch shells, lotuses and night-lotuses then it reflects that prosperity will prevail in the kingdom.[38] If it is greasy or sweaty, both of them point to loss of land, when it is like a blue flower and rough, (it foretells) great fear (v. 54). When the tusks are smoke coloured, that foretells the loss of the king’s steeds in the kingdom.[39] The forms like the monkey, the boar and the cobra point to loss of the kingdom. The sheaths of the tusks in revered elephants are marked with coral, jewels, pearls, diamonds and cat’s eyes[40] and when the cut resembles the bilva tree, the vardhamāna sign, the umbrella, the flag, the cāmara, (that foretells) good health, victory, excess of prosperity and happiness. If it is shaped like a weapon, (it foretells) victory, in nandyāvaīta is acquisition of lost land.[41]

As we have already mentioned that young elephants below 12 were not considered good for captivation yet at times they were captivated in such cases the texts mention that good care should be taken. Especially such young elephants were caught by kings for play i.e. hunting. Texts mention that these (infants) taken away from their parents must certainly be cared for protected and their ailments treated every day. They should be protected by homas for peace and good health, by offering special oblations, by penances against rākṣasas.[42] They should be given gruel to drink with ghee, milk and honey. They should also be given seed and water, green and tender grass, lotus stalks, lotus, sugar cane, śṛṅgāṭaka and kaśeruka, śālūka, and sugar candy.[43] Calves should be given sugar candy, sugar and powdered pippalī mixed with butter.[44] They should be fed on utkārikā cooked with milk, tender with ghee and mixed with sugar, as well as powdered pepper and pippalī. Salt, wine and (thick) grass should be avoided.[45] On the fourth day, he should be anointed all over with ghee, and sent to a female in the third or the fourth stage.[46] The texts relate the care for such young elephants with the success of a ruler and his kingdom’s prosperity. In this context it is worth mentioning that verse 14 of Gajaśāstra[47] mentions that the king who cares for young (elephants) like his own sons is always victorious and thrives with his sons and grandsons. Thus this is not only associated with a ruler’s victory but also with the future generations to come. This is further narrated in great detail and the care of elephants and their diet especially of young calves in each season is elaborated in the texts. For example the text mentions that in the spring season the calves should be given sallakī, lotus stalk and ketaka. In summer plantain, mangoes, sugar cane, barley and parpaṭa.[48] In monsoon, Indian fig, date, bamboo leaves and priyaṅgu. In śarat, sugar cane, kuśa grass, aśvattha, dūrvā, kāśa and tender lotus stalks.[49] In autumn, arimeda, amla, jambū, kambu and keśeruka. In śarat, summer and spring, pāyasa with ghee is good.[50] In monsoon, rice with milk, gruel, pulse and ghee is good. In order to neutralise diseases in the two cold seasons, rice with oil, and rock salt, two prasthas[51] (of this), one āḍhaka for bālakas and half a droṇa for kalabhas is good.[52]

The text also gives details of the birth of each type of elephant in chronological order. This reflects that they were well conversant with the minor genetic changes in the elephants. The texts mention that the earliest elephants were the Bhadras which were born in the Kṛta age, followed by the Mandas in the Tretā age, the Mṛgas in the Dvāpara and the mixed types in Kali.[53]. However apart from the chronological order the texts also provide information on the seasons when they were born. This is an indicator of the knowledge of the mating season of each type and assumption of the probable birth time of each variety. For example verse 2 mentions[54] that the Mṛga types (are born) in śarat and summer; the Manda type of elephants are born in autumn and winter, the Bhadra type of elephants in spring and monsoon[55] and in between śarat and autumn are born the mandamṛga type, mandabhadras in between spring and winter[56], bhadramandas are born between spring and autumn, The elephants born in between summer and monsoon are known as Bhadramṛgas.[57] Elephants born between śarat and monsoon are Mṛgabhadras[58] and so on. Apart from this the medical properties or characteristics are also linked with the time of birth. Thus texts also mention that those born in the morning have phlegm, those born at noon have bile and those born in the afternoon have wind.[59] Elephants‘births are said to be of six types: sāma, abdhi, garbha, sumanaḥ, kanyā and madhu.[60]

Coming to the stables where these elephants were kept these stables were known by different names in different regions and different sources. The Hathigumpha inscription of Kaliṅgarāja Khāravela[61] mentions a phrase Hathi-nivāsa-parisara [parisaraṃ] (Nivāsa=nirvāsa) seems to indicate a proper arrangement for keeping elephants like stables for horses. The above passages from the Gajaśāstra clearly reflect that the elephants once they were made captive were state’s responsibility to be taken care off. To make this care an imperative part the rites and rituals good and bad omen and superstitions were added to the belief structure of the society. This was probably done by the elephant keepers and catchers who were also responsible for the making of these texts. These stables were constructed keeping all the points in mind especially the arrangement of water and feed. In this context we would like to mention the details given in the Arthaśāstra[62] for construction of such stables, appointment of proper staff and so on.

After a careful selection of the site the elephant stables should be placed in the south-by-east part (Book 2, Chapter 4, v. 8).[63] Elephant reserves were also created besides these royal stables. Such elephant forests were designated as Nāgavana or Hastivana. The overseers were the Hastyādhyakṣas who were a very important part of the royal service holders. Similarly we also get guardians of elephant reserves i.e. Nāgavanādhyakṣa or Hastivanarakṣa [Hastivanarakṣaṃ]. The responsibility of creating a stable or a royal stable was the task of a supervisor or an overseer. They had to concentrate the building of stable with separate stalls for individual (male, female and cub) elephants comprising post on those elephants were to be tied up, its plank flooring and separate openings for urine and dung. The stall should be square and double an elephant’s size, with additional stalls for female elephants, along with an entrance hall facing to east or north, with beams. The stall for lying down of elephant should be equal in size to the stall and half in height. According to Arthaśāstra war and riding elephants should be stabled in the fort and rogue or elephants under training should be kept outside the fort. Thus the above description makes it clear that these stables were totally different from the elephant reserves which were natural abode of elephants created artificially for training them post captivity. Once they were trained then they would have been brought to the royal camp or stable near the fort and placed in charge of the overseers i.e. Hastyādhyakṣas. The texts also reflect that an elephant fights were part of a royal sport and rutting elephants were made to fight. Special care was taken to organise these fights and fighting ground of elephants were specially created either near the stable or near the fort. This almost became a ritual and elaborate descriptions of such fights are provided in the texts. What is interesting is the involvement of a large amount of staff who were involved in the process of upkeep and also made the arrangements of the rituals and the final fight.

Rutting elephants (madayutān nāgān) were the most coveted ones and the texts mention special care and activities for such rutting elephants. Verse 105[64] mentions that elephants in rut should be made to fight. The king should call the elephant-leader (gajādhyakṣaṃ) and order him to organise a fight thus this activity seems to be one which was organised in the elephant stable or a ground near the royal fort. This is described as a detailed activity wherein several other royal servants were also involved, for example those who were the instrument players, other servants in the stable and so on.

The text mentions that the elephant leader should order,

“Play the instrument called vīramuṇḍa, that is as delightful as a mṛdaṅga, along with drums and elephant bells”.[65]

In the first yāma of the night, when the vīramuṇḍa is being played, the servants should stand surrounding the elephant on all sides.[66] They should roar hair-raisingly, the noise of soldiers. Hearing their noise, the king should call the hordes of foot-soldiers and should give each of them thick white clothes to deck themselves.[67] He should give them) oil and vermilion along with kausumbha and vīraka to deck the elephants in rut, and food to enrage them.[68] At the beginning of sleep, at the end of sleep, the elephants in rut should be given lotus stalk to eat to put them to sleep.[69] He should make the elephant-drivers offer excitant food already prepared, at the necessity of nature.[70] On the day of the fight, they should be given food and drink, and their thighs and heads should be anointed with oil and vermilion. In the middle of the bumps, a beautiful tilaka should be marked. Thus bedecked, the elephants should be placed near the Bahyāli. They should be tethered far away from one another in a place hundred dhanus long and sixty wide, free from shoots, stones, thorns etc., devoid of dust, level, smooth, slightly raised in the front.[71] Two lovely gates should be constructed in the middle (decked) with new pitchers, with painted portals covered with kunda flowers.

The stable probably had separate places specified for tying up of each variety of elephants as the texts mention that the expert elephant-driver places the Manda elephant in the sun, the Bhadra in the sun and shade, and ties the Mṛga in the shade.[72] The elephant shade should be planned facing east or north. The elephant house facing east should have its centre in the south. Close to it there should be a round sighting gallery, raised high and surrounded by elephants.[73] It should be large and beautiful, walled at the back, and decked with golden pillars which are whitewashed. It should be painted with many colours, with a glass floor, and surrounded by a moat, with a drawbridge as the way (over it). Another room should be built outside the moat, with an ascent without stairs to prevent elephants (from climbing it). A little behind it, on the south, a sporting-terrace should be built in front of the sighting gallery, surrounded by a moat, high, with painted walls, beautiful, large and well-adorned. Another such should be built with eight well-formed pillars on both sides, with a pair of thick and long doors having strong bolts, another such with (similar) doors etc., as high as an elephant’s chest and intercommunicating near the eastern gate with good signs. Thus the elephant-house i.e. a stable should be built with such signs.

Footnotes and references:


Franklin Edgerton. tr. The Elephant-Lore of the Hindus, pp. 92-104.


T. Ganapati Śāstri. ed. The Mātaṅgalīlā of Nīlakaṇṭha, p. 29. Franklin Edgerton. tr. The Elephant-Lore of the Hindus, pp. 93-94and


“tṛṇauṣadhiphalāhārāḥ vane svairasukhocitāḥ /
baddhā dīrghāyuṣo nāgāḥ duḥkhaiśśārīramānasaiḥ //” (v. 1)

na vanyāniva rājendra prāṇāndhārayituṃ kṣamā /
tasmādvaidyairmahāmātyairyathā śāstropacārataḥ
II” (v.2),

Shri Mantramurti K.S. Subrahmanyaśāstri. ed. &tr. (in Tamil), Gajaśāstra [Gaja-śāstram] of Pālakāpya muni with extracts from other works and Coloured Illustrations, (atha gajaśāstrānubandhaḥ i.e. Appendix: atha navagṛhītagajopacāraḥ), p.143.


bandhanātprāṇasandehātparirakṣyāḥ prayatnataḥ I ucito vanavāso yastasyālābhena dantinām II” (V.3) “doṣāḥ kupyantyasātmyatvādapūrvasyeha bhojanāt I puṣkalāṃvidhāṃ labdhvā punastāṃ na labheta cet II” (v.4), Ibid.


Ibid., v. 5.


Ibid., v. 6, p.144.


Ibid., v.7.


R.P. Kangle. tr. The Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra, Part II, p. 202.


Ibid., p. 203.


Shri Mantramurti K.S. Subrahmanyaśāstri. ed. &tr. (in Tamil), Gajaśāstra [Gaja-śāstram] of Pālakāpya muni with extracts from other works and Coloured Illustrations, (atha gajaśāstrānubandhaḥ i.e. Appendix: atha navagṛhītagajopacāraḥ), v.8, p.144.


Ibid., v. 9-10.


Ibid., v.11-13.


Ibid., v. 14-15, p.145.


Ibid., v.16-18.


Ibid., (atha gajaśāstrānubandhaḥ i.e. Appendix: atha hastivardhanaprakaḥ), v. 1, p.146.


Ibid., v. 2-5.


Ibid., v. 6-7.


Ibid., v. 14, p.147.


T. Ganapati Śāstri. ed. The Mātaṅgalīlā of Nīlakaṇṭha, pp. 28-36. Franklin Edgerton. tr. The Elephant-Lore of the Hindus, pp. 92-104.


R.P. Kangle. tr. The Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra, Part II, p.202.


Shri Mantramurti K.S. Subrahmanyaśāstri. ed. &tr. (in Tamil), Gajaśāstra [Gaja-śāstram] of Pālakāpya muni with extracts from other works and Coloured Illustrations, (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantacchedakālādikathanam), v. 30, p.110.


Ibid., v. 31.


Ibid., (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantacchedeaṅgulavarṣabheda), v.32-33, p.111.


Ibid., (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantacchedanasādhanam), v.33.


Ibid., (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantacchedanapramāṇam), v.34-35.


Ibid., (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantacchedananiyama), v. 36-39, p.112.


Ibid., (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantakalpanāyāṃ śubhatithayaḥ), v. 40-41, p. 112.


Ibid., v.42, p.113.




Ibid., (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantacchedagandhaphalam), v.47-50, pp.113-114.


H.V. Nagaraja Rao. ed. & tr. Śrī Śivamārabhūpāla Praṇītam Kalpanāratnam, Chapter 2, v. 31 & Chapter 5, v.118, pp.11 & 37.


“If the cut is the colour of gold, lotus, honey, a grape, the king will conquer the entire earth bound by four seas. (But) if the part of the tusks showing is the colour of smoke, this foretells the loss of the king’s steeds”, Shri Mantramurti K.S. Subrahmanyaśāstri. ed. &tr. (in Tamil), Gajaśāstra [Gaja-śāstram] of Pālakāpya muni with extracts from other works and Coloured Illustrations, (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantacchedavarṇaphalam), v.44-46, p.113.


Ibid., (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantacchedagandhaphalam), v.47.


., v.48, p.114.


., v.49-50.


Ibid., (Daśamaṃ prakaraṇaṃ: atha dantacchedaṭṭaśyamānākāraphalam), v.51, p.114.


Ibid., v.51-52.


Ibid., v.53.


Ibid., v.55, p.115.


Ibid., v.56.


Ibid., v.57.


Ibid., (Appendix -Atha gajaśāstrānubandhaḥ: atha bālapoṣaṇavidhiḥ), v.1-3, p.169.


Ibid., v.3-5.


Ibid., v.5-6.


Ibid., v.6-7.


., v.8, p.170.


Ibid., v. 14, p. 170.


Ibid., (Appendix -Atha gajaśāstrānubandhaḥ: atha bālapoṣaṇavidhiḥ), v.9, p.170.


Ibid., v.10.


Ibid., v.11.


Prastha = ¼ of āḍhakas.


Ibid., v.12-13.


Ibid., (Appendix -Atha gajaśāstrānubandhaḥ: atha mandādigajotpattikālaḥ), v.1, p.171.


Ibid., v.2.


Ibid., v.3.


., v.4.


., v.5.


Ibid., v.6, p. 171.


Ibid., (Appendix -Atha gajaśāstrānubandhaḥ: atha mandādigajotpattikālaḥ), v.7, p.171.


Ibid., v.8, p.172.


EI, XX, pp. 71-89.


R.P. Kangle. tr. The Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra, Part II, pp.201-202.


., p. 78.


Shri Mantramurti K.S. Subrahmanyaśāstri. ed. &tr. (in Tamil), Gajaśāstra [Gaja-śāstram] of Pālakāpya muni with extracts from other works and Coloured Illustrations, Dasame Prakaraṇe (Chapter 10), p.122.


Ibid., v. 106.


Ibid., v. 107.


Ibid., v. 108-109, p.123.


Ibid., v. 110.


., v. 111.


, v. 112, p.123.


Ibid., v. 116-117, p.124.


Ibid., v. 113, p.123.


., v. 119-120, p.124.

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